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baffled by English jealousy. Then they took to it also; and Manchester, in 1785, sent a petition
sheep-farming, and sent excellent wool to Eng- to Parliament, signed by one hundred and seven-
land. Again the landed interest of England took teen thousand persons, praying for the prohibi-
alarm, and Irish wool was declared contraband tion of Irish linens. The voice of reason and
by act of Parliament in the reign of Charles II. justice for once prevailed, and Derry, and Bel-
The Irish then manufactured the raw material at fast, and Lisburn flourish to prove what the rest of
home, and soon drove a thriving trade in woolen Ireland might now be, if the purblind champions
stuffs. The manufacturers of England thereupon of "British interests" had not then, as lately, ig-
rose up against the iniquity of Irish competition, norantly sacrificed, to a purely imaginary danger,
and the woolen manufactures of Ireland were the welfare and good will of an oppressed race.
promptly excluded from the markets of the Con- The sins of nations, as of individuals, are sure to
tinent. They were, however, so excellent and so find them out, and we have no just cause of
cheap that the industry still flourished. But Eng- complaint if events should prove that our sins
lish jealousy never ceased its clamor against it, against Ireland are not yet expiated in full. We
and in the year 1998 both Houses of the English robbed the Irish of their land, and they betook
Parliament petitioned the King to suppress it. themselves to other industries for livelihood. Of
His Majesty replied to the Lords that he would these we robbed them also, and drove them back
“ take care to do what their lordships desired.” upon the land exclusively for their support. Yet
To the Commons he said, “I shall do all that we wonder that there is now a land question in
in me lies to discourage the woolen manufactures Ireland !
of Ireland." Discouraged they were accordingly;
and so effectually that, whereas two centuries ago MALCOLM MACCOLL (Contemporary Re-
they held their own against England in foreign view).
markets, I find from an official return of 1866
the following significant figures: The value of
the woolen exports of Great Britain in that year

BUDDHISM AND JAINISM.
was £21,795,971 ; that of Ireland, £246. The
woolen industry being destroyed, the Irish tried

[From an article in "The Contemporary Review,” their hand, with marked success, at the manu

entitled “ Buddhism and Jainism,” we extract a few facture of silk. From that field also British jeal- gious sect of India.]

passages descriptive of the Jains or Jainas, a reliousy drove them in despair. But they are a pertinacious race, and do not readily “say die." BUDDHISM was destined to become extinct So they tried their hands at the smaller indus- with its founder. The Buddha died, like other tries, since all the larger ones were tabooed men, and, according to his own doctrine, became them. Availing themselves of Ireland's facilities absolutely extinct. Nothing remained but the for the manufacture of glass, they were sum- relics of his burned body, which were distributed marily stopped by a law which prohibited the in all directions. No successor was ready to step exportation of glass from Ireland, and its im- into his place. No living representative was portation into Ireland from any country save competent to fill up the void caused by his death, England. Cotton, sugar, soap, candle-making, Nothing seemed more unlikely than that the and other manufactures were all tried in turn, mere recollection of his teaching and example, and with a like result. To crush her industries though perpetuated by the rapid multiplication beyond all hope of competition with English mer- of shrines, symbols, and images of his person, chants, all the Mediterranean ports were closed should have power to secure the continuance of against her, and she was at length shut out from his system in his own native country for more commerce with the whole world, Old and New, than ten centuries, and to disseminate his docincluding even our own colonies. To such a trines over the greater part of Asia. What, pitch did this cruel policy, and not more cruel then, was the secret of its permanence and diffuthan stupid, reach, that even the spontaneous sion? It really had no true permanence. Buddhproduce of the ocean which washed his shores ism never lived on in its first form, and never could not be enjoyed by the Irishman without spread anywhere without taking from other systhe jealous interference of English interests; and tems quite as much as it imparted. The tolerant the fishermen of Waterford and Wexford were spirit which was its chief distinguishing characthought presumptuous for pursuing their calling teristic permitted its adherents to please themalong their own coasts because, forsooth! the selves in adopting extraneous doctrines. Hence fish-markets of England might thereby be in- it happened that the Buddhists were always jured. One solitary industry remained to Ire- ready to acquiesce in, and even conform to, the land. She was allowed to cultivate the linen religious practices of the countries to which trade, though “British interests” tried to strangle they migrated, and to clothe their own simple

creed in, so to speak, a many-colored vesture of meditation, and true knowledge. In these crupopular legends and superstitious ideas.

cial doctrines the theory of Brāhmanism is supeEven in India, where the Buddha's memory rior to that of Buddhism and Jainism. Accordcontinued to be perpetuated by strong personal ing to the Brāhmans, the living soul of man has 'recollections and local associations, as well as by an eternal existence both retrospectively and prorelics, symbols, and images, his doctrines rapidly spectively, and only exists separately from the One lost their distinctive character, and ultimately Supreme Eternal Soul because that Supreme merged in the Brāhmanism whence they original- Soul wills the temporary separate personality of ly sprang.

countless individual spirits, dissevering them from Nor is there any historical evidence to prove his own essence, and causing them to pass that the Buddhists were finally driven out of In- through a succession of bodies, till, after a long dia by violent means. Doubtless occasional per- course of discipline, they are permitted to blend secutions occurred in particular places at various once more with their great Eternal Source. With times, and it is well ascertained that fanatical, the Brāhmans existence in the abstract is not an enthusiastic Brāhmans, such as Kumārila and evil. It is only an evil when it involves the conS'ankara, occasionally instigated deeds of blood tinued separation of the personal soul from the and violence. But the final disappearance of impersonal Eternal Soul of the Universe. Buddhism is probably due to the fact that the Very different is the doctrine of Buddhists two systems, instead of engaging in constant and Jains. With them there is no Supreme Beconflict, were gradually drawn toward each other ing, no Supreme Divine Eternal Soul, no separate by mutual sympathy and attraction ; and that, human eternal soul. Nor can there be any true originally related like father and child, they ended soul-transmigration. A Buddhist and a Jaina by consorting together in unnatural union and believe that the only eternal thing is matter. The intercourse. The result of this union was the universe consists of eternal atoms which by their production of the hybrid systems of Vaishnavism own inherent creative force are perpetually develand S'aivism, both of which in their lineaments oping countless forms of being in ever-recurring bear a strong family resemblance to Buddhism. cycles of creation and dissolution, re-creation The distinctive names of Buddhism were dropped, and re-dissolution. This is symbolized by a wheel but the distinctive features of the system sur- revolving for ever in perpetual progression and vived. The Vaishnavas were Buddhists in their retrogression. doctrines of liberty and equality, in their absti What, then, becomes of the doctrine of transnence from injury (a-hinsă), in their desire for migration of souls, which is said to be held even the preservation of life, in their hero-worship, more strongly by Buddhists and Jains than by deification of humanity, and fondness for images; Hindūs ? It is thus explained : Every human while the S'aivas were Buddhists in their love for being is composed of certain constituents (called self-mortification and austerity, as well as in their by Buddhists the five Skandhas). These comsuperstitious dread of the power of demoniacal prehend body, soul, and mind, with all the organs agencies. What, then, became of the atheisti- of feeling and sensation. They are all dissolved cal, philosophy and agnostic materialism of the at death, and absolute extinction would follow, Buddhistic creed? Those doctrines were no more were it not for the inextinguishable, imperishexpelled from India than were other Buddhistic able, omnipotent force of Karman or Act. No ideas. They found a home, under changed sooner are the constituents of one stage of exisnames, among various sects, but especially in a tence dissolved than a new set is created by the kindred system which has survived to the present force of acts done and character formed in the day, and may be conveniently called Jainism. ... previous stage. Soul-transmigration with Buddh

ists is simply a concatenation of separate exisWhat is the great end and object of Jainism? tences connected by the iron chain of act. A Briefly, it may be stated that Jainism, like Brāh- man's own acts generate a force which may be manism and Buddhism, aims at getting rid of compared to those of chemistry, magnetism, or the burden of repeated existences. Three root- electricity—a force which periodically re-creates ideas may be said to lie at the foundation of all the whole man, and perpetuates his personal three systems: first, that personal existence is identity (notwithstanding the loss of memory) protracted through an innumerable succession of through the whole series of his separate exisbodies by the almighty power of man's own tences, whether it obliges him to ascend or deacts; secondly, that mundane life is an evil, and scend in the scale of being. It may safely be that man finds his perfection in the cessation of affirmed that Brāhmans, Buddhists, and Jains all all acts, and the consequent extinction of all per- agree in repudiating the idea of vicarious suffersonal existence; thirdly, that such perfection is ing. All concur in rejecting the notion of a repalone attained through self-mortification, abstract resentative man-whether he be a Manu, a Rishi,

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a Buddha, or a Jina-suffering as a substituted self-mortification (tapas), self-restraint (yama), victim for the rest of mankind. Every being and asceticism. Only twenty-four supreme saints brought into the world must suffer in his own and Tirthan-karas can appear in any one cycle person the consequences of his own deeds com- of time, but every mortal man may be a selfmitted either in present or former states of being. restrainer (yati). Every one born into the world It is not sufficient that he be rewarded in a tem- may be a striver after sanctity (sådhu), and a porary heaven, or punished in a temporary hell. practicer of austerities (tapasvi). Doubtless, at Neither heaven nor hell has power to extinguish first there was no distinction between monks, the accumulated efficacy of good or bad acts ascetics, and ordinary men, just as in the earliest committed by the same person during a long suc- days of Christianity there was no division into cession of existences. Such accumulated acts bishops, priests, and laity. All Jainas in anmust inevitably and irresistibly drag him down cient times practiced austerities, but among such into other mundane forms, until at length their ascetics an important difference arose. One parpotency is destroyed by his attainment of per- ty advocated an entire abandonment of clothing, fect self-discipline and self-knowledge in some in token of complete indifference to all worldly final culminating condition of being, terminated ideas and associations. The other party were in by complete self-annihilation.

favor of wearing white garments. The former And thus we are brought to a clear under- were called Dig-ambara, sky-clothed, the latter standing of the true character of a Jina or self- S'vetāmbara (or, in ancient works, S'veta-pata), conquering saint (from the Sanskrit root ji, to white-clothed.* Of these the Dig-ambaras were conquer). A Jina is with the Jains very nearly chronologically the earliest. They were probwhat a Buddha is with the Buddhists.

ably the first to form themselves into a regular He represents the perfection of humanity, the society. The first Jina, Rishaba, as well as the typical man, who has conquered self and at- last Jina, Mahāvīra, are said to have been Digtained a condition so perfect that he not only ambaras, and to have gone about absolutely naceases to act, but is able to extinguish the power ked. Their images represent two entirely nude of former acts; a human being who is released ascetics, whereas the images of other Jinas, like from the obligation of further transmigration, the Buddhist images, are representations of a and looks forward to death as the absolute ex- sage, generally seated in a contemplative posture, tinction of personal existence. But he is also with a robe thrown gracefully over one shoulder. more than this. He is a being who by virtue of It is not improbable that the S'vetāmbara dithe perfection of his self-mortification (tapas) has vision of the Jainas were merely a sect which acquired the perfection of knowledge, and there- separated itself from the parent stock in later fore the right to be a supreme leader and teacher times, and became in the end numerically the of mankind. He claims far more complete au- most important, at least in western India. The thority and infallibility than the most arrogant Dig-ambaras, however, are still the most numerRoman pontiff. He is in his own solitary person ous faction in southern India, and at Jaipur in an absolutely independent and infallible guide to the north. salvation. Hence he is commonly called a Tir And, indeed, it need scarcely be pointed out than-kara, or one who constitutes a Tirtha *- that ascetics, both wholly naked and partially that is to say, a kind of passage or medium clothed, are as common under the Brāhmanical through which bliss may be attained—a kind of system as among Jainas and Buddhists. The ford or bridge leading over the river of life to the god S'iva himself is represented as a Dig-ambara, elysium of final emancipation. Other names for or naked ascetic, whenever he assumes the charhim are Arhat ("venerable "), Sarva-jna ("om- acter of a Mahā-yogi-that is to say, whenever niscient"), Bhagavat (“lord ").

he enters on a long course of austerity, with an A Buddha with the Buddhists is a very simi- absolutely nude body, covered only with a thick lar personage. He is a self-conqueror and self- coating of dust and ashes, sitting motionless and mortifier (tapasvi), like the Jina, and is besides a wrapped in meditation for thousands of years, supreme guide to salvation; but he has achieved that he may teach men by his own example the his position of Buddhahood more by the perfec- power attainable through self-mortification and tion of his meditation (voga, samădhi) than by abstract contemplation. the completeness of his self-restraint and austeri

* The actual color of an ascetic's dress is a kind of ties.

yellowish-pink, or salmon color. Pure white is not much

used by the Hindus, except as a mark of mourning, The whole system hinges on the efficacy of when it takes the place of black with us.

+ There is also a very low, insignificant, and intensely * The word Tirtha may mean a sacred ford or cross atheistical sect of Jainas called Dhundhias. They are ing-place on the bank of a river, or it may mean a holy much despised by the Hindus, and even by the more man or teacher,

orthodox Jaipas.

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It is true that absolute nudity in public is now their mouths, they look very like hooded Roman prohibited by law, but the Dig-ambara Jainas Catholic nuns. who take their meals, like orthodox Hindūs, in strict seclusion, are said to remove their clothes When we come to the Jaina moral code, we in the act of eating. Even in the most crowded find ourselves transported from the mists of fanthoroughfares the requirements of legal decency ciful ideas and arbitrary speculation to a clearer are easily satisfied. Any one who travels in In- atmosphere and firmer ground. The three gems dia must accustom himself to the sight of plenty which every Jaina is required to seek after with of unblushing, self-asserting human flesh. Thou- earnestness and diligence, are right intuition, sands content themselves with the minimum of right knowledge, and right conduct. The naclothing represented by a narrow strip of cloth, ture of the first two may be inferred from the three or four inches wide, twisted round their explanations already given. Right conduct conloins. Nor ought it to excite any feeling of prud- sists in the observance of five duties (vratas), ish disgust to find poor, hard-working laborers and the avoidance of five sins implied in five protilling the ground with a greater area of sun- hibitions. The five duties are: Be merciful to tanned skin courting the cooling action of air all living things; practice almsgiving and liberaland wind on the burning plains of Asia than ity; venerate the perfect sages while living, and would be considered decorous in Europe. As to worship their images after their decease; confess mendicant devotees, they may still occasionally your sins annually, and mutually forgive each be seen at great religious gatherings absolutely other; observe fasting. The five prohibitions innocent of even a rag. Nevertheless, they are are : Kill not; lie not; steal not; commit not careful to avoid magisterial penalties. In a se- adultery or impurity; love not the world or cluded part of the city of Patna, I came sudden- worldly honor. ly on an old female ascetic, who usually sits quite If equal practical importance were attached naked in a large barrel, which constitutes her to these ten precepts, the Jaina system could not only abode. When I passed her, in company fail to conduce in a high degree to the happiness with the collector and magistrate of the district, and well-being of its adherents, however pershe rapidly drew a dirty sheet round her body. verted their religious sense may be. Unfortu

In the present day both Dig-ambara and S've- nately, undue stress is laid on the first duty and tāmbara Jainas are divided into two classes, cor- first prohibition, to the comparative neglect of responding to clergy and laity. When the two some of the others. In former days, when Buddhsects increased in numbers, all, of course, could ism and Jainism were prevalent everywhere, “ kill not be ascetics. Some were compelled to en- not was required to be proclaimed by sound gage in secular pursuits, and many developed of trumpet in every city daily. industrious and business-like habits. Hence it And, indeed, with all Hindūs respect for life happened that a large number became prosper- has always been regarded as a supreme obligaous merchants and traders.

tion. Ahinsă, or avoidance of injury to others All laymen among the Jainas are called S'rā- in thought, word, and deed, is declared by Manu vakas, “hearers or disciples," while the Yatis, or to be the highest virtue, and its opposite the self - restraining ascetics," who constitute the greatest crime. Not the smallest insect ought only other division of both Jaina sects, are the to be killed, lest the soul of some relation should supposed teachers (Gurus). Many of them, of be there embodied. Yet all Hindūs admit that course, never teach at all. They were formerly life may be taken for religious or sacrificial purcalled Nirgrantha, “ free from worldly ties," and poses. Not so Buddhists and Jainas. With are often known by the general name of Sãdhu, them the sacrifice of any kind of life, even for "holy men." All are celibates, and most of the most sacred purpose, is a heinous crime. In them are cenobites, not anchorites. Sometimes fact, the belief in transmission of personal identity four or five hundred live together in one monas- at death through an infinite series of animal extery, which they call a Upās'raya, “ place of re- istences is so intense that they live in perpetual tirement," under a presiding abbot. They dress, dread of destroying some beloved relative or like other Hindū ascetics, in yellowish-pink or friend. The most deadly serpents or venomous salmon-colored garments. There are also fe- scorpions may enshrine the spirits of their fathers male ascetics (Sadhvini, or, anciently, Nirgran- or mothers, and are therefore left unharmed. thi), who may be seen occasionally in public The Jainas far outdo every other Indian sect in places clothed in dresses of a similar color. carrying the prohibition, “not to kill,” to the When these good women draw the ends of their most preposterous extremes. They strain water robes over their heads to conceal their features, before drinking, sweep the ground with a silken and cover the lower part of their faces with pieces brush before sitting down, never eat or drink in of muslin to prevent animalcula from entering the dark, and often wear muslin before their

VOL. VIII.-24

The pen

mouths to prevent the risk of swallowing minute priestly Yati, who hears his confession, pronounces insects. They even object to eating figs, or any absolution, and imposes a penance. fruit containing seed, and would consider them- ances inflicted generally consist of various kinds selves eternally defiled by simply touching flesh- of fasting; but it must be observed that fasting meat with their hands.

is with Jainas a duty incumbent on all. It is a One of the most curious sights in Bombay is duty only second to that of not killing. the Panjara-pol, or hospital for diseased, crippled,

MONIER WILLIAMS. and worn-out animals, established by rich Jaina merchants and benevolent Vaishnava Hindūs in a street outside the fort. The institution covers several acres of ground, and is richly endowed.

A NATIONAL THEATRE. Both Jainas and Vaishnavas think it a work of the highest religious merit to contribute liberally ONE great advantage the French stage untoward its support. The animals are well fed doubtedly possesses in having such a headquarand well tended, though it certainly seemed to ters as the Théâtre Français, and such a perpetual me, when I visited the place, that the great ma- corporation as is furnished by the sociétaires of jority would be more mercifully provided for by that theatre. Here, where theatres are equipped the application of a loaded pistol to their heads. and companies collected by individual enterprise, I found, as might have been expected, that a the headquarters of the drama are shifting—by large proportion of space was allotted to stalls courtesy at least we do generally have a headfor sick and infirm oxen, some with bandaged quarters—and the traditions accumulated by one eyes, some with crippled legs, some wrapped up management are dispersed when that managein blankets and lying on straw beds. One huge, ment is broken up. The waste of this dispersal bloated, broken-down old bull in the last stage is prevented by the continuous existence of a of decrepitude and disease was a pitiable object guild of actors at the house of Molière, which in to behold. Then I noticed in other parts of the virtue of its undisputed lead among the theatres building singular specimens of emaciated buffa- becomes the rendezvous of all interested in the loes, limping horses, mangy dogs, apoplectic pigs, dramatic art, poets, painters, architects, archæparalytic donkeys, featherless vultures, melancholyologists. They bring their contributions to one monkeys, comatose tortoises, besides a strange center, and the accumulated wealth of their ideas medley of cats, rats and mice, small birds, rep- is handed on in a full stream from one generatiles, and even insects, in every stage of suffering tion to another. and disease. In one corner a crane, with a kind To this advantage there is a counterbalancing of wooden leg, appeared to have spirit enough disadvantage. Such centers tend to become too left to strut in a stately manner among a number conservative. They get into the hands of old of dolorous-looking ducks and depressed fowls. fogies. The young men of genius, with their The most spiteful animals seemed to be tamed fresh ideas, are excluded. But the evil rights itby their sufferings and the care they received. self in time. The conservatism of the old fogies All were being tended, nursed, physicked, and gradually gives way to the innovating ardor of fed, as if it were a sacred duty to prolong the ex- the young men of genius ; the ideas of these istence of every living creature to the utmost young men have their day, and give place in their possible limit. It is even said that men are paid turn to new aspirations. to sleep on dirty wooden beds in different parts It would, we take it, be an unquestionable of the building, that the loathsome vermin with advantage for the English stage to have some which they are infested may be supplied with such fixed center of dra natic life as the Théâtre their nightly meal of human blood.

Français. But can such a center be artificially As to the other precepts of the Jaina moral created ? That is another question. The feat code, it is noteworthy that the practice of con- is so unlikely that we can hardly believe in the fessing sins to a priestly order of men probably possibility of it till it has been accomplished. It existed in full force among the Jainas long before is, in fact, one of those things which may grow its introduction into the Christian system. A up out of some favorable concurrence of accipious Jaina ought to confess at least once a year, dents, but which can not be designed and exeor, if his conscience happens to be burdened by cuted by deliberate calculation and energy. It the weight of any recent crime—such, for ex- is vain for any ardent well-wisher of the drama ample, as the accidental killing of a noxious in- outside to say, “Go to, let us have a national sect—he is bound to betake himself to the con- theatre." Unless the time is ripe for it, unless fessional without delay. The stated observance the necessary elements are ready to fall into their of this duty is called Pratikramana, because on a places at the sound of some enthusiastic trumpetparticular day the penitent repairs solemnly to a note, no human energy can create them and bring

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