« הקודםהמשך »
of their invitations, and offers made to patronised by Jacobus a Sienno, who
llenry VIII. of England, ibid. h; and turns Socinian, ibid.
his answer, ibid. sub. not. h; how it So'rner, Ernest, a learned Peripatetic, and
influenced the Emperor, and whence advocate for Socinianism, at Altorf, iv.
be became inclined to peace, 76 ; its ar- 169; inculcates their precepts with suc-
ticles, and account of, iii. 209 and b.. cess, ibid. his death, and bad conse-
Smaragilus, a skilful linguist and gramma quences of it to the Socinians, ibid.
rian in ix cent. ii. 14.
Solitarius, Philippus, his character, ij.
Socinian, different sense of that term, iii. 281; character of his Dioptra, 297.
353 and y.
Sommer, John, propagates the doc-
Socinianism, errors about its origin, iii. trine of Budæus at Clausenburg, where
359, 360,' and m; its real origin, 361; he presides in xvi cent. iii. 381, and
progress of it, 363 ; how propagated in w, .
Transylvania and Hungary, 371; in Sophronius, monk of Palestine, raised" to
Holland and England, 372; in Germa the see of Jerusalem, his character, i.
ny, 373; its main principle, 374 ; dan- 456; opposes the Monothelites in vii
gerous consequences, ibid. sum of the cent. 468; condemns them as Heretics,
ology, 375; moral doctrine, 376.
Socinians, their bistory, name, and origin, Sorbonne, doctors of, their college found-
iii. 352 ; how far their origin may be ed for the study of divinity in xiii cent.
traced, 354; their tenets and doctors, and by whom, ii. 339 and f.
ibid. spread their doctrine in Poland, Sozzini, an illustrious family at Sienna in
362: their progress and different class- Tuscany, iii. 353; Socinians supposed
es, 363, 364; their Polish version of the to derive their denomination from them,
Bible, 365 ; summary of religion, ibid. ibid.
account of the Cracow catechism and Spangenburg, Cyriac, defends the doc-
its six points, ibid. and z; their methods “trine of Flacius about original sin, iii.
of propagating their doctrine, 372 and 246.
Is; yet fail almost everywhere, 373; Spanheim, breach between him and Van-
their first attempts in Holland, and by der Wayen, and cause, iv. 114.
whom, ibid. also in Britain and Germany Spener, his method of teaching theology,
unsuccessful, ibid. with their main and success, iv. 28; sets on foot the
principle, 374; state of learning among controversy on pietism, 38.
them, 378; method of proceeding in Spina, Alphonsus de, bis Fortress of Faith,
theology, ibid. their divisions and in- wbich he wrote against the Jews and
testine controversies, 379; effect of the Saracens in xv cent. iii. 549. .
death of their chief, Faustus, 382; their Spinoza, Benediet, an account of that
Hourishing state in xvii cent. iv. 168 ; Atheist, with his wisdom and probity,
their extensive views and attempts to iii. 424 and 9; his work and the te-
make proselytes, with the singular me nets therein, 426 and r; never attempt.
thod of propagating their doctrine, ibid. ed to make converts, ibid. sub. not. r;
their missions not successful, with their seduced into his system by Cartes's phi-
decline at Altorf, and how, 169; their losophy, 427 and 's; bis system wants
decline and sufferings in Poland, and perspicuity, and is easily misunderstood
on what account, 170 and n; banished by persons of the greatest sagacity,
thence for ever with the utmost seve ibid. and t; account of his followers,
rity, 171; fate of the exiles, ibid. con 528, 529, and notes.
ceive some hopes of settling in Den- Spire, diet held at in xvi cent. iii. 54 ; its
nark, and how disappointed. ibid. some issue favourable to Luther and the Re-
in England enjoy tolerable tranquillity, formers, ibid. appeals made at it to a
172 and rr; congregations of them general council for terminating eccle-
formed at London, with their notions, siastical debates, 55, 56; progress of
ibid. sub. rr; embrace the communion the Reformation afterward, 55 ; a se-
of other sects, 173 and t; not united in cond diet held, in which the resolutions
their opinions, ibid. and w; account of of the former diet are revoked, and all
their state in xvii cent. iv. 203.
innovations in religion declared unlaw-
Socinus, Lælius, his great character, iii. ful before the meeting of a general
353, adopts the Helvetic confession of council, 56, and f; the decree of this
faith, ib. his travels, after which he set-' last diet considered as iniquitous and
tles at Zurich and dies there, ibid. and w. intolerable by several princes, 57 ; who
- Faustus, an account of, iii. 353, protest against it, and hence the de-
354 and y; his dexterous proceedings, nomination of Protestants, ibid. the
369; changes the ancient Unitarian names and number of these princes,
religion, 370; what hand Lælius had ibid. h.
in this, and its great success, ibid. d; Spirituals, See Franciscans.
publishes the Cracow catechism, 371; Slancarus, debates excited by, iji. 248 ;
his tenets in refutation of Osiander, Subdeacons, the nature of their office, i. 210.
ibid. occasional commotions in Poland, Sublapsarians, their doctrine, and why so
and dies there, 249, and n.
called, iv. 78.
Stephen I. Bishop of Rome, his insolent Subschal Jesu, his conversions in Hyrca-
. behaviour to the Asiatic Christians, on nia in viii cent. i. 477.
account of the baptism of heretics in Sueno, of Denmark, apostatizes and em-
iii cent. i. 224 ; is vigorously opposed braces Christianity anew in x cent. ii.
by Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, ibid. 79.
il. Bishop of Rome, anoints and Suidas, supposed to live in x cent. ii. 104.
crowns the usurper Pepin, King of Sulpitius, Severus, of Gaul, the most emi-
France, in viii cent. i. 496 ; hence he nent historian in iv cent. i. 281 and p.
is made a temporal prince, and this do- Supererogation, doctrine of, invented in
nation of Pepin to the see of Rome xii cent. ii. 288; taught in xiii cent. 402.
assumed by his successors, 497, 498, Superstition, its great increase in vi cent.
i. 419; this accounted for, and exem-
establishes Christianity among the plified' by the doctrines then taught,
Hungarians in x cent. ii. 77.
419; and by introducing a variety of
de Murat founds the monastic or new rites into the church, 429; the oc-
der of Gradmontains in xi cent. ii. 188; casion of them, 430 ; insinuates itself
enjoins great austerity, ibid. contentions into the transactions of civil life in ix
for superiority among some of his order, cent. and whence, ii. 63; evident from
and consequences, 189; rigorous disci the several trials in proof of innocence,
pline enjoined by him gradually miti ibid. how nourished by many idle opi-
gated, ibid. the origin of this order, by nions in x cent. 107; particularly that
whom written, ibid. f.
of an immediate and final judgment,
Stercorianism, what so called, and origin ibid. the effects of this opinion benefi-
of, ü. 51.
cial to the church, 108 and w; reigns
Stereoma, a celebrated work published by among the people in xii cent. 285; a
the Crypto Calvinists, and on what ac proof of this appears in the confidence
count, iii. 251, and s, t.
placed in relics, ibid. connexion be-
Stiefel, Ísaiah, his impious absurdities, iv. tween it and fanaticism considered, 104,
105 and c.
Stockius, Simon, the monstrous fiction re- Supralapsarians, who so called, and why,
lative to him, and the credit it has gain- iv. 78.
ed even among the Popes, ii. 377 and Supremacy of Rome. See Popes.
Susneius, Seltam Segued, Emperor of the
Stoics, their explication of the divine na East, protects the Jesuit missionaries,
ture and the human soul, i. 40, 41; in Abyssinia, iii. 478 ; his intentions of
their notions of fate unjustly represent propagating the doctrines and worship
ed, 41 and g.
of the Church of Rome, how frustrated,
Storchius, a leader of the fanatics, iii. 230, 479.
Swedes, embrace Christianity in ix cent.
Strabo, Walafridus, his works and charac. ii. 3 ; convert many in Finland in xii
ter, ii. 31.
cent. and by what means, ii. 289; Re-
Strasburg, Thomas of, a scholastic divine formation established among them in
in xiv. cent. ii. 488.
xvi cent. by Gustavus Vasa Ericson,
- , controversy there concerning pre iii. 61.
destination in xvi cent. iii. 271.
Switzerland, origin of the reformation by
Strauchius, defends the creed against Sy Z uingle, iii. 38; progress of it, 39 ; re-
nergism in xvii cent. iv. 34.
ceives the doctrine of Carolstadt in xvi
Strigellius, Victor, his commentaries, iii. cent. 233; adopts the doctrine of Zuin-
224; defends the opinions of Melanc gle, 265; doctrine of Claudius propa-
thon, 324 ; his contest with Flacius, gated there, 355; disputes about the
244 ; is cast into prison, but released, form of concord in xvii cent. iv. 125;
ibid. spends his days at Heidelberg, ibid. and continue in xviii cent. iv. 209. See
Struchtmeyer, of Harderwyk, an account Zuingle.
of his absurd system about Paganism Sylvester II. Pope, his letter, by which he
and Christianity, i. 261, m.
gave the signal for the first crusade, in
Stubner, a leader of the fanatics, iji. 230. X cent. ii. 82 and %; restores learning,
Stylites, a superstitious sect of pillar saints ibid. chiefly inclines to the study of the
in v cent. i. 365 ; their singular and ex- mathematics, ibid. the success of his
travagant fancies, ibid. not suppressed zeal for literature, ibid. derives his
till xii cent. ibid.
knowledge from the Arabians settled in
Suaninguis, Bishop of Zealand, opposes Spain, 92; his promotion to the Ponti-
Lubieniecius in his endeavours to settle ficate universally approved, ii. 99; kis
the Socinians in Denmark, iv. 171. high character, 104.
Symmachus, violent dispute between him
and Laurentius concerning their elee.
tion to the see of Rome, i. 112 ; defend-
ed by Ennodius, 413.
Syncellus, Michael, endeavours to raise
the credit of Mysticism, by his panegy-
ric on Dionysius iu ix cent. ii. 42.
Syncretistieal, Callixtine, controversies,
their rise in xvii cent. iv. 31; the share
which Buscher bad in them, 31, 32;
the animated opposition of Callixtus to
bis Saxon accusers, 33 and d; continua
tion of these debates by Calovius,
and other able divines, with their
names, and the creed drawn up by
them, 33, 34 and e; the issue of these
Syncretists, Platonic, their rise in xv cent.
and account of, ii. 513; chargeable
with many errors, ibid.
--- endeavour to promote con-
cord among Christians in xvii cent. iv.
Synergists, their doctrine, iii. 242 ; oppo-
sed by the Lutherans, 242, 243. See
Synods, their origin in ii cent, and canons
formed there, i. 146.
Szegedin, with others, propagates Calvin-
ism in Hungary and Transylvania, in
xvi cent. iii. 298.
Tabor, mount, why so called, ii. 552.
Taborites, in Bohemia, their rise and name,
whence, ii. 554; extravagant demands
for a total reformation, ibid. chimerical
notions of Christ's descent to purify the
church, ibid. the cruelties of which they
were guilty, and their principles, ibid.
and z; their obstinacy in maintaining
their opinions, 555; the reformation
that took place among them, ibid. af-
terward assist Luther in the Reforma-
tion, ibid. remains of them in Poland
and other places, 556.
Taio, Bishop of Saragossa, his character,
i. 450 ; his body of divinity, 459; the
first who composed a system of divinity,
Tamerlane, his zeal for Mahometanism,
and the extirpation of Christianity, in
xiv cent. j. 445; compels many to
apostatize, ib. his religion doubtful, 446.
Tanner, a Jesuit, writes against the Pro.
testants, iii. 454.
Tarquelinus, or Tanquelmus, his horrid
blasphemy in xii cent. ii. 312; seems to
have been a Mystic, 313; is assassina
ted, and bis sect silenced by Norbert, ib.
Tarnovius, a Lutheran expositor of the
· Scriptures in xvii cent. iv. 26; some of
his opinions censured, 55.
Tartary, Christianity embraced there, in
x cent. ii. 73; propagated in xi cent.
by the Nestorians, 119 and b, c; embas.
sies and missions from Rome in xiii
cent. and success, 324 ; the decline of
the Gospel there in xiv cent. 445.
Tatian's Harmony of the Gospels, i. 152.
--- his character and opinions, i. 177,
178; various names given to his fol-
lowers, and taken from their austerity,
178; his oration to the Greeks, and his
tenets by whom mentioned, ib. q.
Taulerus, a mystic of eminent piety in
xiv cent. ji. 492.
Taurellus, Nicholas, a supposed infidel
writer in xvi cent. iii. 119.
Telesius, a philosopher in xvi cent. iii. 122 ;
his character, ib. o.
Telingius, character of his moral writings,
iii. 311. .
Tellius, Sylvester, banished the territory
of Geneva, iii. 359.
Templars, origin of their knights, and
names of their founders, ii. 240; why
suppressed, ib. and b; summoned to ap-
pear before Clement V. Pope, in xiv
cent. 505; condemned, and the order
extirpated, by the council of Vienne,
ib. their revenues partly bestowed on
the knights of Malta, ib. the impiety im-
puted to some not justly to be charged
upon all, 506; reasons to think injus-
tice was done them, ib. and l.
Temples, to the saints, multiplied in vi
cent, and superstitious opinions adopted
about them, i. 431.
Tertiaries, an order of Franciscans, an ac-
count of, ii. 391 ; their name whence,
ibid. observe the third rule prescribed
by St. Francis, 392 sub. q; chiefly
known by the name of Beghards, or
Beguards, and the rise of these deno-
minations, ibid. and r.
Tertullian, his apology written for the
Christians in ii cent. i. 134; character
of his works, 149 and r; why unsuc-
cessful in his writings against the Jews,
153 ; his treatises on morality, and ac-
count of them, 155 ; his work against
Hermogenes, 188 and b; a professed
admirer of Montanus the Heretic, 190
Testament, New, its translations how use-
ful, and the principal among them, i.
126; the zeal of Christians in spreading
abroad these versions, and the benefits
hence arising to the cause of religion in
ii cent. 194.
Tetzel, John, his matchless impudence in
preaching up the impious doctrine of
indulgences in xvi cent. iii. 26 and 0 ;
miserable death, 33. See Luther.
Teutonic knights, their office, ii. 241 ;
formed into a fraternity in Germany,
ibid. corruption introduced among
them, and consequences, 242 and d.
Thalassius, a moral writer in vii eent. i.
Theatins, a monastic order instituted in
xvi cent, and by whom, iii. 149, 150 ;
female convents of this order, 150.
Thegan, an historian in ix ceht. ii. 14. the opinions and authority of the Fa-
Theodemir, writes in defence of image thers considered as the test of divine
worship in ix cent. ii. 47.
truth, ibid. authority made the criterion
Theodore of Mopsuestia, his character, of truth in ix cent. ii. 41 ; its state in xii
i. 354 and n; his commentaries on the cent. ii. 290 ; different sects of didactic
Scriptures, 359 and c; his book against divines at Paris, ibid. principal object of
Origen, 360; his application of the study in xiii cent. 406; greatly improved
writings of the Prophets, and why cen-' in xvi cent. iii. 124; and the genius and
sured, ibid. and g, h.
spirit of the Christian religion better
of Cæsaria in Cappadocia, de- explained, 125; its state in the church
fends Origen against all his adversaries of Rome, 161.
in vi cent. i. 425; persuades the Em- Theology, explanatory, its state in vi cent.
peror Justinian to condemn the three i. 420 ; arguments used by its writers
destitute of clearness and precision,
of Tarsus, Archbishop of Can 421 ; various methods of explaining
terbury, promotes learning in England, - Christian truths used about this time,
- i. 450 ; restores penance in vii cent. 422 ; chiefly confined to the sentiments
461; account of his new Penitential, of the Fathers, who were diligently stu-
ibid. and c; its progress and 'decline, died in viii cent. 509; the merit of those
writers considered, who explained
Abbot of Raithu, his book Christian truths by methods independ-
against sects, i. 456 ; treatise concern ent on the authority of the Fathers,
ing the incarnation of Christ, 460. 510; entirely neglected by the Greeks
Theodoret, Bishop of Cyprus, his charac and Latins in x cent. ii. 111; its state in
ter, i. 354; an excellent expositor, and xi cent. 198; undertaken by few men
why, 359 and b. -
of judgment and penetration in xii cent.
Theodorus, Studites, his character and 288; the mystic method much adopted ,
works, . 29 and n.
in xiïi cent. 404; modelled after the
- Graptus, a zealous advocate for sentiments of the Fathers in xiv cent.
image worship in ix cent. ii. 29 and 0. 490; its state in xv cent. 557 ; much
- Abucara, account of, ii. 29 freedom used in stating points of doc-
trine in xvi cent. iii. 21 ; its state in the
- Lascarius, his works, and zeal in church of Rome, 159, 160.
defending the cause of the Greeks - polemic, badly handled in vi
against the Latins in xiii cent. ii. 398. cent. i. 424 ; its state in vii cent. 461 ;
- Metochita, an historian in xiv the defence of Christianity against the
cent. ii. 447.
Jews neglected through intestine divi-
Theodosius the Great, his zeal against Pa sions in ix cent. ii. 43; shocking writers
ganism in iv cent. i. 259. .
in xii cent. ii. 297 ; writers more nu-
- the younger, discovers an are . mérous than respectable in xiii cent.
dent zeal for promoting Christianity, 412.
and extirpating idolatry, in v cent. i.
positive, whence derived, i. 422.
- scholastic, whence its orgin in
- of Alexandria, seconds the ef- . ii cent. i. 215; admired in xi cent.
forts of Jacob Baradæus in reviving the ii. 198; why so called, 199; the mo-
- sect of the Monophysites, in vi cent. dest views of the first scholastics, ibid.
200 and c; declines into captious phi-
Theodotus, bis erroneous notions about losophy, ii. 284.
Christ in ii cent. i. 187; uncertainty
its wretched state in xvi cent.
· about these, ibid. .
iii. 21 ; most of its teachers Positivi and
of Ancyra, a writer in v cent. Sententiarii, ibid. liberty of debating re-
·ligious subjects, ibid.
Toeodulphus, Bishop of Orleans, an emi.
Romish writers, in xvi cent. iii.
nent writer in viii cent. i. 507.
154 and c; a reformation of it in Paris,
Theology, controversial. See Controver- 161 ; academical law about it, ib. and g.
· sial Writers.
Theopaschites, who, i. 387 and 1; their
- didactic, its simplicity in the founder Peter, surnamed Fullo, ibid.
infant state of Christianity, i. 99; gra- . Theophanes, a writer among the Greeks in
dually loses its simplicity, and whence, viii cent. i. 506.
in ii cent. 150, 151, corrupted by intro-
Cerameus, his homilies not
ducing Platonic tenets into the Christian contemptible, ii. 193.
system in iii cent. 214; is made the sub-
Bishop of Nice, his works and
ject of many learned writers, 219; the character, ii. 488; an eminent polemic
most eminent writers of in iv cent. divine in siv cent. 494.
285 ; its deplorable state in v cent. 361; Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, his works,
its writers in vii cent. deserve no com- i. 148 and q; his exposition of the four
mendation, 459; state in viji cent. 513; Gospels lost, 152.
Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria, why he St. Paul's Epistles, and character of it,
expels the monks of Nitria from their iii. 160.
residence, i. 300; illustrious by his op- Titius, defends the reputation of Callixtus
position against Origen and his adhe. after his death, iv. 34.
Toland, John, his character and works,
the Emperor, bis zeal against iii. 422, answers to them, ibid. and f;
image worship in ix cent. ii. 45.
account of his Pantheisticon, 428 U.
Theophylact, Patriarch of Greece, his in- - - his infamous character and deisti-
famous character, ii. 93 and 0.
cal principles, iv. 188 and C.
Theophylact, of Bulgaria, the most eminent Toleration, the act in favour of the Non-
expositor among the Greeks in xi cent. conformists in England under William
III. iv. 110 and h.
Theosophists, a sect of philosophers, their Torgau, famous convocation held at, in
origin in xvi cent, and whence, iii. 124; xvi cent. iii. 252 and x; consequences
character and opinions, ibid. and ri of it, ibid. 253.
their contest with Des Cartes, and mo- Tostatus, Alphonsus, his works and cha-
deration, iii. 440.
racter, ii. 548; voluminous commenta-
Therapeuta, a sect among the Jews, and ries on the Scriptures worthy of little
whether a branch of the Essenes, i. 48; notice, 556. .
were neither Christians nor Egyptians, Tournon, Cardinal, carries into China the
according to the opinions of some con severe edict of Pope Clement XI.
cerning them, ibid.
against the use of Chinese rites, and the
Theresa, a Spanish lady, reforms the Car zeal with which he puts it in execution,
melites or White Friars in xvi cent. iii. iv. 185; is cast into prison by the Chi-
148 ; her associate in this arduous at nese Emperor, and dies there, ibid.
tempt, who, ibid, the success she met Trajan, a short character of him, i. 123;
with, and hence the division of the prohibits all anonymous libels against
Carmelites into two branches, ibid. and the Christians, 124; persecution of the
p; is sainted in xvii cent. by Gregory Christians under him, 130; his order to
XV. ii. 549,
Pliny, and its effects, ibid. a great pa-
Thessalonicu, Simeon of, account of his tron of learning, 136.
works, ii. 546.
Transubstantiation, doctrine of, introduced
Theurgy, an art adopted by Ammonius's by Innocent mil. in xiii cent. ii. 403 ;
followers, what, i. 143.
adopted by the Greek church in xvii
Thomas, Bishop of Heraclea, his second cent. fi. 555; attacked by John Claude,
Syriac version of the New Testament, with Arnaud's defence of its antiquity,
i. 459 and z.
ibid. other stratagems to prove its anti-
of Strasburg, a Scholastic divine in quity, ibid. 556, k, l.
xiv cent. ii. 488.
Transylvania, Socinianism publicly esta-
Thomasius, vehemently attacks the Peri- blished there, and how, i. 371.
patetics in xvii cent. iv. 18 ; his views, Trapesond, George of, translates several
and success of his philosophy at Hall Grecian authors into Latin, and is a
and other places, 19 and t.
learned advocate for the Latins in xv.
Thorn, a famous meeting, called the Chari cent. ii. 547.
table Conference, held here in xvii cent. Trent, the project of a council there re-
by eminent doctors of the Reformed Lu newed, iii. 88; conditions on which
theran and Romish Churches, iii. 467. Maurice, Elector of Saxony, consented
Tiberius, proposed Christ to be enrolled to it, 89 c; necessary steps taken by
among the Gods, i. 63 and C.
the Protestants for providing against
Tien, Shangti, supreme object of worship events, 89; congregation for interpret-
among the Chinese, 402 ; its meaning ing decrees of this council, 154; the
and dispute thereon, ibid. Chinese mis council for what assembled, and its de-
sionaries permitted by Clement XI. to cisions censured, 155; its decrees how
use this word in making converts, and far acknowledged by the members of
why, iv. 185.
the church of Rome, 156 ; afford no
Tilbury, Gervais of, his character and clear and perfect knowledge of the Ro-
works, ii, 340 and 0.
mish faith, 157 and k ; measures taken
Timotheus, his confutation of the various by it to prevent the reading of the
heresies in vii cent. i. 462.
Scriptures, 158; forbid all interpreta-
the Nestorian Pontiff, propa tions of them contrary to, or different
gates the Gospel with great success in from, the sense adopted by the church,
Hyrcania and Tartary in viji cent. i. 159 and m.
Trials of innocence in ix cent. by cold
Tindal, his deism, and hypothesis of, iv. water, ii. 63 and f; by single combat,
188 and c.
fire ordeal, and the cross, 63, 64 sub,
Titelman, Francis, his commentary on not. f; whence these methods of de-