« הקודםהמשך »
effects of this custom, and whence, the
number of spurious writings in v cent.
ibid. and 363.
Roman Catholic faith, derived from two
sources, iii. 154 ; uncertainty about its
real doctrines, ibid. difference of opinion
about determining doctrines and contro-
Catholic religion, its principal
heads, and whence to be known, iii. 157
Romans impose the names of their own
deities on those of other nations, and
hence the perplexities in the history of
the ancient superstitions, i. 32 and h;.
their system of religion different from
the Greeks, 37; introduce their rites
among the conquered nations, ibid. why
they persecuted the Christians, 68, 69;
state of learning and philosophical sects
among them, 82; introduce letters and
philosophy into the conquered nations,
Rome, its Bishops. See Popes.
-- the decline of this church, and
whence dated, iii. 130; its internal con-
stitution strengthened by various ways,
- attempts to ruin the Protestants,
but unsuccessful, iii. 453, 454, 464; con-
ferences held on both sides, 467 ; the
interest of this church loses ground in
the East, 477 ; two strong instances of
it, 478; the Popes' authority in its de-
-- rupture between Pope Paul V. and
Venice, iii. 482; wise conduct of the
latter, 483 ; peace concluded through
Henry IV. of France, ibid. y, z; the con-
sequences, and their separation how pre-
vented, 484, a, b. .
- its contest with Portugal in xvii
cent. iii. 485; the former gains no
ground, 486 and c; between it and the
French court, with the former's strata-
gems defeated and the writers in this
contest variously treated, ibid. contests
under Lewis XIV. with the reason, 487;
peace concluded on inglorious terms
for the Pope, 498; a second contest
about the Regale, ibid. and g; 489 and
h; Lewis summons an assembly of Bi-
shops, ibid. and i ; which drew up four
propositions opposed by the Pope pub-
licly and privately, ibid. j; 490 k ; third
contest on the right of asylum to am-
bassadors at Rome, and accommoda-
tion, 490 and l; whether the papal au-
thority gained ground in this cent. with
the complaint in the affirmative ground
less, 491; the manner of terminating
differences changed, 492; Gallican li-
berties, still maintained, ibid. and q;
some cringing flatterers fawo still on
the Popes, 493; secret yet vigorous
measures used by the French against
the Popes, who are treated by their mo.
narchs as the Pagan heroes treated Cer-
Rome, its state of learning in xvii cent. iii.
505 ; improved by the French, 506;
philosophy much changed in France,
and those most distinguished in it, ibid.
and n; ill treatment of them, 507 0;
the French example, followed in Italy,
&c. ibid. Jesuits improve learning most;
- and followed by the Benedictines, 508;
decline of learning among the Jesuits
ever since, 509; emulation of the Priests
of the Oratory, and the most distin-
guished among them, ibid. Jansenists of
Port Royal the most famous, ibid. rea-
son of these improvements, 510; prin-
cipal authors of the Romish commu-
nion, ibid. and q; its doctrine more
corrupt than in the former ages, through
the Jesuits, and its Pontiffs' negligence,
511; whence derived and with what
views propagated, 512; Jesuits, why
supported by the Popes, 514; they sap
the foundations of morality with several
pernicious maxims, 513, 514; are con-
demned by Popes Alexander VII. and
VIII. yet their moral tenets not sup-
pressed, 516 and x; why the great
made them their confessors, ibid. their
maxims and practices not adopted by
all the fraternity, 517; three circum-
stances necessary in general censures,
which are not observed by their adver-
saries, ibid. state of exegetic theology in
xvii cent. 518; scripture how obscured,
ibid. and a; state of didactic, moral,
and polemic theology at this time, 519;
contest under the pontificate of Clement
VIII. between the Jesuits and Domini-
cans, about Grace, 520; intimation of
the arbiters appointed by the Pope in
favour of the Dominicans, 521; who
himself examines the controversy, ibid.
but dies before the decision, ibid. dispute
continued under Paul V. and ordered to
be suppressed, with liberty to each par-
ty to follow their own respective opinions
522; the Pope how hindered from pro-
nouncing a public determination, 523
and f; contests occasioned by the rise
: and progress of Jansenism, ibid. and 524;
hopes of a union between this and the
Greek church, 553; methods used by
the Romanists, 553 and d; but ineffec-
tual, 554; a union between this ,and
the Russian church attempted, but in
vain, iii. 201.
Romuald, founder of the Camaldolites in xi
cent. ii. 186.
Rosary, instituted in honour of the Virgin
Mary in x cent. ii. 114 and l.
Roscellinus, controversy relative to the
Trinity begun by him in xi cent. ii. 225
and m; retracts and resumes his error
226; his doctrine concerning the ille
gality of bastards being ordained, not in xiii cent. ii. 341 ; added to the Row
favourably received in England, ibid. mish calendar in xvii cent. iii. 549, 550
Rosecrucians, their derivation in' xvii cent. and z.
iii. 436 and f; inveigh against the Peri: Salabert,defends the Nominalists in xi cent
putetics, 437; most eminent among ii. 143,9.
them, with their followers, ibid. and g; Saladin, his success against the Christians,
diversity of opinions, whence, with some ii. 237 ; reduces the city of Jerusalem,
common principles, 437, 438 ; attacked after a dreadful carnage, ibid. and r;
by Gassendi, 438.
defeated by the kings of England and
Rothman, Bernard, an ecclesiastic of France, 234, 239 ; concludes a truce
Munster, becomes Anabaptist, iii. 330 with Richard I. of England, ibid.
Salernum, a famous school there for the
Rufinus, of Aquileia, his character, i. 280, study of physic in xi cent. ii. 139 and i.
friendship and rupture between him and Salisbury, John,of his just and severe cen-
Jerome, ibid. o; his version of the Scrip sure of the Nominalists, Realists, and
Formalists, ii. 254, 255, s, t; his great
Ruffus, & cbief of the spiritual libertines, character, 283.
Salmasius, his disputes about usury, stage
Rugen, Isle of, Christianity established plays, &c. in xvii cent. iv. 114.
here in xii cent. ii. 228 and b.
Salmuth, Henry, his observations on the
Raggeri, Cosmo, account of bis impiety, Bible, an account of, iii. 258.
Salvian, his book on Divine government,
Russians, converted in ix cent. and by and the cause of writing it, i. 339; cha-
what prudent means, ii. 5; their con racter, 356 and u; moral writings ex-
version misrepresented by Le Quien, 6, cellent, 363.
h; adopt the doctrine and discipline of Samaritans, their sad state, i. 52; notions
the Greeks, iii. 188; but are independent of the Messiah, if juster than those en-
on them, and the Patriarch of Constan tertained by the inhabitants of Jerusa-
tinople, ibid. a union between their own, lem, ibid. and x.
and the Romish church attempted, but Samogetæ, their conversion to Christianity
in vain, 201.
in xv cent. considered, ii. 508.
Ruysbrockius, an eminent mystic in xiv Samuel, a Jewish convert, writes an elabo-
cent. ii. 483.
rate treatise against the Jews in xi cent.
Sabellius, his notions of the Trinity, i. 238; Sanches, a famous eclectic and skeptical
in what he differed from Noetus, ibid. philosopher in xvii cent. iii. 448 and u.
propagates his opinion with some suc Sancroft, archbishop of Canterbury, is de-
.prived, with seven other Bishops, of his
Sacrament, festival of, its origin in xiii ecclesiastical dignity, and why, iii. 111
cent. ii. 417 and s.
Sadducees, their tenets, i. 46; deny a fu Sanction, Pragmatic, instituted for re-
ture state, 47 ; their moral doctrine and trenching papal power, ji. 539; when,
bad influence, 49.
and by whom made, ibid. n; abrogated
Sagarelli, Gerhard, founder of the sect in part by Lewis XI. of France, ibid. its
of Apostles in xii cent. ii. 437 ; is com total abrogation obtained from Francis I.
mitted to the flames, and burned, ibid. of France, ië. 14 and g.
his successor Dulcinus, and the war he Sandius, an eminent writer among the
carried on, with his terrible end, ibid. Arians in xvii cent. iv. 173 and w.
Sarabaites, an order of abandoned and
Saints, veneration paid to them, its rise, profligate monks in iv. cent. i. 292.
i. 282 ; their number considerably aug- Saracens, their successful incursions in the
mented in v cent. and whence, i. 352; East in viii cent. ii. 484; success owing
sepulchres frequented. 358; their pray to the divisions of the Greeks, ibid.
ers thought to be victorious at the usurpations in the West, 485; conse-
throne of God, 412; the lives of some quences of their success to Christian-
considered, 423, 424; a confidence in ity, ibid. their progress toward univer-
their merits thought necessary to sal sal empire in ix cent. ii. 7; the progress
vation in viii cent. 508; tutelary, their of their arms injurious to the Gospel,
origin in ix cent. ii. 34 ; a passionate but more fatal in the East than in the
fondness for their relics, 37; excessive West, 8; writers against them in this
veneration paid to them in x cent. 105; century reported many things which
multiplied greatly, 109; this accounted were false and groundless, ji. 43; their
for, ibid. their numerous devotees in ruin accomplished by the Turks in the
xii cent. ii. 285 ; supposed to be fre East in 8 cent. 83; the Ottoman em-
quently present in the places they in- pire established on the ruins of the
habited upon earth, ibid. and r; the de- Saracens' dominions, ibid. state of
fects of those who wrote their lives learning among them, 88; driven out
of Sicily in xi cent. 121, the privileges of Pisa, which elects a third, 519; af-
thereupon granted to the kings of Si- fictions received by the church from it
cily, 122 ; resident in Palestine, and in this cent. 536 ; healed by the pru-
expeditions formed against them, ibid. dence of Nicholas V. 537; between the
by Peter the Hermit, with the progress, Greeks and Latins, and why not healed,
and history of this holy war, 127, 125 560.
and s; difficulties and successes, 125 Schmidt, Erasmus, a learned expositor of
and u; motives of the Popes and Eu- Scripture, iv. 26.
ropean Princes engaging in this cru - - Sebastian, an interpreter of Scrip-
sade, 127, 128 and y; reasons for and ture, and character, iv. 26.
against these wars, 128 and ; with
- Laurent, his translation of the
their unhappy consequences, 129, 130 Bible, and whence called the Wertheim
and a; of great service to literature in interpreter, iv. 201 , character, ibid. is
Spain, 138; they oppress the Eastern opposed, and accused of being an ene-
Christians in xii cent. and the justice of my to the Christian religion, and
these oppressions examined, ii. 243; the whence, ibid. is cast into prison, but
decline of their affairs in Spain, in xiii escapes, ibid. charge brought against
cent. 331 ; scheme for their expulsion him, ibid. m.
thence in xiv cent. ii. 444; subversion Scholastic theology, whence it began, i.
of their kingdom in Spain effected in xv 215,
cent. 507; methods used for their con- Scholastics, properly so called, in xii cent.
version, and how far effectual, 507. See ii. 291 ; their author, Abelard, 292;
opposed from different quarters, 293;
Sardis, council of, its fourth canon suppo- and principally by St. Bernard, 294
sed the chief step to the Bishop of Rome's are chiefly Realists in xiii cent. 406;
sovereignty, i. 274; the impossibility of their dangerous tenets, and vicious me-
proving by it the necessity of an appeal thods of defending them, 409; fall into
to Rome in all cases, with the import of absurd and impious notions of the Tri-
this canon, ibid, and p. .
nity, and the consequences, in xiv.
Saturninus, of Antioch, leader of the sect cent. 491 and fi hated and opposed in
of the Elcesaites, i. 174; the heretical xv cent. 557; and principally by the
principles he maintained, ibid.
restorers of polite literature, 5583; a
Savanarola, Jerome, his great character, ii. philosophical sect in xvi cent. ii. 220,
* 549; censured with severity the Roman united with the Aristotelians, but oppo-
Pontiffs, and his unhappy fate, ib. and sed by the Ramæans, ibid.
t; declares that Rome was become the Schoman, George, author of the Cracow
image of Babylon, 551 ; labours to re- catechism, iii. 366, sub. not. 2 ; his Tes-
form the Schoolmen, in xv cent. 557; tamentum, 368 a; an admirer of Far-
· his polemic work, entitled The Triumph novius, 382.
of the Cross, 559.
Schomer, a Lutheran expositor in xvii
Saurin, James, his opinion concerning the cent. iv. 26.
lawfulness of violating the truth, and Schoolmen, whence so called, i. 422; chiefly
controversy thereon, iv. 200.
employed in collecting the ancient in-
Saxons, why averse to Christianity in vjïi terpretations of the Fathers in xiii
cent. i. 481, h, i ; methods used for con- cent. ii. 405; contentions among them
verting and retaining them, with an ob in xiv cent. 491.
servation on the nature of their conver- Schools, established for Christian philoso-
sion, ibid. and sub. fin. not. i.
phy in i cent. i. 100 ; how distinguished
Saxony, divines of, contend with those of from the academies of the ancient
Weimar in xvi cent: iii. 243; new refor Christians, ibid. very serviceable to
mation attempted, 250.
Christianity, 267; cathedral erected by
Sceptics, their method, and most eminent Charlemagne in viii cent. 487 ; public,
among them in xvii cent. iii. 444, 445, their sad state in xvi cent. iii. 20.
Schurman, Anna Maria, a follower of the *
Schaal, John Adam, chief of the Jesuit L abbadists, and great character, iv. 178.
missionaries in China, an account of, Schwenkfeldt, George, his debates with
iii. 396 ; imprisoned, and condemned to Luther, iii. 233; character, ibid. is ba-
nished, and his death, 234; his doctrine
Schade, John Caspar, his character, iv. 51; different from Luther's in three points,
imprudent zeal excites commotions in 235.
the Lutheran church, ib.
Schyn, Herman, a Mennonite, iii. 320 ;
Schism, the great Western in xiv cent. an character of his writings, ibid. sub. not.
account of, ii. 463; its bad consequen- e; 321, sub. f.
ces, 464 ; injurious to papal power, Sciences, their sad state in vii cent. i. 451;
465; proposals for terminating it, ibid. a new division of them, and their num-
fomented and continued in xv cent. 518; ber increased in xii cent. ii. 249, 250.
two Pontiffs condemned by the council Science, its limits extended in xiïi cent. ii.
344; Bacon's reflection on the learning the immaculate conception of the Vir-
of this cent. ibid. d.
gin Mary, 492 and g.
Sciences, many professors of, but few very Scriptures, canon of, supposed to be set
serviceable to society in xiv cent. ii. tled before the middle of ii cent. i. 93;
449; their improvement in general, in arguments in confirmation of this supo
natural philosophy, mathematics, in position, ibid. early method of interpret-
astronomy, in xvii cent. iii. 430 ; and ing them, 98; the New Testament
how by Bacon, ibid. and z; the most translated into several languages, and
eminent for them through Europe, its use, 125; zeal for them in ii cent.
431 ; their distinguished promoters, and 151; interpretations of them defective,
advantages hence arising to society and through the double sense used at this
religion, 432; their state among the time, 152; the zeal of many for propa-
Lutherans, iv. 15.
gating them in ïïi cent, and advantages
Scioppius, employed to write against the hence arising to Christianity, 194; in-
Protestants, with an account of his be terpreters of them censured, and why,
ing caned, iii. 454 and n.
218; versions in iv cent. discover a
Sclavonians, and Dalmatians, express a want of sound judgment in their au-
desire to embrace Christianity in ix thors, 284; the most eminent commen-
cent. ii. 5; the joy this occasioned, and tators in v cent. i. 359; Origen's method
hereupon missionaries were sent, ibid. adopted by many, 360; logical dis-
cussions esteemed better tests of truth
converted by Waldemar, king than the Scriptures, 361; expositors in
of Denmark, through Absalom, Arch vii cent. few, and very unlearned, 458;
bishop of Lunden, in xii cent. ii. 228 and the study of them much promoted
b; their aversion from Christianity among the Latins by Charlemagne in
overruled, and their conversion com vjii cent. 510; allegorical interpreters
pleted, by the zeal of Henry the Lion, of, in ix cent. and their fundamental
through the Ministry of Vicellinus, 231. principle, ii. 40; explained in xii cent.
Scot, Michael, an Aristotelic, and a Latin chiefly according to the rules of Mys-
interpreter of his works in xiii cent. ii. ticism, ii. 290 ; which prevailed much
in xiii cent. 404; commentators on
Scotland, whether Christian in iii cent. i. them among the Lutherans in xvi cent.
195 and m; church of, its founder, iii. iii. 224.
282 ; how far it adopts the doctrine, &c. Scripture knowledge, its state in xvi cent.
established at Geneva, ibid. opposes iii. 158; methods taken to obscure it,
changes of discipline and worship, ibid. ibid. severe law passed as to interpreta-
a remarkable declaration of king James tion, ibid. and I.
I. concerning the kirk, iv. 90 d. Scylizes, John, a historian among the
Scots, Irish, eminent for their learning in Greeks in xi cent. and character, ii, 136.
viii cent. i. 513 and m; illustrated Chris. Scythia, within Imaus, embraces the Gos-
tian doctrines by the rules of philosophy, pel in viii cent. i. 477 ; its division by
ibid. their sophism about the Trinity, ib. the ancients, ibid. a.
Scotus, Johannes Erigena, an eminent Sectarian philosophers, who so called in
philosopher in ix cent. ii. 15 and a; his xvii cent. iv. 19, t.
great erudition, ibid. his works, ibid. Sects, formed in the times of the apostles,
blends the Mystic Theology with the i. 110; grow imperceptibly, ibid. ar-
Scholastic, and forms them into one counts of them imperfect, and whence,
system, ibid. his notions and great mo ibid. those which arose from the orien-
desty, 16; high character, 32; explains tal philosophy very detrimental to
the doctrines of Christianity according Christianity, 173; illiterate, which pre-
to reason and the principles of true vajled in ii cent. 188; remains of an-
philosophy, 40; is opposed and perse cient in iii cent. 230; and in iv cent.
cuted on this account, 41 and s; his 307; Manichæans most prevalent, who
new and elegant translation of the pre conceal themselves under various
tended Dionysius's works, 43 ; his ex names to avoid the severity of the laws,
cellent method of managing the contro 308; ancient, flourish in vii cent. i.
versy with Pascasius Radbert, concern 464; and recover strength in viïi cent.
ing the real presence of Christ's Body from the divisions in the Grecian em-
and Blood in the Eucharist, 50. . pire, 524; and, subsist in xi cènt. ii.
- Marianus, his works, ii. 194.
219; numerous among the Latins in xii
- John Duns, eminent for the acute cent, and the abuses which gave rise to
ness and subtilty of his genius, but not them, 307; multiplied in xiii cent. and
for his candour and ingenuity, ii. 488; the cause, 420; unanimous in opposing
His works, ibid. x; warmly opposes the superstition and the papal power,
several doctrines of Aquinas, and hence ibid. among the Dutch in xvii cent. iv.
the sect of the Scotists, 491; defends 123 ; of inferior note in this cent. an ac-
count of them, 174; various in Eng- Severus, Sulpitius, an eminent historian in
land in xviii cent. iv. 207."
iii cent. i. 481 and p.
Secundians, Valentinian seçt in ii cent. i. - the Monophysite, made Patriarch
155; maintained the doctrine of two of Constantinople by Anastasius, the
:: eternal principles, ibid.
- Emperor, i. 434 ; is deposed and suc-
Sedulius, bis expositions, and their defect, ceeded by one of his own sect, ibid.
his doctrine concerning the body of
Seidel, Martin, his extravagant notions, Christ, 436 ; names given to his follow-
iv. 63; whence his followers called ers, ibid.
Semi Judaizers, 64 and k. .
Sfondrati, Cælestine, his innovated doc-
Seidenbecher, George Lawrence, a propa trine of predestination, iii. 548; is ac-
gator of the Millennium in xvii cent. iv. cused of erroneous notions before Inno-
63; is censured, and deposed from his cent XII. with the Pope's conduct, ibid,
pastoral charge, ibid. and i.
Semi Arians, their tenets, i. 322.
Shaftesbury, Earl of, his character and
Semi Judaizers, a Socinian sect, iii. 381; writings, iii. 421 ; how dangerous to
why obnoxious to Socinus, ibid. y.
Christianity, ibid. and e.
Semi Pelagians, author of this sect in v Sharrock, the great advantages derived to
cent. and their tenets, i. 394; their five religion from his moral works, iv. 77.
leading principles, 395, h; strongly op- Sheppard, a Puritan missionary in Ame-
posed by the disciples of St. Augustin, rica, iii. 416.
yet support themselves, and make a ra- Siam, the first mission there by the Jesuits,
pid progress, ibid. excite divisions in under the direction of Alexander of
the Western churches in vi cent. 432. Rhodes, and its success, iü. 392 ; em-
Sendomir, synod held there, iii. 296; by bassy sent by Lewis XIV. to convert
whom, and concerning what, ibid. the King and people, 393 and p; this
was fruitless, and remarkable observa-
Sens, Bernardine of, a celebrated mystic tion by the King on this occasion, 394
writer, in xv cent. ii. 549; his works and q.
must be read with caution, 359.
Siculus, Peter, an account of, ii. 29.
Serapion, Bishop of Antioch, writes a trea, Sidonius, Apollinaris, his writings tumid,
tise against the Jews, and his motives but not destitute of eloquence, i. 356.
for it, i. 203.
Sienno, Jacobus a, protects the Socinians,
- his successful mission in Arme- iii. 371 ;. embraces their communion,
nia, iii. 133; maintains with success the and erects a public seminary for them,
cause of Rome, ibid.
Servetus, Michael, Servede, his character Sigansu, famous Chinese monument found
and writings, iii, 355 and c; circum- there in vii cent. i. 439 and a.
'stances concurring to favour his designs, Sigismund, John, Elector of Branden-
356 ; is seized, and accused by Calvin burg, renounces Lutheranism, and em-
of blasphemy, ibid. and d; condemned braces the communion of the Reformed
to the flames, ibid. his life by whom churcb, iv. 4; adopts not all their te-
written, ibid. e; strange doctrine of nets, and leaves his subjects free as to
· the Trinity, 357; Calvin's severity their religious sentiments, 5; the bad
against him bow alleviated, ibid. sub. effects of this liberty, and Lutherans
· not. e ; strange tenets of other Antitri disgusted at it, ibid. controversy and
nitarians after him, 358.
civil commotions that ensued, ibid. the
Servites, convent of, founded in xiji cent. form of concord hereupon suppressed,
. ii. 366; wear a black habit, with the and other edicts made by the Elector
reason, and observe several rules pecue and his successors, 6 and d.
liar to themselves, and unknown to Simeon, Bishop of Jerusalem, crucified by
; other societies, ibid. and k.
Trajan's law, i. 130.
Sethites, an account of this sect in ii cent. - head of the Stylites, makes many
i. 185; consider Seth as the same per- converts, i. 365 ; his extravagant tenets,
son with Christ, 196.
ibid. attracts the veneration of many
Severian, character of his moral writings, persons, ibid. and p; followed by many
persons, though not with the same aus-
Severinus, promotes the philosophy of terity, ibid. and q; his superstitious
Paracelsus in Denmark, in xvi cent. iii. practice continued till xii cent. ib. and y.
· 221. .
of Constantinople, translates the
Severus, his character, i. 123; persecution lives of the Saints in x cent. and hence
under him, 134 ; Martyrs who suffered styled the Metaphrast, ii. 103 and i.
under him, 196.
Sin, original, doctrine of, disputed by La
- Alexander, shows favour to the Place, iv. 85; denied by Le Cene, 90.
Christians, i. 196 ; is assassinated by the Smalcald, league, how formed by the con-
order of Maximin, ibid.
federate princcs, iii. 75; the substance