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heavenly bodies, and this accounted philosophy, ibid. get footing in England
for, 34 and m; the rites and sacrifices and France, and other countries, with
they paid to these deities various, ibid. their motives, 222 and 2.
had stated times and places for this Paracelsus, Theophrastus, a supposed In-
worship, 35; their mysteries infamous, fidel, iii. 119; his character as a phi.
ibid. religion did not inspire its votaries losopher, 123; founds the philosophical
with the love of virtue, ibid. why re- sect of Theosophists, 124; makes great
jected, 36; promoted universal corrup improvements in chymistry, 123 9.
tion, ibid. and x; the two arguments Paris, council assembled at, by Lewis the
used by their crafty priests in defence Meek, rejects Pope Adrian's letter in
of their religion, 37.

favour of image worship, i. 524.
Pajon, Claude, attempts to modify the doc frequented in xii cent. for its emi-

trine of the Reformed Church, iv, 86 ; nent divines, ii. 390; various sects of
this assertion corrected, ibid. u; his divines here, ibid. the first European
sentiments misrepresented by his ad University founded at in xiii cent. and
versaries, 87, 88 and y; his own decla whence this name, ii. 338 ; severe disci-
ration, 89 and %; tenets condemned as pline in it, 339; academy of sciences
heterodox. ibid.

flourishes in xvii cent. iii. 482.
Palæologus, Jacob, maintains Budnæus's Paris, Matthew, an eminent historian in

doctrine, and is burned at Rome, iii. xiii cent. ii. 340. .'
381.

William of, a metaphysical divine
Palamas, Gregory, Archbishop of Thessa- in xiii cent. ii. 400.

lonica, supports the doctrine of the John of, his great character, ii. 401
Quietists in xiv cent. ii. 498; and pre and n.
vails in several councils at Constantino- Abbe de, pretended miracles wrought
ple, ibid. and 499; his notions concern- at his tomb, iii. 527, 528 n.
ing the divine operation, ibid.

Parthenius, patriach of Constantinople in
Palatinate, decline of the Protestants in xvii cent. iii. 554; opposes the preten-
xvii cent. iv. 70 and t.

sions of Rome, which desists from fur-
Palestine, its two religions the Jewish ther attempts, ibid.

and Samaritan, much corrupted among Paruta, his errors, iii. 359 and i; a mem-
the people at our Saviour's coming in- ber of the secret assemblies at Venice
to the world, i. 45 ; division into various and Vicenza, 360.
sects among the learned, ibid. the de- Pasaginians, circumcised, name of a sect in
cline of the Christians here in xij cent. xii cent. ii. 319; their great aversion to
ii. 234.

the church of Rome, ibid. two distin'-
Palladius, writes the Lausiac history, and guishing tenets, ibid.

whence this name, i. 278 and e; his Pascal II. Pope, renews the disputes cons
mission among the Scots (Irish) not at cerning investitures, ii. 257; imprison-
tended with desired success in v cent. i. ed by the Emperor, 259; resigns the
336 and q; his works and character, Ring and Crosier, ibid. breaks the con
354.

vention with the Emperor, and excom-
Pandulph, Legate of Pope Innocent III. municates him, ibid. is condemned by
his artful and insolent behaviour to John a council at Rome, ibid. b; and dies,
of England, ii. 354. .

260.
Panormitanus, Antonius, revives Latin illustrates the doctrine of Des Car-
poety in xv cent. ii. 513.

tes, iii. 507, account of his Provincial
Pantænus, is said to convert the Indians Letters, 515, w; a patron of the Jan

in ii cent, and the fact examined, i. 124; senists, 526.

his version of the Scriptures lost, 152. Passau pacific treaty with the Protestants,
Pantheists, account of this impious sect, iii. 91; some of its principal articles,

iii. 423, and u; most eminent members ibid. d.
among them, 429 and w, x, y.

Paterinus, a common name given to all
Papal power saved from ruin by the force H eretics in xi cent. ii. 167 ; origin of it,

of the secular arm and imperial edicts ibid. r.
in xvi cent. iii. 74.

Paterius's exposition of the Old and New
Papin, Isaac, propagates the doctrine of Testament, a compilation only from

Bajon, and reduces it to two proposi- Gregory the Great, i. 459 and y.
tions iv. 89; refuted by Jurieu, and Patriarchs, the nature of their office ex
condemned and excommunicated, 90; plained, i. 147; their creation, whencer
turns Roman Catholic, ibid.

270; Bishop of Rome their prince,
Paracelsistic fire, philosophy, its state in 272; their number increased in v center
xvii cent. iii. 436.

ii. 348; their privileges eonsidered,
Paracelsists, eminent in xvi cent. iii. 221: ibid. not universally acknowledged,
aim at the subversion of the Peripatetic ibid. inconveniences arising from the
VOL. IV.

337.

patriarchal government, 349; contests ticular tenets, 223; and why adopted by
with each other, and melancholy ef- some, 225.
fects, 350.

Paulinus, of Aquileia, his character and
Patrick, converts the Irish in v cent. ii. works, i. 507.
336; founds the Archbishopric of Ar-

Bishop of Nola, his works, i.
magh, ibid. called the Apostle of the 280.
Irish, from the success of his ministry, Peasants, their horrid war in xvi cent. and

the occasion, ii. 50, 51, and b; their
Patronage, the right of, its origin, i. 302. claims made religious by Munzer, with
Patropassians, who, and why so called, i. their different demands, ibid. their out-
187.

rages not chargeable on Luther's doco
Paul, called to be an Apostle by Christ trine, 52 ; defeated at Mulbausen, and

himself, i. 61 ; his extraordinary charac their ringleader Munzer put to death,
ter, ibid.

ibid.
the first hermit, i. 216; if properly Peckham, John de, a metaphysical divine
styled the founder of the Mystics, ibid. in xiji cent. ii. 400.

- of Samosata, founder of a sect of Pelagianism, its rise in v cent. i. 391.
heretics, i. 239 ; his errors about the Pelagians, their tenets, i. 392 and a; sur
Trinity, ibid.

pressed by Augustin's writings, ibid.
- the Deacon, his fame and works in progress of their opinions in the East,
viii cent. i. 507.

ibid. condemned in Gaul, England, and
- II. Pope, his mixed character, ii. Africa, 393.
540 and p.

Pelagius, account of him, i. 391 ; his cha-
Paul III. Pope, proposes to call a general racter unfairly represented by Jerome,

council at Mantua, iii. 77; the place ibid. z; and impartially stated by Au-
objected against, and why, 78 and i, m; gustin, ibid. appeals to the court of
his proposals for a reformation more Rome, 393 and d; condemned there by
specious than real, 83 and w; dispute Zosimus, ibid.
about his character, 142 e.

Pellican, a 'writer in xvi cent. iii. 319.
- IV. Caraffa, Pope, his character and Penance, which had been long neglected,
arrogance, iii. 143 and e; founder of is restored in vii cent. by Theodore of
the Theatins, 149.

Tarsus, i. 461 and c.
--- V. Borghese, Pope, his character, Penitents, first allowed private confession
iii. 449; contest with the Venetians, by Leo the Great, i. 371.
450 ; the occasion and important pieces Penn, William, procures a toleration for
on both sides, ibid. b.

the Quakers under James II. and ac-
meme Vincent de, founder of the priests count of, iv. 150 and r; settles the

of the missions in xvii cent. iii. 502; is Quakers in Pennsylvania, which was
sainted, ibid.

granted him by Charles II. and so na-
Paulicians, controversy of the Greeks med from him, 151 ; bis character, ibid.

with them in vii cent. i. 464; a sect in and t; flourishing state of Pennsylva-
ix cent. ii. 66 ; persecuted by the Greek nia, ibid. endeavours to digest Quaker-
Emperors, and consequences, 56; their ism into a regular form, 154 ; his wri-
deplorable state under the Empress tings, ibid. sub. not. .
Theodora, ibid. meet with protection Pennafort, Raymond de, his decretals, and
from the Saracens, and under the com the fame acquired by them in xiii cent.
mand of Carbeas carry on a bloody war ii. 346; his polemic works'against the
against the Greeks, ibid. 68 and p; Jews and Saracens, 412 ; is sainted in
their doctrine propagated with success xvii cent. ii. 549.
among the Bulgarians, ibid. and q; Pennsylvania, province of America, Qua-
whether Manichæans or not, consider kers established there, and whence its
ed, ibid. their opinions in six articles, name, iv. 151.
69, 70, 71, and x, y, z; miserable state People, their right of choosing their rulers
under the Greeks in xi cent. 219; take and teachers in the primitive church, i.
refuge in Europe, 220; their reforma- 87; seem to have purchased this right
tion attempted, and warmly pursued by by their oblations, ibid.
the Emperor Alexius, ibid. where first Pepin usurps the crown of France in viii
settled, ibid. and o; different names, cent. i. 295; is supported by Pope Za-
221 and p, q, r; their first assembly at chary, 496 and 9; anointed and crown-
Orleans, with their abettors, 222; hav. ed by Stephen, ibid. and r; his donation
ing rejected lenient methods used for to the, see of Rome, 497.
their conviction, are condemned to be Peraldus, William, his works, and the
burned alive, ibid. their principles seem fame he acquired, ii. 401 and m.
to be mystic, ibid. and u; another Perezius, attacks and refutes the Jews in
branch converted by Gerhard, and par xv cent. ii. 559.

Peripatetics, flourish in svii cent: jii. 436;
meet with formidable adversaries in

Des Cartes and Gassendi, iv. 17.
Perkins, William, his treatises on morality

and character, iii. 312 and 0.
Perrault, account of his book on the mo-

rality of the Jesuits, iii. 515, sub. not. w.
Perieres, Bonaventure des, a supposed in-

fidel in xvi cent. ii. 119.
Persia, three persecutions there by Sapor

II. against the Christians, i. 265.
Peter, Bishop of Ravenna, whence called
Chrysologus, i. 356 and t.
- Fullo, Fuller, rejects an opinion of
Eutyches, which he modifies, and ex-
cites troubles in the church i. 387;
founder of the sect called Theopas
chites, ibid. and l.

- his superstitious zeal for a war to the
Holy Land, ii. 122; forged letters from
Heaven, to animate Christians in the
tause, 123; assembles a council at Pla-
centia, and recommends the expedition
against the Saracens of Palestine, ibid.
leads a principal division of the army,
and is defeated, 124, 125.

's Pence, what, and why so called. ii.
162 e.

of Celle, attacks the Scholastics in
xii cent. ii. 294.

the Chanter, opposes the Schoolmen,
ii. 294 and 0.
Peter de Vineis, an account of the book
said to be written by him, ii. 335.

I. Emperor of Russia, introduces a
change into the Russian church, iii.
558 ; a patron of the Arts and Sciences,
ibid. abolishes the penal laws against
religious differences, and declares him-
self supreme head of the church, 559;

establishes a synod at Petersburg, ibid.
Petersen, John William, his inventions and

reveries in xvii cent. iv. 50; strange doce

trine, and success, 51 and s. .
Petit, his doctrine concerning the lawful

ness of putting a tyrant to death, ii. 530;
and condemned as a detestable heresy
in the council of Constance, and by the

university of Paris, 531.
Petrarch, zealous in reviving the study of

the learned languages in xiv cent. ii. 449.
Petrobrussians, a sect in xii cent. ii. 311;

doctrine held by them, ibid. and w. i
Petrucci, Cardinal, a disciple of Molinos,

jii. 544.
Petrus, Comestor, his abridgment of the

Scriptures, ii. 283.
Peucer, attempts to reform Lutheranism,

substituting Calvinism in its place, iii.
251 ; his character, and sufferings, 250
*; writings to promote his design, 251
t; convocations by Augustus at Dres-
den, ibid. and at Torgaw, with the issue,
252 and <; imprisoned, but is after-
ward released, 253.

Peyrere, Isaac la, his strange doctrine, iii.

546 ; is cast into prison, renounces his

errors publicly, and turns Papist, 547.
Pezelius, "his catechism favourable to the

sentiments of Calvin, iii. 252.
Pfaff, Matthew, zealous in projecting a
union between the Lutherans and Re-
formed in xvii cent. and good charac-
ter, iv. 205 and t; opposed by the Lu-

therans, ibid.
Pharisees, their tenets, i. 46 ; moral doc-

trines, 49; bad influence, ibid.
Philadelphia, whence so called, iv. 151. .
Philadelphian society, founded in xyii

cent. and by whom, iv. 181; opinions,

and chief members, ibid.
Philip, father and son, Emperors, favour

Christianity, i. 192 ; whether Christians
themselves, 193 and d.,

the Solitary; an eminent moral
writer in xvii cent. 297.

- the Fair, king of France, his con-
test with Boniface VIII. ii. 453 ; vigo-
rously opposes papal power, ibid. charges
the Pope with enormous vices, 454 ;
sends William de Nogaret to seize
the Pope's person, ibid. insists on
the formal condemnation of Boniface,
and procures the removal of the papal
residence from Rome to Avignon, 455.

of Hesse, unjustly detained prison-
er by the Emperor Charles V. iii. 85 ;
the perfidious behaviour of the latter on
this account, with the doubt concerning

it, ibid. and y.
Philip, Theodore, the chief of those who

excited commotions in xvi cent. con-
cerning excommunication, iii. 335.
Philippicus, Bardanes, Emperor of the
Greeks, espouses the cause of the Mo-
nothelites, i. 516; orders a picture, re-
presenting the council that condemned
this sect, to be removed out of the
church of St. Sophia, ibid. commands
that no images of this nature be placed
in the Latin churches, ibid. his edict
rejected by Constantine the Roman
pontiff, who excommunicates the Em-
peror, ibid. is deprived of the empire,

ibid.
Philology, its flourishing state in xvi cent.

ii. 120 ; its great importance, 121 and
mi cultivated among the Lutherans in

xvii cent. iv. 26.
Philosophers, obscure the truth, i. 40; Ori-

ental, their first principles, 78; divided
in sentiments, 79; opinions concerning
the Deity, ibid. origin of the world, 80;
the state and destination of human
souls, 81; some converted to Chris.
tianity, and their conversion if advan-
tageous, considered, 129; their efforts
in iv cent. against Christianity, 260;
prejudices thereby received, ibid. who
these are, 261; two great sects of them

in xvii cent. iii. 442; who adopt nei. ibid. the Pope's unjust demands rejection
ther metaphysical, nor mathematical ed by the Greeks, 61; hence disputes
systems, 447.

arose, which ended in a total separation
Philosophical sin, the doctrine of, what, between the Greeks and Latins, ibid.
iii. 170.

Phranza, George, his works, ii. 547.
Philosophy, two kinds prevailed at Christ's Pichon, the Jesuit, renews the dispute

birth, i. 39; the Eastern not much concerning the frequent receiving of the
known, 76; Oriental, properly so call- Eucharist, iii. 172; is censured by the
ed, what, 77; the success of the Plato-, French Bishops for it, ibid.
nic due to Plotinus in iii cent. 204 ; Pictet, a French writer, in xvii cent. iv.
Platonic, most prevalent in iv cent. 76; his moral writings, ibid.
266 ; promoted by Julian, 267; its pro- Pietism, controversy concerning its rise in
gress prevented by the incursions of xvii cent. iv. 38; by whom begun, 38,
the Goths, 344, 345 ; Aristotelian, re 39; Spener's private meetings, and his
vived in v cent. 345 ; but decried in vi noble design in them, 38; his book of
cent. 407; its deplorable state in vii Pious Desire, for promoting vital reli-
cent. 451 ; Aristotelian flourishes in viii gion, with abuses thereon, ibid. com-
cent. 486; revived in ix cent. chiefly plaints against it, ibid. and commotions
by the encouragement of Bardas, ii. 11; at Leipsic, ibid. biblical coll ges found-
confined within the circle of the Dia ed, by whom, and for what end, the
lectics in xi cent. 140 and m; encou. name of Pietist to whom applied, 40,
raged among the Greeks in xii cent. ii. progress of these debates, ibid. extra-
247 and a; three different methods of vagant fanaticism, and consequence,
teaching it in this cent. 253; Astrology 41, 42 and m; debates carried on with
mixed with it in xiv cent. and consider Spener and the divines of Halle, 42,
ed as magic, with the event, 451, 452; subject of these debates, 43 ; first, a
Platonic in high esteem in xv cent. 514; thorough reformation of the divinity
Aristotelian, dangerous to Revealed re schools proposed, ibid. disputes that
ligion, 516, its state in xvi cent. iii. hence arose, 44 ; the second great ob-
121 ; in xvii cent. iv. 16.

ject of debate, whence arose endless
Philostratus's comparison of Christ with controversies, ibid. and 45 ; these Pie-

Apollonius Tyanneus, i. 201 ; its perui tists proceed still further in two points,
cious consequences, 202.

with the objections to them, ibid. and
Philotheus, his works, ii. 488.

46; the third principal object which
Philoxenus, Bishop of Alexandria, rejects they insisted on, ibid. various charac-

Eutyches's opinion, and modifies it, i. ters of these reformers, who endea-
387.

voured to promote piety at the expense
- the Syrian, his translations of of truth, 47.
part of the Scriptures into the Syriac Pietists, their order founded in xvii cent.

language, i. 420.
Phocas, made emperor by unjust means in - --- reformed, account of, iv. 40; laws

vii cent. i. 462 ; engages to give the enacted against them, 42; their state in

Pope the title of Universal Bishop, ibid. xviii cent. iv. 201, 202.
Protinus, Bishop of Sirmium, author of Pilatus, Leontius, his zeal in reviving the

a heretical sect, in iv cent. i. 325 ; his study of the Greek language in xiv
erroneous notions concerning the Tri- cent. ii. 448.
nity, ibid. is degraded, and dies in ex- Pin, Dr. Ellis du, exposes the injustice of
ile, ibid.

the papal claims, iii. 486 ; account of
Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, his the correspondence carried on between

learning, ii. 10 ; explains Aristotle, 11; him and Archbishop Wake, relative to
his works and character, 29; exposition a project of union between the Eng-
of Scripture, not to be recommend lish and Gallican churches, iv. 230,
ed as a model to other commenta 231. See Wake.
tors, 38 and o, p; first controversy be- Pisa, the famous council assembled at in
tween the Greeks and Latins on this xv cent. to terminate the divisions in
account, 57; mutual excommunica- the papal empire, ii. 519; is unsuccess-
tions, ibid. the second contest, in f ul, ibid.
which he is degraded, 58; engages the Pisanus, Raynerius, his summary of Theon
Bishops to espouse his cause, as a pub- logy, ii. 439.
lic cause of the church, 59; brings ar. Piscator, John, his doctrine concerning the
ticles of heresy against the Latins, ibid. obedience of Christ, iv. 81; is adopted
60 and v; which are answered, ibid. by the Romish church, and the Reform-
is restored to bis See by Basilius the ed in France, 82 i, k.
Macedonian, and with the consent of Pisides, Gregory, his works, i. 456.
the Pope, ibid. neglecting to fulfil the Pistorius writes against the treaty of Pas
conditions made with the Pope, is ex- sau, iii. 215.
communicated, and again đegradechy Pius IL. Pope, his character, ü. 538; oh

iii. 503.

tains the abrogation of the Pragmatic
Sanction, 539 and n; his impudent re-
traction of former opinions, 540; en-
joins silence on the worship of Christ's
blood, 561.
Pius IV. Pope, an account of, iii. 143.

V. eminent for his austerity, and
sainted, iii. 143 g. +
Place, M. de la, his opinions concerning

original sin, and contests occasioned
by it in xvii cent. iv. 85; condemned
by the Synod of Charenton, yet are re-
ceived by many, ibid. churches of
Switzerland alarmed at the progress of
his opinions, with their proceedings
against him, 125.
Placette, La, his moral works, iv. 76.
Planudes, Maximus, his character, ii.

447.
Plato, his notions concerning the Deity,

1.41; the defects of his philosophy, ib.
an accusation against him not strictly
true, ibid. h; his works translated into
Latin by Victorinus, i. 343 ; greatly ad-
mired in v cent. 344 ; his Timæus
more commended than understood in
x cent. ii. 90; his opinions by whom
adopted in xii cent. 247 ; philosophy

revived in xv cent. 514.
Platonics, their tenets, i. 41 ; defects, ibid.

schools more frequented than those of
the Stoics, 137, new, their rise in
Egypt in ii cent. 138; why so called,
and their seeming candour, 138;
whence styled Eclectics, ibid. their
discipline approved by Christians, 139,
prefer Plato to all others, ibid. the
principles of their philosophy, as im-
proved by Ammonius, 140 ; and its
chief articles, 141 ; and moral disci-
pline, 142; flourish in iïi cent. 204 ;
some converted to Christianity, 207;
their state in iv cent. 266 ; principles
adopted by expositors of Scripture,
281; their state in v cent. i. 344; op-
pose Christianity by their writings, in

vi cent. 401; their suppression, 408.
Platonists, their attempts against Chris-
• tianity in iii cent. i. 200 ; different sects

ainong them, 206.
Pletho, Gemistius, promotes the Platonic

philosophy in xv cent. ii. 514; and the

Greek language, 548.
Plotinus, his doctrine universally propa-

gated in iii cent. i. 205 and k; opposes
the Gnostics with the Christians, and

whence, 230.
Plutarch, his character, i. 136 ; renews

the celebrated academy at Athens in iii

cent, 205.
Pockesius, heads the spiritual libertines in

x vcent. iii. 314.
Podoniptæ, Mennonites, so called, and

whence, iii. 345.
Poiret, Péter, a follower and defender of

Bourignon, his mixed character, and re-

mark thereon, iv. 180; his works, ib. ha
Poland, commotions excited there by

Stancarus, iii. 249 and m; progress of
the Reformation here in xvi cent. 296 :
Servetus's doctrine introduced there by
Gonesius, 359.
Poles, their conversion in x cent, and the

methods used, ii. 75.
Politian, a supposed infidel in xvi cent. iii.

119.
Polliac, John de, opposes the Mendicants

in xvi cent. ii. 467 ; his opinions con-

demned by Pope John XXII. ib. and e.
Polycarp, his epistle to the Philippians
disputed, i. 96 and d; suffers martyr-
dom in ii cent. under Antoninus, 133 ;
confers with Anicet about the time of

keeping Easter, 168.
Pomeranians, converted to Christianity in

xii cent. by Otho, Bishop of Bamberg,
ii. 227, 228 ; receive Albert for their

first Bishop, ibid.
Pomerius, Julian, his confutation of the

Jews, and other works, i. 457 ; his vain
attempts to reconcile the seeming con-

tradictions in Scripture, 458.
Pomponace, Peter, an eminent sophist in

XV cent. ii. 516, his opinions not very
different from the notions of the Pan-

theists, ibid.
Pomponatus, a supposed infidel in xvi

cent. iii. 119.
Pongilup, Armannus, his fame and piety,

ii. 391 ; reasons to believe him not the

founder of the Fratricelli, ibid. p.
Pontius, of Nola, his good character and

works, i. 356 and s.
Popes, Roman Pontiffs, when first distin-

guished by a certain pre-eminence over
other Bishops, i, 208; in what sense
this superiority must be understood,
ibid. their power in iv cent. whence,
272 ; the double election and its melan-
choly consequence, 273; the limits
of their authority, ibid. steps laid for
their future despotism, 274; the fourth
council of Sardis is supposed to favour
it, ibid. their jurisdiction how increased
in v cent. i. 350; supremacy not ac-
knowledged by the Africans and others,
351; contest with the Bishop of Con-
stantinople for unlimited supremacy,
410; are subject to the control of the
Gothic princes, 411; obtain the title
of Universal Bishops from the tyrant
Phocas in vii cent. 452 ; their views
of universal power opposed, and by
whom, and the consequences, 452, 453;
subject to the emperors, ibid. raised to
the dignity of temporal princes by the
usurper Pepin, 497 and t; the nature of
their jurisdiction under Charlemagne,
500, 501 and z, a; their dignity lessened
by the Grecian emperors, 502; and
made subordinate to them and the Latin
monarchs, 504, 505; and limited by the

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