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writers against thein in xii cent. i. 228; them, ibid. *; why so called, 1024;
the crimes charged upon them, and their their difference from the Presbyterians,
forced conversion in xiv cent. 444; ibid. their moderation commended, and
these crimes most probably charged out how more commendable than the
of hatred to that people, and without Brownists, 103; called also Congrega-
sufficient evidence, vi. 171.

tional brethren, ibid. sub fin. not. ori-
Ignalius, Bishop of Antioch, his epistle, gin in Holland, 104; progress in Eng-

i. 96; that to Polycarp very doubtful, land and artful proceedings, ibid. pros-
ibid. and c; exposed by Trajan to wild perity under Cromwell, ibid. decline
beasts, 130.

ünder Charles II, and union with the
---- Patriarch of Constantinople, de Presbyterians in nine articles of, ibid.
posed by the Emperor Michael, ii. 57; and s.
appeals to Pope Nicholas l. and restored India, Christianity propagated there in
by him, ibid. reinstated by Basilius the xvi cent, iii. 390.
Macedonian, 53; refuses to give up any Indians, the nature of their pretended con-
provinces to the see of Rome, ibid. his version at the end of xv cent. consider-
death, 60.

ed, ii. 508.
Loyola, founder of the order of Indulgences, the power of granting them
Jesuits in xvi cent. iii, 116; subjects first assumed by the Bishops in the xii
them to the will of the Pope, and his cent. ii. 286 ; monopolized by the
dexterity herein, ibid. and b; if a man Popes, 287; their nature and extent
of any learning, 138 and u, ibid. and w; explained, ibid. destroy the credit of
is sainted by Urban VIII. iii. 549.

the ancient penitential discipline, 288;
XXIV. Patriarch of Antioch, supererogation invented and taught by
causes the Monophysites to embrace St. Thomas to ljustify them, ibid. and
the doctrines of the church of Rome, in %; this doctrine refuted, and by whom,
xvii cent. v. 247 and s; his death and ibid. a.
successor, who, being an usurper, is de Innocent II. Pope, exempts the Cistercians
posed by the Turks, ibid.

from paying tithes, ii. 275.
Ndefonse, Archbishop of Toledo, his cha.

lil. Pope, his works, ii. 282; de.
racter, i, 456; his treatise De Cogni spotic tyranny over several princes and
nitione Baptismi, i. 459; hence appears kingdoms, 351; augments the wealth
the novelty of several doctrines now and power of the Pope, ibide his inso-
lield by the church of Rome, ibid. and lent behaviour to John, king of Eng.

land, 352; lays England under an in-
Images, worship of, its rise, i. 281; great terdict, and why, 353; excommuni-

progress in v cent. i. 357; dispute con cates and deposes John, and encoura-
cerning it in the Eastern and Western ges Augustus of France to unite Eng.
churches, and consequences, 516; the land to his kingdom, ibid. introduces
cause of a civil war in the reign of the Transubstantiation and Auricular Con-
Emperor Leo, 517; zealously defended fession in xiii cent. 403; opposed by
by Gregory Il. and III. 518; contro many in his innovated doctrine of Tran.
versies concerning it in ix cent. in the substantiation, 415.
East, ii. 44; where it is established, 45; -- -- VII. Antipope, his character, ii.
disputes among the Latins concerning
it, and a middle course taken by the - X. Pamfili, Pope, condemns the
European Christians between the Ido indulgence showed by the Jesuits to-
laters and Iconoclasts, 46; the use of wards the Chinese superstitions in xvi
them in churches allowed, but their cent. iii. 400 ; his vile character and
worship prohibited, 46, 47 ; controver illicit commerce with Donna Olymnia,
sy concerning their sanctity in xi cent. 451 and e; endeavours to prevent the

peace of Westphalia, issues his bull
Impanation, consubstantiation, iii. 277 against this pacific treaty, which was
and q.

made at Munster, 461 and y.
Impostors, the three, a book with this Innocent XI. Odeschalchi, Pope, his en-

title, and the supposed author, ii. 335 deavours to decide the controversy be-
and e.

tween the Jesuits and their adversaries
Independents, claim the honour of carry concerning Chinese rites, iii. 401 ; his

ing the Gospel into America, iii. 415 high character, 452 and i; contest with
and p; charged with promoting dissen Lewis XIV, and reason, 488.
sions in England, and this charge im -- -- XII. Pignatelli, Pope, his high
partially considered, iv. 99 and p; Ra. character, iii. 453 and l.
pin's account of them examined and - XIII. Pope, iv. 189.
corrected, 100 sub not. whether charge. Inquisition, its origin in Narbonne, Gaul, in
able with King Charles's death, 101; xiii cent. ii. 421; the first delegates for
remarks on Dr. Mosheim's defence of this purpose, ibid. and a, b; its form

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settled, and on what plan, 422, 423, and Johannes, Johannellus, a mystic in si cent.
g; the absurd and iniquitous proceed. . his works, ii. 201 and h.
ings of this court accounted for; 424; - - a Monte Corvino, translates the
privileges granted to it by Frederic II. New Testament into the language of the
Emperor, and Lewis IX. of France, ibid. Tartars, ii. 324.
and i; violently opposed by the public, John, the forerunner of the Messiah, his
425 ; and hence severer methods are character, and success of his ministry,
employed against Heretics, ibid. meets i. 54, 55, and f.
with a fruitless opposition from Ray. Bishop of Jerusalem, a zealous advo-
mond, Earl of Thoulouse, and the con- cate for Origen, and success in this
sequences, 426'; its severity in xiv. cent. cause, i. 299.
toward the Beghards, 500; congrega of Constantinople, or the Faster, as-
tion of, instituted by Paul III. Pope, iii. sumes the title Universal Bishop, in vi
128 C.

cent. i. 410 and s; his works, 416.
Instruction, form of, adopted by the Cal IV. Pope, rejects the Exthesis of

vinists, by whom composed, and for Heraclius, and condemns the Mono-
what use, iii. 280.

physites, i. 469.
Interim, edict of Charles V. Emperor, so surnamed Carpathius, his character,

called, iii. 86, 87 and a; troubles exci. i. 515.
ted by it, 87; Melancthon's opinion of Capua, a monkish historian in x
about it, and things indifferent, 88 and cent. ii. 89.
b; produces new divisions, dangerous X. Pope, his infamous character, ii.
to the Reformation, ibid. assembly of 94; is imprisoned and put to death, 95.
doctors held concerning it, 239.

- XI. Pope, an account of him, and his
Investitures, tumults in xi cent. through death, and character of his mother Ma-

the law about them, ii. 169 and u; cus- rozia, ii. 95, and s.
tom by the ring and crosier, 170; me. - XII. Pope, changes his former name,
thods used by the clergy to deprive the and imitated in this by all succeeding
emperors of their right, 172; and by Popes, ii. 96 : implores the assistance of
the emperor's to retain it, ibid. origin of Otho the Great, with a promise of the
this custom, 175; the offence given to Purple, ibid. breaks his oath of alle-
the pontiffs, what, 174, 175 and h; war giance to Otho--is summoned before a
declared thereon, 176; Rodolph revolts council--degraded-reassumes the Pon-
against Henry III. 177; and is chosen tificate, and dies miserably, ibid.
Emperor, 179; the terrible war that XUÍ, Pope, raised to this seat by
follows upon his election, continues till Otho the great, an account of him, ii. 97.
the death of Gregory VI. Pope, 180; ---- XIV. Pope, an account of, ii. 98.
the tumults continue under Urban II. - XV. Pope, his administration peace-
181; disputes concerning them renew able, and whence, ii. 98; enrolls the
ed in xii cent. ii. 257; and their progress, first saint, 109.
258 ; peace concluded between the Pope - the Sophist, the head of the Nomi-
and the Emperor on certain conditions, nalists, and his disciples in ix. cent. ii.
which is broken by Pascal Il. and his 144 and s, t.
death, 258, 259; the pacific inclinations of Salisbury, his great character, ii,
of Calixtus II. and to what these dis- 233.
putes were owing, 261 ; peace between - King of England, opposes the Pope's
the Emperor and Pope at Worms, with choice of Langton to the See of Canter-
the conditions, 262; contest between bury, and the consequences, ii. 352;
Barbarossa and Adrian IV. 264; and, on is excommunicated and deposed, 353,
the latter's death, a dispute in electing 354; prepares to oppose the despotism
a new Pope, 265; after various success, of Innocent III. and how prevented, ib.
a peace is concluded by the Emperor, resigns his crown, and swears fealty to

the Pope, 354.
Joachim, Abbot of Flora, account of the de Matha and Felix de Valois, found

everlasting Gospel attributed to him, ii. the order of the fraternity of the Trini-
381 and s; his prophecies, ibid. Ger ty in xiii cent. ii. 366.
bard's explication of this Gospel con of Parma, a famous ecclesiastic in
démned, and mistakes about it cor. xiii cent. ii. 379.
rected, 382 and w; his character and XXII. Pope, a zealous advocate for
works, 399 and c; his predictions the Crusades, and the supposed reasons, ii.
cause of many sects, 436; heretical 441 ; his character, 458; engages in a
notions of the Trinity, 438.

war with Lewis, Duke of Bavaria, 459;
Joan, Pope, in ix cent. ii. 20; contest who deposes him, ibid. is accused of

about the truth of this story, ibid. and heresy, 460; his fear of being deemed
1,!; a middle course held by some, 21 an heretic after his decease, 461; and
and t.

*$; his severity to the Fratricelli, 473;
disputes between him and the Fran- Jubilee, year, when first instituted, ii.
ciscans about the poverty of Christ, 418; its pretended antiquity contra-
476; his edicts against expropriation,' dicted and refuted, 419 x ; altered in xiv
477 ; Franciscaps supported by Lewis cent, 496.
against him, 480 ; concludes a peace Julia Mammaa, her sentiments favourable
with them, 491; his fruitless attempts to to Christianity, i. 192; Christians en-
suppress the brethren of the Free Spi- joy peace under her son Severus Alex-
rit, 482, 483.

ander, ibid.
John XXIII. Antipope, his infamous cha- Julian, made sole Emperor, attempts to

racter, ii. 520; assembles a council at destroy Christianity, i. 256; his aposta-
Constance, is deposed by it, ibid. 521 cy, to what owing, ib. consummate dex:
and n.

terity, and ruinous projects how pre-
--- Elector of Saxony, his conduct dif vented, ibid. his death and true charac-

fers from his brother Frederic III. iii. 53; ter, 257 and d, e ; his great defects, and
establishes a church in his dominions ignorance of true philosophy, ibid. and
entirely different from the church of fi permits the Jews to attempt the re.
Rome, ibid. settles its doctrine, disci building of their temple, 258.
pline, and government, ibid. his exam --Bishop of Halicarnassus, his doc-
ple followed by many German states, trine of the body of Christ, i. 436; what
ibid. yet religious dissensions break out, names given to his followers, ibid.

Juliana, her extravagant conceits, ii. 417
Jonas, bishop of Orleans, his system of and s.
morality in ix cent. ii.41.

Julianus Pomerius, collects the precepts of
Jordan, his new edition of the Latin Bible, mysticism into a system, i. 364 and o;
an account of, ii. 405.

confutes the Jews, 457 ; his explanatory
Jovinian, opposes the superstitions in iv works, 458.

cent. i. 298; is banished, and severely Julius Africanus, his character and works,
treated in Jerome's treatise against him, i. 212.

---- II. Pope, his infamous character,
Irenæus, Bishop of Lyons, his great cha- iii. 12; miserable state of the church

racter, and use of his works, i. 118 and under him, 13; calls a Lateran council,
P ; attacks the internal enemies of Chris and dies, ibid. whence he assumed his
tianity, ibid.

naine, 142 b.
Irene, poisons her husband Leo IV. Em- - III. Pope, his vile character, ii.

peror, and reigns, i. 520; her alliance 142 d.
with Adrian, Pope, ibid. infamous cha- Junilius, his works, 420 and y.
racter, ibid.

Ivo, Bishop of Chartres, zealous in main-
Irish, converted to Christianity in v cent. taining the rights of the church, ii. 194.

i. 336; called Scots in viii cent. and Justin Martyr, writes an apology for the
eminent for their learning, 513 and m; Christians under Antonius Pius, and
illustrate Christian doctrines by philo thus prevails on the Emperor to stop
sophical principles, ibid. their sophism the persecution, i. 132; publishes ano.
about the Trinity, ibid. the rise of the ther under Aurelius, 133; suffers mar-
Reformation among them, iii. 96, 97, tyrdom, ibid. his great character, 147;
and ne.

exposition on the revelations lost, 152;
Irnerius, if he persuaded the Emperor why unsuccessful in his controversy

Lotharius II. to substitute the Roman with the Jews, 123; his writings against

law instead of all others, ii. 251 and i. the sectaries lost, ibid. moral treatises,
Isbraniki, Roskolsnika, sect in Russia, its 155.

rise in xvii cent. iii. 556 ; excite com* Justinian, Emperor, his edict against Ori-
motions with some of their tenets, ibid. gen, i. 425 ; and against the three chap-
m, n, 557 0; methods taken to con- ters, 426 ; drives the Vandals out of
quer their obstinacy fruitless, ib. treat Africa, and Goths out of Italy, 433 ; his
ed with more humanity under Peter Pandect found in xii cent. at Melfi, ii.

the Great, but their schism not healed, 250.
· ibid.

-- - Lawrence, his character, ii. 558.
Isenburg, church of, embraces Calvinism, Juvenal, Bishop of Ælia, his ambition, i.
iji. 299.

347; assumes the dignity of Patriarch
Isidore of Pelusium, his character, i. 354; of all Palestine, ibid. his power explain-
his epistles, ibid. i, k; commentaries on ed, ibid. and q; and granted to him by
the Scriptures, 359 and d; censures the the Chalcedon council, ibid.

allegorical interpreters, 360.
asuma of Seville, his character and works,

i. 418, 420, 421.

Kabbala, what, i. 82; much taught among
Asychius, Bishop of Jerusalem, his works, the Jews, ibid.
1. 456 and g.

Kanghi, Chinese Emperor, favoured the

Missionaries, iii. 396 and s; great cha- Languages, Oriental, studied in xiii cent.
racter and munificence to the Jesuits, ii. 341; the study of, much encouraged

by Clement V. Pope, in xiv cent. 448 ;
Karit, nation of the Tartars, embrace improvement in xvii cent. iii. 434; ada
Christianity in x cent. ii. 74.

vantageous to the cause of religion,
Keith, George, with others, reduces Qua- ibid.

kerism to a tolerably regular form in Latins, learning encouraged among them
xvii cent. iv. 149, 150; excites disputes by Charlemayne in viii cent. i. 437;
among them, and concerning what, state of philosophy among them in x
152; the debates bro ight before the cent. wretched, ii. 90; complaints of
Parliament, and he is excommunicated, infidelity and atheism among them in
153; embraces and dies in the commu xiii cent. 333, 334 and a; great schism
nion of the church of England, ib. and among them in xiv cent. 463; disputes
Y, 2.

about the worship due to Christ's blood
Kempis, Thomas, his character, ii. 549 and in xv cent, 560; the multiplicity of rites

they had in this cent. and increase, 562;
Kepler, an eminent astronomer in xvii instances by Popes, ibid.
cent. iii. 431.

Latitudinarians, their rise in England in
Knighthood, military orders, their institu. xvii cent, and pacificatory endeavours,
tion in xii cent, and use, ii. 239.

.iv. 103 ; doctrine, and chief leaders,
Knights, Sword-bearers, a military order 109 and d; meet with opposition, ibid.

founded to convert the Livonians, ii. success upon the Restoration of King

Charles II. and since, 110 and e.
Knox, John, his character, iii. 94 and g; Laud, Archbishop, his character, iii. 464

inspired the Scots with an utter abhor- and i; introduces Arminianism into
rence of Popery, even to a total extir. England, iv. 80; mixed character, and
pation of it, 95; this spirit how modifi- arbitrary proceedings, 95 and 1, 96 and
ed in other countries, ibid. k; departed m; is tried, condemned, and behead-
not altogether from the ancient form, ed, 98.
and how, ibid. in fine not. k; founder of Launoy, exposes the tyranny of papal
the church in Scotland, 282

claims in xvii cent. iii. 486.
Knutsen, his impiety, iii. 425; founder of Lausanne, city of, embraces Calvinism,

a sect, which was checked and extirpa- iii. 281.
ted, ibid.

J.aw, Roman, its study happily restored in
Kodde, Vander, three brothers, founders ofxii cent. and whence, ii. 250); opinion

the Collegiants, an account of, iv. 114. about substituting it in the place of all
Kuningsberg, divines of, friends to Calix others, ibid. 251 and i; canon, admitted
tus's pacific plan, iv. 36.

to the same privilege, ibid. civil and
Kunrath, an eminent physician and Para canon, much studied in xiii cent. 346.
celsist in xvi cent. iii. 221.

Leadley, Jane, foundress of the Philadel.

phian society, her strange notions and

followers, iv. 181.
Labaddie, John, his character, iv. 177 and Learning, when first introduced to support

b; singular tenets, 178 and d; his ause the cause of Christianity, i. 150; ad-
tere sanctity and treatises, ibid. 179 vantageous to the Reformation, and one
and e.

great cause of it, iii. 11. See Letters. .
Labaddists, rise of that sect in xvii cent. Lebuin, of England, zealous in preaching

and by whom founded, iv. 177 ; after the Gospel, and where, in viii cent, i.
several migrations on the death of their 480.
founder they fall into oblivion, 178; Leenhof, Fraderic Van, account of his
character of some of the members, ib. book, entitled, Heaven upon Earth,
doctrine and discipline of this sect, ib. whence he is accused of Spinozism, iv.
and d

Lactantius, an excellent writer among the Legion, thundering, account of its mira.
Latins in iv cent. i. 279 and g, h; an cles, i. 127 and n; the certain, distin.
eminent polemic divine, 287.

guished from the doubtful accounts of
Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, his this story, 128

character and works, ii. 194 and w; Leibnitz, his philosophy retards the pro.
commentary on St. Paul's epistles, 198; gress of Arminianism in Germany, iv,
introduces logic into theology, 199; his 144 and ce; some of its principles fa-
candour, a proof of the modest views of

vourable to Calvinism, 145 sub ee; his
the first Schoolmen, ibid. c.

philosophy applied by some to illustrate
Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, his the doctrines of Christianity, but reject.

contested election, and the consequen ed by the English Calvinists, ibid. sub
ces, ii, 352; character and works, 399 not. ee; his great improvements in me.
and d.

taphysics, 173

Leipsic, made an university by Frederic Lessynski, his impiety and fate, iii. 425

the Wise in xv cent. ii.524; the dispute and o.
between Eckins and Carlostadt, on the Letters, flourish under Trajan, i. 136; dis-
freedom and powers of the human will, couraged by succeeding Emperors, ibid.
ii. 35, 36 and notes ; conference held at more specious than solid in ii. cent. 137 ;
in xvi cent. for reconciling the Lutheran their decay, and several reasons for it,
and Reformed churches, iv. 3; commo 204; dispute concerning their utility in
tions at, and whence, 39

ii.cent. 206 ; their state in iv cent. 266 ;
Leo, 1. the Great, vigorous asserter of the encouraged by Constantine, and suca

power of the Roman See, i. 351; is ceeding Emperors, 267; their excel-
strenuously opposed, and particularly lence acknowledged in v cent. i. 342;
by the Africans, ibid. his character, 355 and promoted by the foundation of
and o; his legates preside at the coun many public schools, ibid. found only
cil of Chalcedon, 385 ; his famons epis. among the monks and bishops in vi
tle to Flavianus received as a rule of cent. and that pernicious to piety, 406
faith, ibid.

and d; their state in vii cent. 449; de-
- the 'Isaurian, his contest with the cline among the Greeks in visi cent.
Pope, i. 501, 502; augments the power 486 ; they revive among the Latins un-
of the See of Constantinople, ibid. his der Charlemagne, 487; controversies
laudable zeal against image worship, with the Latins cause them to flourish
516 ; issues an edict against it, and for among the Greeks in ix cent. ii. 10; im-
removing images out of the churches, pediments to their progress in the West,
with the fatal consequences, and what, 13; encouraged in Greece by
whence, 517; the nature and extent Constantine Porphyrogeneta, 87; their
of this edict examined, ibid. r; is ex state among the Saracens, 88 ; their
communicated, ibid. degrades Germanus deplorable fate among the Latins in x
for his attachment to image worship, cent. ibid. restored by Pope Sylvester
and melancholy effects of this severity, II. 91; the entire decay of the sciences

how prevented among the Greeks in xi
Leo IV. Emperor, endeavours to suppress cent. 136; and their principal writers,

the practice of image worship, i. 520; ibid. revive in the West; ibid. schools
is poisoned by his wife Irene, ibid. his opened in several places for cultivating
death advantageous to the worship of them, and what sciences are here
images, ibid.

taught, 138, 139; Dialectics, viz. Le-
the Wise, an account of, ii. 11.

gic and metaphysics, in the highest re-
- VI. Emperor, writes against the Sara pute, 139, 140, principal writers among
cens, ii. 43.

the Greeks, 193; and Latins in this
--- the philosopher, promotes learning cent. 193, 194; promoted among the
among the Greeks in x cent. ii. 86; his Greeks in xii cent. with the cause, ii.
fourth marriage occasions violent dis 246 ; studied among the Latins with
putes in the Greek churches, 111.

the greatest assiduity, 247; their great
- V. Pope, dethroned and imprisoned, progress in the West in xiii cent. 337;
ii. 94.

many learned men among the Greeks
-- IX. Pope, aims at universal domi. in xiv cent. 447 ; their state among the
nion, ii. 146 ; grants to the Normans Latins, 448 ; flourish under the Latins
their conquered and usurped countries, in xv cent. 511; and encouraged by
ibid. his character, 148 ; is sainted, ibid. several princes, 'ibid. and 512; their
behaviour to the Normans considered, decline in the East, under the dominion
149; insolence to Cerularius, 304; the of the Turks, ibid. what branches of
impudence of his legates on this occasion, them were cultivated in Italy, 513;

their sad state in xvi cent. to what ow-
- X. Pope, his bad character, iii. 14; ing, iii. 20; the public advantages of

obtains from Francis I. of France, a their restoration to Christianity, 120 ;
complete abrogation of the Pragmatic yet denied by some, ibid.
Sanction, ibid. and g; and to impose the Leutard, troubles excited by him in a cent.
Concordat upon his subjects, ibid. and ii. 116; his fate and disciples, ib.
h; his famous edict for granting indul. Leutheric, archbishop of Sens, his notio2
gences, with their extent, 26, 31 ; ex that none but good men receive the
communicates Luther, and is censured, body of Christ, ii. 207.
40 and n; his death, 47.

Lewis, Emperor, son of Charlemagne,
Leonardi, embraces the errors of Servetus, falsely called the Meek, his character,
iii. 359.

ii. 3 ; a patron of the arts and sciences,
Leontius, of Byzantium, his works, i. 416, 12; his forged donation to the See of

Rome, 19 and p; edict in behalf of the
of Neapolis, writes against the Pope's election, spurious, ibid. and q;
Jews in vi cent. i. 424.

his zeal in suppressing the vices of the

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