« הקודםהמשך »
tempts against it, 463; private enemies structing the Abyssinians, by Abbot
of Christianity here in xviii. cent. with Gregory, who is shipwrecked, iii. 561;
some mistakes rectified, iv. 187, 188 afterward by Wansleb, and how disap-
pointed, ibid. and z.
English, send missionaries into America Essenes, a Jewish sect, an account of them,
in xvi cent. iii. 119; obstinately reject i. 45, 46, 47.
the plan of Geneva, 306; dissensions Ethelbert, king of the Anglo-Saxons, con-
and two parties thereupon, ibid, this verted to Christianity in vi cent. i. 398;
schism how prevented from extending his conversion the cause of many others
to the Reformed abroad, and maxim being converted, ibid.
laid down for this purpose, 307 and b;
a monkish historian in x cent.
their missions in America, 415; parti ii. 90.
cularly Independents and Puritans, 416. Etherianus, Hugo, a vehement opposer of
Ennodius, Bishop of Ticinum, his adula the Greeks in xii cent. ii. 298.
tory apology for Symmachus the Ro- Ethiopians. See Abassines and Abys-
man Pontiff in vi cent. and its conse sinians.
quences, i. 413 and c, and 417; his Evagrius, an account of his Ecclesiastica!
history, i. 416.
Eon, a fanatic in xii cent. ii. 320; his fran- Evangelists, to whom this title is due, i.
tic notion of being the future judge of 84.
mankind, 321; a reflection on the sen- Eucharist, controversy in ix cent. con-
tence passed on him, ibid.
cerning Christ's presence, i. 49; no
Ephesus, third general council, condemns fixed opinion concerning this doctrine
Nestorius, i. 379; the doctrine con. in the Latin churches, 51; the cause of
cerning Christ established at this coun an imaginary heresy called Stercoran-
cil commonly received among Chris ism, ibid. how explained in x cent. 106,
tians, ibid. what judgment impartially 107 and t; revived in xi cent. 208; the
must be made concerning this contro nature and manner of Christ's presence
versy, ibid. 380 and p, q.
not determined by the Romish church,
council there, why called the ibid. sub fin. not. doctrine of transub-
assembly of robbers, i. 385 ; the acts of stantiation introduced in xiii cent. ii.
this council annulled by a council at 403; rites instituted in relation to it,
416; the bread in it deified, according
Ephraim, the Syrian, his character, i. 278 to the expression of the Romanists,
ibid. the opus operatum in it, what, iii.
Epictetus, an ornament to the Stoics, i. 171 and b; frequent celebration of it,
a subject of debate in the Romish
Epicureans, their principal doctrines church, ibid.
'what, i. 39 and d; why held in the Eucherius, Bishop of Lyons, a good moral
greatest esteem, 137.
writer in v cent. i. 355.
Epiphanius, his character and works, i. Euchites. See Massalians.
277 and a.
Eugenius III. Pope, his good character,
Episcopacy, acquires strength from the and the troubles he underwent, ii. 263.
councils, i. 146 ; triumphs in England
IV. Pope, calls the council of
under James I. iv. 92, 93 and f; intro Basil, ii. 533; dislikes their proceed-
duced into Scotland by Archbishop ings, and attempts in vain to dissolve it,
Abbot's counsels, ibid.
535, assembles a council at Ferrara,
Episcopius, Simon, defends the Arminians ibid. and removes it to Florence, ibid.
at the Synod of Dort, and his great is deposed by the council of Basil,
character, iv. 135; the first Professor ibid.
of divinity among the Arminians, 437; Eugyppius, a writer of the lives of the
forms their doctrine into a regular sys saints, i. 423.
tem, 439 and 2.
Eulogius, of Antioch, a polemic writer in
Erasmus, of Rotterdam, attacks the super vi cent. i. 416.
stitions of the clergy and court of Rome Eusebius,
in his writings, iii. 11; character of his against Christianity in iv cent. i. 260.
Latin New Testament and Paraphrase,
Bishop of Cæsarea, his charac-
ter, i. 276 ; if an Arian, ibid. and s;
Eremites, Hermits, their character, i. 292 writes an apology for Origen, 299.
Eustathian troubles, i. 296; the leader of
Ernest, Justinian, his plan for propagating this sect chargeable with fanatacism,
the gospel abroad, how prevented, iii. ibid.
Eustathius, Bishop of Antioch, his writings
-of Hesse, changes his religion, and lost, i. 278.
a reflection thereon, iii. 476 and n.
Bishop of Thessalonica, his
of Saxe Gotha, his design of in commentaries on Homer, ii. 246, 281.
Eustratius, his work and character, ii. 281. Felix, Bishop of Urgella, his heretical doc-
Eutyches, his sentiments concerning trine of Christ, i. 513 and k, and 626 ;
Christ, and supposed tenets, i. 383, 384 is condemned in several councils, ibid.
and a; is excommunicated, and de- retracts his errors, and the sincerity of
posed by Flavianus on account of his his recantation examined, ibid. his fol-
principles, 384; appeals to a general lowers called Adoptians, ibid.
council, and is acquitted in a council V. Duke of Savoy, elected Antipope
at Ephesus by Dioscorus, ibid.
by the council of Basil, ii. 635 ; resigns,
Eutychian sect, its rise in v cent. i. 383; 538.
doctrine opposite to Nestorianism, but Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambray, defends
equally prejudicial to Christianity, ibid. Madam Guyon against Bossuet, iii. 545;
its state in vicent. 434.
adopts several of her tenets in a book
Eutychius, Bishop of Alexandria, his zeal which he published, ibid. and q; and
for advancing learning, ii. 88; his cha- which is afterward condenined at the
racter and works, 104 and l.
instigation of Bossuet, with Fenelon's
Exarchs, the nature of their office, i. 271. conduct hereupon, 545, 546 and r; his
Excommunication, necessary in the infan- singular sentiments of the public reli-
cy of the Christian church, i. 102; irre- gion of his country, iv. 220.
versible after the second exclusion, ibid. Ferrara, council of, held by Eugenius IV.
the nature and extent of it in viii cent. in xv cent. ii. 535; removed to Flo-
i. 495 and p; warm contest about it in rence, ibid. endeavours to reconcile the
xvi cent. by whom excited, and the di- Greeks and Latins, 636.
.visions it produced, iii. 335, 336. Festivals, the increase of, in iv cent. with
the cause, i. 304, 305; abuse of them,
305; their number in vi cent, i. 430 ;
Fabricius, John Lewis, opposes the endea- seem to be instituted after a Pagan mo-
vours of Lubieniecius to settle the So- del, ibid. one instituted in remembrance
cinians in the Palatinate, iv. 171; his of all departed souls in x cent. at the
candid sentiments relative to the impor- command of Odilo, Abbot of Clugni,
tance of the controversy between the ii. 113.
Lutherans and Roman Catholics, and Ficinus, Marsilius, an ornament to the
controversy occasioned by them, 202. Platonics in xv cent. ii. 550 ; attempts
Facundus, his works, i. 417.
an union between the · Mystics and
Fanatics, many infect the Greeks in xii Schoolmen, ibid. his polemic work, ibid.
cent. ii. 304; disputes between some Fifth monarchy men, their rise, character,
and Luther in xvi cent. iii. 230, 231 ; and notions in xvii cent. iv. 106.
their leaders, ibid, excite tumults, ibid. Finlanders, converted to Christianity, and
and d; embrace the communion of the by what means, in xii cent. ii. 229; the
severity of the founder of their church,
Parel, his works, iii. 319.
and his unhappy fate, ibid.
Farnovians, a sect of Socinians in xvi cent. Firmin, propagates the gospel in viii cent.
and his sufferings on that account, i
Farnovius, Farnesius, founder of the Far-
480 and f.
novian sect, iii. 382 ; his tenets and Fisher, Samuel, assists Fox in reducing
eminent disciples, ibid. separates from Quakerism to a kind of regular forin,
the Unitarians, ibid.
and his character, iv. 149, 154.
Fasting, when introduced into the Chris- Flacius, Matthias, his Centuriæ Magde-
tian church, i. 109; considered as a se- burgenses, iii. 218; Glossary and key to
curity against the power of Dæmons, the Scriptures, 224; disputes with Me-
229; the manner of observing this cus- lancthon, 240; defends the doctrine of
tom in iv cent. 305.
Luther, and excites divisions in the
Fathers, Apostolic, their general charac- church, 243; his contest with Strige-
ter, i. 97; the merit of their moral lius, and some particulars of it, 244, 245;
writings examined, 165; remarkable consequences of his imprudence and ob-
veneration paid to them, and to all theo- stinacy, 246.
logical writers of the first six centuries, Flagellants, rise and account of this absurd
sect in xiii cent. ii. 403, 404 and r; sup-
Faulkan, Constantine, minister to the king pressed, ibid. but revive in the following
of Siam, his character, iii. 394; invites cent. 503; their impious tenets, ibid. a
the French there secretly, ibid. is put to new sect of them in xy cent. 568; many
death with the king his master, iii. 395 suffer from the inquisition, ibid. and o;
the sum of their doctrine, ibid. o.
Felix II. Bishop of Rome, deposes and ex- Flavianus, Bishop of Constantinople, beat
communicates Acacius, Bishop of Con- to death in the second counoil of Ephe-
stantinople, i. 389; articles alleged in sus,
i. 384 and b, c.
defence of this proceeding, and the true Flemingians, a sect of Anabaptists in xvi
reasons, ibid. and 399.,
cent. ü. 337 ; maintain Menno's doo
trine relative to the incarnation, 343 and m; impiously assert their founder
and d; the refined Anabaptists so call- to be a second Christ in xiv cent. 470;
ed, iv. 163.
deliberations for reuniting the spirituals
Florence, council at, summoned by Eu- to the brethren of the community, or
genius IV. ii. 535; attempts to reunite less rigid Franciscans, by Clement V.
the Greek and Latin Churches, and frau. 472; their quarrel with John XXII.
dulent practices at it, ii. 537 and k; ter- Pope, 478, 479; their invectives against
minates these quarrels only for a short papalauthority, and patronised by Lew-
is of Bavaria against the pope, 479,
Florinians, a sect in ii cent. their founder 480; peace concluded between them
and tenets, i. 186 and 2.
and the Pope, 481; contemn the Fra.
Flurus, a poet in ix cent. ii. 14; as also a tricelli and Tertiaries, who reject the
authority of the Pope, itid. division of
Fludd, Robert, defends the philosophy of this order into the Conventual and the
Paracelsus, iii. 221 and t, iii. 437, and g; Brethren of the Observation, 483; re-
attacked and refuted by Gassendi, 439. formations among them in xvi cent. iii.
Forbes, William, his pacific counsels and 147.
character, iii. 471, 472 and a.
Franks, their kingdom founded in Gaul in
Forer, einployed to write against the Pro- v cent. i. 334, 335; conversion, ibid.
testants and contossion of Augsburg in their empire in Greece in xiii cent, and
xvii cent. jjj. 454 and o.
continuance, ii. 325.
Forlunatus, his character, i. 418.
Europeans, so called by the In-
For, George, his strange behaviour and dians, iii. 391 and l.
exhortation, when called before the Fratricelli, their origin in xiii cent. ii. 389,
civil magistrate, whence his followers 390 and n; are an order of the Fran-
were called quakers; iv. 145; founder ciscans, separated from the grand com-
of that sect, and character, 146 and i. munity of their order, rigorously ob-
See Quakers, 145.
serve their founder's laws, declaim
France, the flourishing state of learning against the corruption of the Romish
there in xi cent. ii. 136, 137; spiritual church, and her pontiffs, and foretell a
libertines get footing there in xvi cent. Reformation, ibid. how they differed
from the Spiritualsof the order, 90 0;
Francfort, a council assembled by Charle- their esteem for Celestine V. and why,
magne in visi cent. i. 520 ; the decrees
ibid. deny the legality of the elections
of the second Nicene council rejected, of Boniface VIII. and other successors
521; the worship of images unanimous. who oppose them, ibid. accounts of
ly condemned, ibid. the proceedings of them confused and imperfect, ibid. p;
this council sufficient to prove the law- enormities among them in xiv cent.
fulness of dissenting from the Pope at 471; their abolition ordered by Pope
that time, who is charged with error, John XXII. 473; many of them burned
for opposing the Pope's orders, 475 and
Francis, founder of the Franciscans, his w; persecuted again in xv cent. 544
extraordinary change of life and man- and a; they in return put some inqui-
ners, ii. 372; his notions of the essence sitors to death, ibid.
of religion, and character, ibid. 373 and Freculph, a historian in ix cent. ii. 14,31.
w; his stigmas what, and the credit Fredegarius, a historian in vii cent. i. 457.
given to them by the Popes, 470 and i; Frederic I. Barbarossa, Emperor, his reso-
Book of Conformities with Jesus Christ, lution to support the dignity of the
471 and k.
Roman empire, and restrain the autho-
I. King of France, abrogates, in rity of the church, ii. 264; rejects the
xvi cent. the Pragmatic Sanction, and insolent order of Pope Adrian IV. ibid.
institutes the Concordate, iii. 14 and enacts a law to prevent transferring fiefs
without the consent of their superior
Franciscans, an order of Friars, their rise lords, ibid. and n; supports the election
in xiii cent. ii. 372; why called Friars of Callixtus III. in opposition to Alexan-
minors, 373 and ug w; held in great es- der III. 267, 268; concludes a treaty
teem by the Popes, and their services with Alexander, ibid. the servile sub-
to the Popes, 373, 374 and x,y; divi- mission he is said to have paid this
sions early among them, and highly pre- haughty prelate doubted, 267 and r.
judicial to the papal power, 378; intes-
JI. his delay in an expedition
tine quarrels, and how occasioned, ib. against Palestine in xiii cent. ii. 327;
but mitigated, 379; spiritual, their in- is excommunicated, and the reason,
(rease, and new troubles excited, 384; and k; concludes a truce with the Sul-
the miseries the spiritual undergo, and tan of Egypt, and takes possession of
their opposition to the church of Rome, Jerusalem, 328, 329; is crowned king,
and accounts of them imperfect, 308 ibid. charged with impiety, but the evi-
dence not sufficient, 334; zealous in by Bernier, 442 m; has not many
promoting literature, 337; founder of followers, yet the few he had very emi-
the academy at Naples, ibid. encoura nent, and particularly in England, ibid.
ges the study of Aristotle, and how, 342 mathematical sect, its progress, 445
446 ; favourably received in Britain by
Frederic, the Wise, elector of Saxony, es Boyle, Sir Isaac Newton, and others
pouses the cause of Luther in opposi-
446 and s.
tion to the order of Pope Leo X. iii. 30. Gaul, by whom conrerted, and churche
III. elector Palatine, patronizes
when established there, i. 125 and h.
the Calviniste in Germany, iii. 279, 280;
Narbonne, rise of the inquisitio..
obliges his subjects to embrace their there in xiii cent, ii. 421 and 2.
tenets, ib. and y; his son restores Lui Gauls, learning among them, i. 83; the
Gospel preached among them with great
Duke of Holstein, his clemency success, by Martin, Bishop of Tours, in
to the exiled Arminians in xvíi vent. who ir cent. i. 263.
build the town called Frederickstadt, Gebbard, Archbishop of Cologne, disco-
and form a colony there, iv. 138.
vors a propensity to Lutheranism, iii.
Frieslanders, a sect of Anabaptists, account 215; marries, is obliged to resign his
of, iv. 166.
dignity, and to fly his country, ibid. and k.
Fronto's wretched attempts against ChrisGeneva, mother of the Reformed church-
tianity in ii cent. i. 135.
es, iii. 275; academy founded at, by
Frumentius, the success of his ministry Calvin, in xvi cent. ibid. consistory es-
among the Abassines in iv cent. i. 262; tablished at, 277; French Protestants
is consecrated their first Bishop, ibid. enter into its communion, 281 ; acknow-
Fulbert, Bishop of Chartres, his character, ledged as a sister church to England
under Edward VI. 283; form of eccle-
Fulgentius, attacks the Pelagians and Ari siastical government, 306 and :; which
ans with great warmth in vi cent. i. is rejected by the English under Queen
his treatise on fasting, 423.
Elizabeth, ibid. lustre and decline of its
academy, iv.77 and b.
Gennadius, writes against the Latins in xv
*Gal, St. propagates the gospel in vii cent. cent. and his good character, ii. 516 and n.
among the Suevi and Helvetii, i. 411. Gentilis, Valentine, his heresy, iii. 359,
Galanus, attempts to nite the Greek and suffers death at Berne, ibid.
Romish churches, in xvii cent. iii. 552, Gentilli, council at, in viii cent. about the
553 ; his work for that purpose, 533 sub derivation of the Holy Ghost, i. 522.
fin, not. d.:
George the Cyprian, a polemic writer in
Galenists, a sect of the Waterlandians, xii cent. ii. 399.
their rise and history in xvii cent. iv. David, founder of the Davidists in
xvi cent. iii. 350; his character and
Galerius, Maximin, deposes Diocletian, impious tenets, ibid. his body burned at
and assumes the empire of the East, i. the instigation of his son-in-law, by the
248; the sufferings of the Christians un. council of Basil, ibid. and r.
der him, ibid. having persecuted the Georgians, in Asia, converted to Chris-
Christians in the most horrid manner, tianity by a captive, i. 262; miserable
orders the persecution to be stopped, state after the invasion of the Turks, iii.
.189; small remains of religion among
Galilei, the astronomer,
his fame, iii. 431; them, ibid.
imprisoned for adopting the sentiments Gerhard's Introduction to Joachim's Ever-
of Copernicus, 506.
lasting Gospel condemned, ii. 382 ; aca
Gallic Pontiffs, diminution of Papal pow. counts of it erroncous, ibid. w; impious
er under them, ii. 456; their schemes to
doctrine, 333; throws an cdium' on the
acquire wealth, 457.
Mendicants, and is publicly burnt, ibid.
Gallienus, state of the Christians under
him, i. 200.
a ringleader of the Fanatics of
Gallus, persecution under him, i. 119. Munster, iii. 329.
Gamaliel, Patriarch of the Jews, hiscruelty
a judicious expositor of Scrip-
to the Christians in v cent. i. 341.
ture in xvii cent. iv, 26; his moral wri-
Gassendi, an eminent philosopher in xvii tings, 29.
cent. iii. 431, his philosophy and cha- Germans, their conversion begun in ii
racter 438 ; attacks Aristotle and his cent. i. 125 and f; wholly converted in
followers, ibid. and i; alsó Fludd and viii cent. by Wiofrid Bonifuce, 478,479 ;
the Rosecrucians, 439; his wise method what judgment to be formed of their
of philosophical investigation, ibid. why apostles, 479, 480.
the chief adversary of Des Cartes, 441;
a sect of Analaptists in xvirent,
acearate abridgment of his philosnphy so calleil, ii. 337.
Germanus, Bishop of Constantinople, a inhumanly treated, 53; his advocates,
zealous advocate for image worship, i. ibid. tenets and how represented by his
606; is degraded on this account by advocates, and his opponents, 54 and
the Emperor Leo the Isaurian, 518. p; ibid. 55 and q, r; the judgment to
Germany, many churches planted here in be formed of this controversy, 54; dis-
iii cent. i. 195 and l.
pute with Hincmar about the Hyınn
Gerson, John, his great character, iii. 429; Trina Deitas, 55.
a zealous opposer of papal despotism, Godfrey, Duke of Lorraine, engages in the
and the design of his writings to check first Crusade in xi cent. ii. 125; his
superstition, ibid. and o; labours to re great character, ibid. and r, s; takes
form the schoolmen in xv cent. ii. 657 Jerusalem, 126; is saluted with the ti-
tle of king of Jerusalem, but declines
Geyer, a Lutheran expositor of Scripture accepting it, and why, ibid. and x.
in xvii cent. iv. 24.
Godofred, the Norman,
Ghost, Holy, its derivation, controversy Friesland embraces Christianity, in ix
concerning in viii cent. i. 521; the ori cent. ii. 9.
gin of this dispute uncertain, 522 and b; Gomar, Francis, opposes Arminius in his
debated in a council at Aix la Chapelle schism, iv. 78; triumphs over him at
and at Rome in the following cent. ii. the synod of Dort, yet gains no ground,
and the measures taken by the ibid. his doctrine despised in England
Latin churches on this account, ibid.
under James I. 93 and h; controversy
and h, i.
with Arminius, whence it began, and by
Gilbert, Bishop of London, his character whom treated, 128 and c.
as a commentator, ii. 289; surnamed Gonesius, introduces the heresy of Serve-
The Universal, for his extensive erudi tus into Poland, iii. 359 and k.
Gorcomius, Henry, a scholastic writer in
Gildas, a writer in vi cent. his character, xv cent. ii. 450.
Goths, their conversion to Christianity, i.
Girardin, Dr. Patrick Piers de, his remark 195, 263; their invasion of the Roman
able discourse in the Sorbonne, relative 'empire, 331; cruelty to the Christians
to the project of union between the in Gaul, 339.
English and Gallican churches, iv. 233; Grace, various controversies concerning,
writes to Archbishop Wake on this ac in v cent. i. 396; Augustin's opinions
count, and the answer he receives, ¡bid. concerning it, in explaining which his
is highly pleased with the answer, al disciples are not agreed, ibid. and k;
though written with a truly Protestant disputes about it in ix cent. and its un-
spirit, 234; the correspondence is di happy consequences, ii. 52, 53; a sub-
vulged, he is reprimanded by the Ablé ject of controversy, in xvi cent. iii.
du Bois, and threatened with being sent · 174; contests about it in xvii cent. and
to the Bastile, unless he delivers up all hence the terms Sublapsarians and Su-
the letters that passed on this occasion, pralapsarians, iv. 78.
244, 245; continues a faint correspon- Grandmontains, an order of monks, their
dence with Wake after Du Pin's death, rise in xi cent. ii. 187, 189 and f.
but without effect, 246.
Granianus's, remonstrance to the Emperor
Glassius, his sacred philology, iv. 26 ; Adrian in favour of the Christians suc-
great character, 37 and k.
cessful, and by what means, i. 131.
Glycas, a good historian in xii cent. ii. Gras, Louisa le, founds the Virgins of
Love, a female order in xviï cent. iii.
Gnostics, whence their name, i. 111; pre 503.
vaided in the apostolic age, and flourish- Gratian, a Monk, composes an epitome of
ed under the Emperor Adrian, ibid. the canon law, ii. 261.
and s; who comprehended under that Greece, the state of learning there in i
'name, ibid. sprung from the oriental cent. i. 82; Romish missions, iii. 552.
philosophy, ibid. the cause of many Greek and Latin churches, schism between
dangerous errors concerning the Scrip them unhappily revived in xi cent. ii.
turer, 112; their impious opinions about 202 ; its progress, 203; many attempts
Christ, and moral doctrines, 113; base for a reconciliation in xiii cent. ineffec-
methods used to support their tenets, tual, 413, 414.
114; dissension among them, whence,
language, the study of it much
115; their principles revived and adopt frequented in xiii cent. ii. 341.
ed in iv cent. 326.
Greeks, two Emperors among them in xiii
Godeschalc, a monk of Orbais in ix cent, cent. ii. 325; their deplorable state af-
ii. 31; begins a controversy concern ter the invasion of the Turks, iii. 186,
ing predestination and grace, 52; his 187.
doctrine violently opposed by Rabanus Gregory, Thaumaturgus, his works and
Maurus, ihil. is twice condcmned, auri miracles, i. 213.