« הקודםהמשך »
bid. and I ; story of the cross seen by Constaniius, declared sole Emperor on the
him in the air, ibid. and attended with death of his brothers, i. 255; his death
several difficulties, and hypotheses and successor, ibid.
about it, 253 and a; his colleague Lici -------- Chlorus, his mild government
nius persecutes the Christians, ibid. and in Gaul, i. 247; Christians in the West
b; but is defeated and strangled, 254; enjoy peace under him, 248; is succeed-
his efforts against Paganism, and zeal ed upon his death, by Constantine the
for Christianity, ibid. dies, and is suc.. Great, his son, ibid.
ceeded by his three sons, who massacre Consubstantiation, when introduced in-
all their relations but two, ibid. 255 and stead of Transubstantiation, and by
c; models ecclesiastical government whom, ii. 415.
according to the civil, 270; divides it Controversial writers,employed in explains
into external and internal, 271; how he ing the terms of salvation and accept-
and his successors frequently called ance in i cent. i. 103; their merit and
councils, &c. ibid. raised in the Bishop demerit in ii cent. 154; called Econo-
of Byzantium a rival to Rome, 274; mical, and whence, 221 ; suppositious
presides at and determines an ecclesias and spurious writings frequent among
tical cause against the Donatists, 310. them, ibid. scurrility and dialectic much
Constantine II. what dominions were allot. used by them in iv. cent. 286; and the
ted to him, i. 255; engages in a war with chief at this time, 287; very considera-
his brother Constans, and is slain.
ble in v cent. 361; the rules of the an-
---Capronymus, his zeal against cient Sophists esteemed by them as the
image worship, i. 501, 519 ; calls a best method of confuting error, 362;
council, which condemns this practice their works destitute of probity, mode-
of superstition, ibid. the validity of this ration, and prudence, in vi cent. 424;
council denied by the Roman Catholics, how far they may be considered as
ibid, u; the monks, who opposed the worthy of an attentive perusal in vii
decree of this council, chastised by him, cent. 462 ; few engaged in essential
points of religion in viji cent. but confi-
- Porphyrogeneta, his zeal for ned to the disputes about image wore
reviving learning among the Greeks in ship, 515, 516; prevented in ix cent. by
* cent. ii. 87; encourages literature by intestine divisions from oppoging the
his example and munificence, ib, and e; common enemies of their faith, ii. 43;
his laudable design how frustrated, ibid. scholastic method of disputing introdu-
calls an assembly of the clergy, in which ced among them in si cent. 202; and
fourth marriages are prohibited, 112. flourishes in xii cent. 297; more nume-
Constantinople, the first council at, as rous than respectable in siïi cent. 412;
sembled by Theodosius the Younger, i. few worthy of notice in xiv cent. 493;
326; which condemns the Macedonian many eminent among them in xv cent.
Heresy, and confirms and improves the 559.
doctrine of the Nicene council relative Controversies, private, in xyi cent. iv.55,
to the Trinity, ibid. another summoned 56 ; and x.
by Justinian, i.427; the three chapters Controversy, concerning the Millennium,
condemned here, its authority admitted i. 222; the baptism of Heretics, 223,
by the pontiffs of Rome, but rejected by Meletian, 295; Ærian, 297; between
the African Bishops, 428; decree passed Jerome and Vigilantius, 366, 367; con-
at it respecting the suffering of one cerning the three chapters,wha,tand how
upon the cross, ibid. the third council terminated, 425, 426; relative to image
at, called here by Constantine Capro worship, with its origin and progress in
nymus, condemns the practice of image viii cent. 516, 521; about the deriva-
worship, but its decision is found insuf tion of the Holy Ghost, 521, ii. 48; con
ficient to stop the progress of this super cerning images, among the Greeks, 44;
stition, 519; the city taken in xv cent. and among the Latins in ix cent. 46;
and the great decline of Christianity in the Eucharist, began by Pascasius Rada
the East, ii. 509.
bert, 49; and predestination and grace,
Constantinonle, Patriarch of, his jurisdic- 52; the words Trina Deitas, 55; the
tion in iv.cent. i. 271; is placed next to birth of Christ, ibid. universal ideas bee
the Bishop of Rome, and consequences gun in x cent. 90; the Eucharist, and
of this promotion, ibid. 275 ; contends predestination, and grace, subsides, and
with the Pope for supremacy in v cent. the reason, 106; fourth marriages, with
346; his power augmented by Leo in the divisions occasioned by it in the
vii cent. 502; disputes about pre-emi Greek churches, but terminated by Con-
nence in ix cent. ii. 57; by whom elect- stantine Porphyrogeneta, 111, 112 ;
ed in modern times, iii. 183; confirmed about the use of unleavened bread in
in his office by the Emperor of the xicent. 204; relative to Martial, Bishop
Turks, ibid. his extensive power and of Limoges, if worthy of an apostleship,
revenues, whence, 183, 184 and so 214; to the God of Mahomet, 300; to
the immaculate conception of the Vir- Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, an.
gin Mary, 302 and h; concerning the account of, iii. 319..
worship of Christ's blood, 561; the Craulwauld, Valentine, assists Scwenfeldt.
presence of Christ's body and blood, against Luther, ii. 233.
in the sacrament, between the Reform- Crellius, minister at the Saxon court, pro-
ers in xvi cent, iii. 49,50; the use of tects the Crypto-Calvinists, in xvi cent.
reason in religion, in xvii cent. iv.120; iii. 258; suffers death, 259 and m.
and reducible to two questions, ibid. by ----, Samuel, professor of Theology,
whom this was opposed, and how miti- among the Socinians, differs from Soci-
nus, and whence called the Artemonite,
Controversy, adiaphoristic, or about mat. iv. 173 u; dies at Amsterdam, iv. 210.
ters indifferent, between Melancthon, Crescens, his virulent efforts against Chris-
and Flacius xvi cent. iii. 240 and s; tianity, and particularly against Justin
the two questions discussed gave rise Martyr, i. 135.
to the dispute about the necessity of Cromwell, state of the church under him,
good works, 241 and notes.
in xvii cent. iv. 105; attached to no
------------- synergistical, iii. 242 and a; particular sect, 106; favours the inde.
principal champions in it, 243.
pendents in order to balance the Pres--
Conventual, brethren, who, ij. 483.
byterians, ibid. and t; tolerates all
Conversions, in iv cent. the causes of, con s ects but episcopalians, ibid. resolves at
sidered, i. 264 ; in v cent. to what first to suppress the Quakers, but after-
owing, i. 337; in ix cent. the nature ward is obliged to desist, 149...
of, the views, ii. 6; traces of idolatry Cross, if one of the Trinity can be said to
among the converted, accounted for, have suffered on it, debated, i. 428;
how made a proof of innocence in ix
Conversion of Jews, and Moors in Spain, in cent. ji. 24 and i.
xv cent. by force, ii. 507.
Crown and rosary of the Virgin, an insti-
Copiate, their office in the church, i. 211 tution in x cent. ii. 114; and what,
and t, in fine.
Copts, in Africa, their aversion to the Crump, Henry, attacks the mendicants in
church of Rome, in svii cent. iii. 560. xiv cent. ii. 467.
Corbinian, a zealous missionary among the Crusades, holy wars. See War, holy, ii,
Germans, in vii cent: i. 480.
Cordt, Christian Bartholomew de, a pa- Cuiper, Francis, opposes Bredenberg's
tron of Bourignon's doctrine, and ac sentiments in favour of Spinoza's doc-
count of, iv. 180.
trine, and controversy thereupon, iv.
Cornelius, Anthony, one of the founders 176; his writings, and an account of,
of the collegiants, ' an account of, iv. ibid. sub not. s.
Cusa, Nicholas de, his works, iii. 430 and
Corrupticolæ, who, i. 436 : their opinions, 9; labours to reform the schoolmen in
concerning Christ's body, 437.
xv cent. 441.
Cortesius, Paulus, his Commentary on Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, opposes the
Proverbs, ii. 558.
readmission of the lapsed in the perse-
Cosmus, bishop of Jerusalem, his charac cution under Decius, and gains his
ter, i. 506
point, i. 198; suffers martyrdom under
Council, general, one very much desired, Valerian, 199; a character of his works,
in xvi cent. iii. 77; why retarded by 213; opposes the imperious measures of
Pope Clement VII. ibid. and i; who Stephen Bishop of Rome, 224.
eludes his promise, and dies, ibid. and Cyriac, of Ancona, introduces a taste for
k; his successor, Paul, lII. inclined to coins in xv cent. ii.513.
call one, proposes to assemble it at Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, his character
Mantua, and why protested against by and works, i. 277; admired for his cate-
the Protestants, who draw up the arti- chetical discourses, 285.
cles of Smalcald, 78 and l, m.
---, Bishop of Alexandria, his charac.
Councils, if any in i cent. t. 92 ; whether ter, i. 354 g; Commentaries on the
that of Jerusalem was one, ibid. and m; Scriptures, 359 and d ; anathematizes
'their origin among the Greeks, i 146 ; Nestorius twelve times, 378; presides
soon become universal, ibid. increase at the council of Ephesus, 379; con-
the power of the bishops, ibid.
demns Nestorius, ibid. how blamable
we were to come.com decumenical, when first esta in the Nestorian controversy, 380 and
blished, i. 269; what so called, ibid. p; anathematized at Ephesus by John
their power diminished by Alexander of Antioch, 381.
III. Pope, ï. 270.
--, Patriarch of Constantinople, his cha.
Courayer, Dr. remarkable anecdote con racter, iii. 553; favourable to Rome in
cerning him, and good character, iv. xvii cent. ibid, and,f; is put to death,
Demiurge, of the Eastern philosophers
Damascenus, John, his concise and com-
prehensive view of Aristotle's doctrines, Denmark, converted to Christianity in ix
1.486 ; is followed by many in the study cent. ii.3; and confirmed in it in x cent.
of this philosophy, 487; his character, 78; the rise and progress of the Refor-
506; Commentary on St. Paul's Epis- mation in xvi cent. iii. 62, 64.
tles, 509; systematic works, 514; pole. Derusi, or Drusi, an account of, in xii.
mic writings, 515.
cent. ii. 333 .
Damianists, a sect in vi cent. i. 438 ; their Des Cartes. See Cartes, iii. 431, &c.
founder Damian, Bishop of Alexandria, Desiderius, Bishop of Cahors, his epistles,
ibid. doctrine of the Trinity, ibid. i. 456.
Damien, Petrus, his character, ii. 201; D’Espence, an eminent expositorin xv
moral, 104; and controversial works, cent. iii. 160.
Devay, Matthias, with others, introduces
Damyla, Nilus, a zealous advocate for the the doctrine of the Swiss churches into
Greeks against the Latins in xiv cent. Hungary and Transylvania, iii. 298.
Deurhoff, William, accused of a propensity
Dancers, a sect in siv cent. ii. 504 and k.. to Spinozism, his notions and works, iv,
Danhaver, John Conrad, opposes Rhein- 208.
both in his opinions in xvii cent. iv. 56. Desius, his absurd attempt to prove no
Daniel, Gabriel, defends the Jesuits, iii. difference between the council of Trent
. and the confession of Augsburg, iii. 470
Dante, his character, zeal, and success in and w.
restoring the purity of the genuine elo. Diadochus, a moral writer in v cent. hi-
quence of the Latins in xiv. cent. ii.449. works, i. 363.
Dantsic, small Socinian sect founded at, Didymus attacks the whole body of Here-
in xvi cent. iii. 373.
tics in iv cent. i. 238..
Dantsigers, or Prussians, a sect of the re-. Dinant, David of, a great admirer and dis-
formed Anabaptists, and why so called, ciple of Almaric, his fundamental prin-
iv. 163 and h.
ciple, ii. 435.
Darensis, Johannes, his explications of the Dioceses, their origin, i. 92.
pretended Dionysius, i. 515.
Diocletian, persecution under, how pro-
David, Francis, propagates Socinianism in cured, i. 246 ; the causes and horrid se-
Transylvania, iii. 371; adopts the doc- verity, 247 and f; brings the affairs of
trine of Budnæus about Christ, 380 ; his. the Christians to a dangerous crisis, 248,
imprisonment and death, ibid. and u. Diodorus, Bishop of Tarsus, an account of,
Davidists, David Georgians, a ridiculous i. 278; his interpretation of the Scrip-
sect in xyi cent. iii. 350; impiety of the tures, 284.
founder, why exaggerated, 351; some Dion Cassius, an eminent rhetorician in
remains of them in Holstein, Friesland, iii. cent. i. 204; combats barbarism, ibid.
and other countries, ibid.
Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, the
Deaconesses, in the primitive church, their Great, so called from his great'erudition
office described, i. 90.
and moderation, i. 213 and a; his moral
Deacons, of the church at Jerusalem, their writings, 220.
office described, i. 89; if the young men
the Areopagite, a Greek fanatic
who carried out Ananias and Sapphira, under that name in iv cent. i. 289; the
belonged to this order, 90 h.
success of his gloomy notions, ibid.
Decius, the dreadful persecution under and n.
him, and consequences, i. 197.
- pretended Areopagite, his works,
Decretals, forged, procured by the Pontiffs i. 423; panegyrics on him, ii. 42; his
to establish their supremacy in ix cent. writings translated by the order of Lew.
ii. 24 and 2 a; a collection of them made is the meek, ibid. and u, w; life by
in xiii cent. by Raymond of Pennafort, Hilduin, 43.
ii. 346 and i.
- the Little, his works, i.417, 423,
Deists, promote their principles with im-
the Geographer, when he lived,
punity under Cromwell in xvii cent. and ii. 169.
their chiefs, iv. 106; account of them
chief of the Mystics, an account
in xviii cent. their notions, and principal of, ii. 558.
writers, iv. 188; essential religion, its
the Carthusian, attempts an
author and refutation, ibid. and d.
association between the Mystics and
Deities, Heathen, who admitted to this Schoolmen in xiv cent. ii. 559.
honour, i.33 and m.
Dioptra, a dialogue between the body and
Delft, assembly of the Dutch clergy held the soul, by Philip the Solitary, an aca
at, by which every candidate for orders count of, ii. 297.
is obliged to declare his abhorrence of Diocorus, an account of, i. 391..
Cartesianism, iv. 116.
Dippeliu, John Conrad, a Hessian divine,
his fanaticisin and insolence, iv. 49: poverty is imposed on them by their
character of him and his writings, ibid. founder, 371; some sent into England,
found Monasteries, and are known there
Disciples, LXX. their authority and office, by the name of Black-Friars, 372; call.
accounts of, uncertain, i. 85; their com ed Jacobins in France, with other ap-
mission extended only to the Jews, ibid. pellations, 371 r; esteemed by the
Discords, between Greeks and Latins, Popes, with the eminent services done
seeds sown in vii cent. i. 462.
to the latter, 373; dispute between them
Divines, Belgic, declare war against the and the university of Paris, 374; its
form of concord, iii. 355 ; adopt the decision in their favour by the Pope,375
sentiments of Voet, and assist him in and b; warmly opposed by St. Amour,
his controversy with Des Cartes in xvii ibid. erect their first court of inquisition
cent. iv. 116.
at Thoulouse, 424; deny that Dominic
biblical, their state in xiv cent. founded this Tribunal, 423 sub not. g;
model it after the Tribunal of Penance,
- didactic, in xiv cent. both Greek 424; deprived of their ancient honours,
and Latin, adopt the rules of the Aris and how long, 495 and n; the cruel and
totelian philosophy in their writings, impious fraud practised by them at Ber-
ne, in xvi cent. iii. 18 and k; discovery
Mystic, in xiv cent. an account and fate of the actors, sub fin. not. great-
of, ii. 492.
ly instrumental in obtaining the con-
Polemic. See Controversial demnation of Luther, 20; their doctrine
of the sacraments, what, 171 b.
- Saxon, adopt in appearance the Domitian, persecutes the Christians, and
opinion of Augustus, Elector of Saxony, why, i. 67, the martyrs, who 71.
and his followers in xvi cent. iii. 251, Donatists, rise of the controversy with, i.
252 and w; but endeavour to abolish it, 308; whence so called, 310 and e; their
ibid. convened at Torgaw; some im dispute with Cæcilianus, 309; their ap-
prisoned and banished, ibid. and x; peal to Constantine against him, 310;
attack Calixtus, iv. 34; their malicious the cause determined against them in
conduct after his decease, 33; draw up two councils, ibid.“ their invectives
a new creed, ibid.
against Constantine, who determines in
Divinity, systematic, none to be met with. favour of Cæcilianus, and the conse-
in ii cent. i. 152.
quences, 310, 311; their state under
Doctors, Christian, a famous division of, Julian and Gratian, 313; the two cau-
into two classes in xii cent. ii. 292; ses of their decline, ibid. the principal
their manner of expounding Scripture, crime they are charged with, ibid. their
293 ; oppositions from both sides, with defeat in the reign of Honorius, i. 372;
the effects, 293, 294.
and suppression, 432.
---- Lutheran, corrupted by the stra- Dorotheus, Abbot of Palestine, his ascetic
tagem of the Jesuits, iii. 227; never at dissertations, i. 456; moral works, 460.
tempted to give a regular system of mo- Dort, synod of, in which the doctrine of
rality, ibid. favourite maxim among Arminius is condemned, iv. 78; its de-
them, iv. 22 and w.
cisions treated with contempt in Eng-
Swiss, write against the form of land, 80; and neglected among the re.
concord, iii. 263; aim to reduce all formed in France, ibid, disliked by
churches under one form of ecclesias King James I. and the English clergy,
tical government, 255; are far from 92, 93.
adopting the doctrine of Predestination, Dositheus, a Samaritan impostor, impro-
270; endeavour to reconcile the Puri- perly called an Heretic, i. 116 and u.
tans and Church of England, 318. Docopatrius, eminent for his knowledge
Doctrine, secret, among the ancient Chris. in ecclesiastical polity, ii. 193.
tians, in what it consisted, i. 101.
Druthmar, Christian, his Commentary on
fathers, of the Christian, in St. Matthew, ii. 31.
France and Italy, founded in xvi cent. · Dudith, his character, iii. 364, u.
by Cæsar de Bus, iii. 150.
Dulcinus, an eminent fanatic in xiii cent.
Dodwell, Henry, his works in defence of ii. 437, the leader of the sect of the
the Non-juring Bishops, an account of apostles, 438; his death, ibid.
iv. 112, 113 and l.
Dunbar, Lord Treasurer, procures the fa-
Dolet, a supposed infidel in xvi cent. iii. mous act of the assembly of Scotland in
favour of episcopacy under James I. of
Dominic, his zeal in extirpating error, and England, iv. 92, sub not. f.
destroying Heretics, ii. 370; founds an Dungal, an Irishman, his great character,
order of Monks, 371; dies at Bologna, ib. ii. 16; writes in defence of images, ii.47.
Dominicans, an order of Monks founded Dunkelspuhl, Nicholas, his zeal in reform.
in xiiicent, ii. 370; the vow of absolute ing the monks in xy.cent, iii. 542.
Dunstan; of Glassenbury, his character cent. ii. 448; method, ibid. most famous
and works, ii. 104 and p.
among them, ibid.
Durieus, John, his pacific exploits, iv. 10; Ecthesis, edict, published by the Emperor
great character, 11; some of his tenets, Heraclius in ix cent. i. 468; received
12; propensity to the sentiments of the in the East, but rejected by Pope Johm
Mystics and Quakers, ibid.
Durandus, William, an account of, ij. 400. Eginhard, Abbot of Selingestat, his cha-
--of St. Portion, a polemic di- racter, ii. 14; author of the life of Char-
vine in xiv cent. ii. 487.
lemagne, 30; admired for the beauty of
Dursians, Duruzians, a sect which inhabit his diction, and elegant perspicuity of
Mount Libanus, iii. 99; their origin and style, ibid.
religion uncertain, 199 and f.
Egyptian sect of Gnostics, their notions, i,
Dutch, their schemes for propagating their 173; different from the Asiatic Gnostics,
doctrine in the East Indies, iii. 410; and in what, with their various leaders,
zeal for spreading the gospel truths in 178, 179.
the American provinces how obstruct- Elcesaites, an heretical sect in ii cent. and
ed, and success in Surinam inconsidera- their founder, i. 173.
ble, 417 and u, 418 and w; sects among Elfric, Archbishop of Canterbury, his
them in xvii cent. iv. 123.
character and works, ii. 104 and q.
Duyts, Rupert of, his great character, ii. Eligius, or Eloi, Bishop of Limoges, his
282; an eminent expositor in xii cent. works, i. 456; account of a good Chris-
289, refutes the Jews, 298; his senti- tian in vii cent. 457,w.
ments of the Eucharist, and other re- Elipand, Archbishop of Toledo, his hereti-
ligious contests, 304.
cal tenets, i. 513 and k.
Elizabeth, of Schonauge, the Prophetess
in xii cent. ii. 286.
East, the remains of ancient sects, in xvi -, Queen, her character and reli.
cent. ii. 420.
gious establishment, iii. 93, 94; her
Easter, disputes in ii cent. about the time propensity to Romish usages considered,
of keeping it, i. 167; occasion and pro 285 and l; oppresses the Puritans, 286 ;
gress of them, ibid. they prevail princi- ber opinion concerning church govern-
pally between the Asiatics and Romans, ment, 304 and r.
768; hence is drawn a striking argu- - Princess Palatine, shows favour
ment against the supremacy of the Bi to the Labbadists in xvii cent. iv. 177;
shop of Rome, 169, w; the progress of her taste for fanaticism, and account of,
this dissension stopped by the prudence ibid. c.
of Irenæus, and the Asiatic Christians' Elliot, John, his success in converting the
letter, ibid. the celebration made the Indians, and character, iii. 416.
same through all Christian churches, by Elmacin, George, an historian, who wrote
the council of Nice, ibid.
the history of the Saracens in xiii cent,
Ebionites, a sect of Heretics who lived in ii. 336.
ii cent. i. 121; their origin, 171; Gos- Elxai, and his followers, an account of, i,
pel, ibid. and f; whence they derived 173.
Their name doubtful, 172; their tenets Emperors, Christian, their severity against
very dangerous, ibid. and i, k.
Paganism in iv cent. why levelled
Eccard, Henry, a brother of the Free Spi- against the multitude, i. 259."
rit, a man of great erudition and family Empire, Roman, its state at Christ's birth,
in xiv cent. ii. 502.
i. 29; the nature of its government con-
Echellensis, Abraham, his pacificatory at sidered, 30; its extent advantageous to
tempts to reconcile the Greek and La Christianity, ibid. enjoys peace at the
tin churches in xvii cent. iij. 553.
time of Christ's appearance, and the
Eckius, one of the first adversaries of Lu- necessity for such a tranquillity to the
ther, iii. 29; his dispute with Carolo success of the gospel, ibid. 31.
stadt on the power and freedom of the --- eastern, its decline in viïi cent.
human will, and with Luther on the through intestine divisions, and the in-
power of the Pope, 35, 36 and c; urges vasion of the Turks, i. 484; in xv cent.
Pope Leo X. to excommunicate the lat. with the causes, ii. 509.
ter, 40, 41 and n; his dispute with Me- England, its advantages for literature in
lancthon at Worms, 82.
vii cent, due to Theodore of Tarsus, ii.
Eclectics, philosophers, their order esta 450 and e; learning promoted in ix cent.
blished at Alexandria, and whence their by Alfred, ii. 13; the study of the sci-
rise, i. 42; how different from those ences encouraged by William the Con-
philosophers of this name in the time of queror, 137; some nuns here in xii
Ammonius, 140; who prefer Plato to all cent. 273; renounces the opinions of
Calvin, relative to the divine decrees,
** philosophers, so called in xyii ii. 263; court of Rome fails in its ato.