« הקודםהמשך »
gress, how retarded in Germany, 144
and ee; form of divine worship and
ecclesiastical government, 145, and f.
Dutch, its state in xviii cent. iv.
208 ; divided by the Cartesian and Coc-
ceian controversies, but with some
hopes of their termination, and whence,
ibid. other controversies, and concern.
ing what, ibid. 209 and x, y.
Eastern, its history in xvi cent.
iii. 180; divided into three distinct
communities, ibid. Greek, properly so
called, what, its subdivision into two
branches, and its four provinces de-
scribed, 181, 182 and o, p, q; its doc-
trine, 184; unsuccessful attempt to
unite it with the Protestants, 185.
Churches, Eastern, separated from the
Greeks and Latins, iii. 190 ; compre-
hended under two classes, with their
names and subdivisions, ibid. and h;
the remarkable aversion to Popery
shown by those members of them who
have been educated at Rome, 200, 201
and i ; their state in xviii cent. iv. 195 ;
Greek Christians treated with more in-
dulgence than formerly, ibid.
Church of England inclines to the senti-
ments of Luther, and in what respect,
jii. 2:32; but changes after the death of
Henry VIII. to Calvinism, 283; re-
ceives a new form of ceremonials and
discipline under Queen Elizabeth, 285
and i; controversy with the Puritans,
318 : revolution in it, in favour of Ar-
minianism, iv. 80, 93; its genius and
spirit, 80; state under James J. and
changes made in it, 90, 94 and notes;
state under Charles I. 95, 104 and notes;
under Cromwell, 105, 106 and t; who
tolerates all sects but Episcopalians,
ibid. Presbyterian government esta-
blished, ibid. t; what sects flourished
at this time, 106 and u, w, x, y, and
107; its state under Charles II. and his
successors, 210; divisions, whence the
terms of High church and Low church,
111, 112 and notes; its state in xviii
cent. iv, 205 ; established form of go-
vernment, i. 206; Nonconformists in ge-
neral tolerated, ibid. the members of
the established church divided into two
classes, with their different opinions
concerning episcopacy, ibid. warm dis-
putes between them, with the principal
champions, ibid. and 207; its spirit
with relation to those who dissent from
it appears from its rule of doctrine and
government, and from Dr. Wake's pro-
ject of peace and union between the
English and Gallican churches, ibid.
and w; various sects in England,
through the unbounded liberty of the
press, and publishing religious notions,
Church, Greek, its history and deplorable
state in xvii cent. iii. 550; some excep-
tions, 551 and a; invincible aversion
to the Latin church, ibid. and b; me-
thods for softening it, under Urban VIII.
and great hopes of success entertained
by the Latins, who published many la-
borious treatises on this plan, 552, 553
and d; its doctrine, if not corrupted by
the Romish missionaries, and doctors,
554 and g; whence, with bribery, &c.
of the Jesuits, in obtaining certificates
from the Greeks about some Romish
- Helvetic, what points first excited
a difference between its members and
the Lutherans, iii. 273 and m; adopt
Zuingle's doctrine of the Eucharist, 274
and n; opposes Bucer's endeavours to
modify its doctrine to some degree of
conformity with that of Luther, ibid.
warm contests in it concerning the for-
mulary of concord, and whence, iy.
209; and how terminated through the
intercession of the King of GreatBritain
and the States General, 210.
---Lutheran, its rise, iii. 42, 43 and q;
progress retarded by internal divisions
relative to the Eucharist, 49; and by a
civil war, 50, 51; its name, commence.
ment, and why called Evangelical, 207;
why Lutheran, ibid. began to acquire a
regular form, &c, and raised to the dig-
nity of a lawful and complete Hierar-
chy, 208; sum of its doctrine, ibid. cer-
tain formularies adopted by this church,
ibid. confession of Augsburg, with its
defence, ibid. and a; its ceremonies
and public worship, 209; rejects the
ceremonies and observances of the
church of Rome, 210; its visible head,
and form of government, ibid. and fi
internal government removed from
Episcopacy and Presbyterianism, Swe.
den and Denmark excepted, 211 and g;
Hierarchy, ibid. liturgies, public wor-
ship, and method of instruction, 212;
holidays and ecclesiastical discipline,
213 and h ; excommunication, ibid. and
how brought into disrepute,and to what
attributed, 214; few prosperous or un-
favourable events, 215 and k; allega-
tions of their enemies against the reli-
gious peace, unjust, 216 and n; state of
learning, ibid. study of the Belles Let-
tres and languages, 217; authors emi-
nent therein, 218; various fate of phi-
losophy among them, 219 ; sects among
them, 220; science of theology correct-
ed and improved, 223; exegetic theo-
logy, its state, ibid. respective merits of
interpreters, 224; two classes, 225;
didactic theology, ibid. its form chan-
ged, 226 ; morality, its state, and wri-
ters upon this subject, 227; no regular
system, 228 ; polemic or controversial
theology introduced ibid. asperity in its
disputants, how alleviated, 229; three
periods to be distinguished in the histo-
ry of this church, 230; enjoys tolerable
tranquillity during Luther's life, ibid.
debates between Luther and the fanat-
ics in the first period, and who they
were, ibid. also between him and Caro-
lostadt, with the occasion, 232, 233 and
g, h, i; and Schwenckfeldt, 333; and
Antinomians, 235; debates in the se.
cond period between the death of Lu-
ther and Melancthon, 237; methods to
heal divisions, how frustrated, 249;
form of doctrine projected, and James
Andrea employed, 250 ; rejects the
form of concord, 255; judgment con-
cerning the controversies in it, 260;
principal doctors and writers, 261; its
history in xvii cent. iv. 3 ; loses ground
in some places, ibid. attempts made to-
wards an union between the Lutheran
and Reformed churches, 6; declaration
of the synod of Charenton, 8; prosper-
ous events, 14 and p; progress in learn-
ing, 15; state of philosophy, 16; free.
dom of philosophical inquiries gains
ground, 17; ecclesiastical polity, and
bad consequence thereof, 23, 24; most
eminent writers in this century, 24;
his torical view of its religious doctrine,
25 ; commotions in it, 29; its external
and internal state in xviii cent. 196; re-
ceives a considerable accession, and
whence, with its success in remote
countries, but is oppressed at home,ibid.
197; methods of defence, &c. changed,
and why, ibid. attempts to reform its
body of ecclesiastical law, opposed by
its chief rulers, whence contests arise,
with their motives for opposition, ibid.
its intestine enemies, and the fate they
meet with, ibid. some pretended Refor-
mers, but they fall into contempt and
are forgotten, 198; state of philosophy,
200; metaphysics improved, and by
whom, ibid. opposed, and controversies
thereon, with the charges brought
against it, ibid. the Wertheim transla-
tion of the Bible condemned, and its au-
thor imprisoned, 201; the Pietistical
controversies still carried on, but redu- '
ced to one principal question, and what
that is, ibid. and 202; other religious
contests and divisions in this church,
Church, Reformed, its history in xyi cent.
iii. 261; constitution and founders, ibid.
no centre of union, and how far this re-
mark is true, 262 and q; the causes that
produced this state of things, ibid. who
may claim as members of it, 264; its
progress in Switzerland, 266; contro-
versy between the Lutherans and Re-
formed, about the Eucharist, 265; pro-
gress of it, 266, 268; dispute about pre.
destination, 270; discord carried to the
greatest height, 271; what worthy of
observation in the rise and progress of
this church, 272; its history compre-
hended in two periods, ibid. its princi-
pal founder, 274; form of doctrine, dif-
ferent from Zuingle's, 276 ; is opposed,
278, 279; yet propagated in many coun-
tries, 279 : in Germany and France,
281; its state in the Netherlands, 295;
in Poland, 296 ; divisions, 299 and 9;
doctrine adopted by it, 301 ; how differ-
ent from the Lutherans, 302; and the
importance of these differences, 303;
to whom belongs the right of ecclesias-
tical goyernment, determined, 304; its
form of ecclesiastical government, 305,
306 and s; state of church discipline,
307; of learning, 309; interpreters of
scripture, ib. theological doctrine, 310;
state of morality, 312; and explained by
Perkins and others,ibid. persons of emi-
nent genius in this church, 313; gains
ground in Hesse and Brandenburg in
xvii cent. iv. 4, 5; its history in this.
cent, 64; limits extended, ibid. 65, m,n,
0; decline in France, 66 ; receives in-
jurious treatment from the French
court, 67 ; its decline in the Palatinate,
70; state of learning, ibid. and u; of
explanatory, 72; and didactic theology,
74; and also of morality, 75; contro-
versies, 77, 90; its state in xviii cent.
202; its great extent, and who may
account themselves members of it, ibid.
203 and notes; expression of Dr.
Mosheim censured, 203 0; inaccuracy
censured, ibid. p; remarkable error in
the quarto edition of this work correct.
ed, and how, with the defence of the
Reformed church against the charge of
approximation to popery, ibid. r; no
general subject of controversy between
the Lutherans and Arminians, and how
far this remark is true, 204 and s; pro-
jects of reunion between the Reformed
and the Lutherans, and whence un-
successful, ibid. and t.
- Reformed, in France, disposed
to favour Arminianism, iv. 80; particu-
lar tenets, 81; the cause of departing
from their brethren in some points, ibid.
charged with some concessions of
moment to Popery, and this charge
examined, 82 ii, and k; controversy
raised by Hypothetical Universalists,
83; Cameron and Amyrout's attempts,
with the form of reconciliation drawn
up by the latter, ibid.
Romish, sends missionaries into
Tartary in xiii cent. ii. 324; a great
schism in xiv cent. 463; its bad conse-
quences, 464; plan for reforming it, and
the substance of it, in xvi cent. iii.82;
and w; charged with fanaticism and
superstition, 106; zealous in appointing
an infinite number of missionaries, and
how accounted for, 131; character of Cimbrians, converted to Christianity in
commentators, 160, 161; theological ix cent. ii. 4.
disquisitions in this church demand re. Cinnamus, an historian, in sii cent. his
formation, and why, 161 and q; state character, ii. 246.
of practical religion among its members Circumcelliones, in Africa, their rise and
163; moral writers divided into three ravages, i. 311; severe proceedings
classes, ibid. and t; produces many po- against them after their defeat at Bag-
lemic divines, and their character 164; nia, 312.
its internal state examined, and proved Cistercian monks, their rise in xi cent. ii.
to be disordered, 165, 166; principal 186 : founder Robert Abbotof Moleme,
subjects of debate reduced to six, and ibid. discipline, ibid. gradually cor-
explained, 167, and notes, vain attempts rupted, 187 and c; their opulence and
to unite the Russian church to this, credit in xii cent. due to St. Bernard,
201 ; little or no success attends the Abbot of Clairval, ii. 274; whence call-
labours of the missionaries among the ed Bernardians, ibid. division between
Eastern sects, and iniquitous practices them and the monks of Clugni, ibid.
used to gain converts, 203, 204 and w; Clarendon, constitutions of, what, and
how far it was considered a true church their design, ii. 267 and s.
by the commissioners of Queen Eliza --Lord, his account of Archbishop
beth, 290; its history and Popes in Abbot,iv. 92 and f; partiality censured,
xvii cent. iii. 449: attempts toruin the 93 sub. f.
Protestants, but unsuccessful, 453, 454; Clarke, Dr. Samuel, charged with alter-
writers on both sides, 454; loses ground ing the orthodox doctrine of the Tri-
in the East, with two striking instances nity, iv. 210; his method of inquiring
of it, 477, 478 and s; its downfal in into that subject, and his doctrine of it
Abyssinia, 478; the papal authority, its comprehended in fifty-five propositions,
decline, 481; French maxini concern 211, sub, not, s; endeavours to avoid
ing it, embraced by most princes and the imputation of heresy ineffectual, is
states of Europe, 482; all prospect of branded with that of Semi-Arian, and
reconciling the Protestants with the proceeded against by the houses of
members of the Romish communion convocation, with his prudence, ibid.
quite removed in xviii cent, and how, sub. s; is opposed by several divines,
iv.190; intestine divisions in this church, and particularly Dr. Waterland, and
191; controversy relative to the Jesuits defends himself with spirit, 212.
and Jansenists still continues, ibid. 192 Claudius, Emperor, the state of the church
and f; debates occasioned by the New under him, tolerable, i. 200.
Testament of Quesnel, with the Bull of
Bishop of Turin, his exposition
Pope Clement XI. in condemnation of and chronology, ii. 30, 40; his laudable
it, ibid. commotions raised by this Bull zeal in ix cent. against images and their
in France, with the issue in favour of worship, 47 ; is opposed, ibid. success
it, 193; two circumstances, by which in maintaining his opinions, ibid. the
Jansenism is supported, 194; pretended doctrine maintained by his adversaries,
miracles by the remains of Abbé Paris ibid.
refuted, and visions of the Jansenists
denies Christ's divinity, iii. 355.
considered, and success of their cause, Clausenburg, academy at, iii. 381 and 2;
ibid. and i, 195 and k; attempts of the
Pontiffs to renew the Abyssinian mission Clemangis, Nicholas de, his great charac-
ter, iii. 429 and p.
Church, rulers, how called in i cent. i. 88; Clemens, Bishop of Rome, the most emi-
their character and office, ibid. distinc nent writer in icent. his works, i.94 and
tion between teaching and ruling Pres s, t; some writings falsely attributed to
byters considered, ibid. and e.
him, 95 and w.
- Russian, its history and rise in
- Alexandrinus, his great charac-
xvii cent. iii. 556 and m, n; change in ter, i. 148; commentary on the scrip-
troduced into it by Peter 1. 557 ; its tures lost, 151 ; work against Heretics,
state in xviii cent. iv. 195; followers 153; treatises on morality lost, 155.
somewhat more civilized than in the Clement, of Ireland, misrepresented by
former ages,with some exceptions, ibid. Boniface, Winfrid, i. 525; condemned
Churches, if the first Christians had any, at a council by Pope Zachary, ibid. the
considered, i. 107 and s,a; the remark heresy he is charged with, examined,
able zeal of Christians for rebuilding ibid.k.
and adorning them in xi cent. ii. 218.
III. Pope, remarkably zealous
- more ancient, their history, iii. for Crusades, ii. 272.
- V. abrogates the laws made by
- modern, an account of wi. 206. Boniface VIII. and shows himself to
Chytræus, eminent for his knowledge in Philip the Fair in other respects, ii.
history in xyi cent. 218.
459; contentions which happened at his
death concerning the choice of a suc- tages at the expense of their pontiffs,
146; manners of the superior, and cause
Clement, VI. his character and ambition, of their great corruption, ibid. the infe-
ii. 461; reserves to himself the disposal rior orders more virtuous in their prin-
of various churches and benefices, ciples, ibid. their state in xvii cent, iïi.
495 ; how corrupted, with several ex-
- VII. his character, iii. 48 ; inso- ceptions, ibid. s and 496.
lent behaviour at an interview with the Clerks, apostolic, account of that order,
Emperor Charles V. at Bologna, 59; and its abolition, iii. 344.
reasons for deferring to call a general regular, their rise iv xvi cent. ii,
council, 77 and i.
- VIII. Hippolito Aldobrandini, an Clovis, King of the Salij, founder of the
account of, iii. 449 and a.
kingdom of the Franks in Gaul, i. 334 ;
IX. Rospigliosi, his character, converted to Christianity, and how in-
iii. 457; peace of, 532 and u.
duced to embrace it, ibid. is baptized
- XI. Albani, his high character, by Remigius, Bishop of the Salii, ibid.
ii. 453 and m; decides the controversy the influence of his conversion on the
relating to the Chinese rites against the minds of the Franks, 335; the miracle
Jesuits, and severe edict of, iv. 185; said to be performed at his baptism, a
which is mitigated, and how, ibid. con- fiction, ibid. and 0; his conversion
sequence in China, ibid. condemns by gave rise to the title of Most Christian
his bull Unigenitus, Quesnel's New King, 336.
Testament, and anecdote concerning, Clugni, Monks of, their founder Odo, Ab-
192 and g.
bot of Clugni, ii. 102; discipline soon
XII. character of, iv. 189.
adopted in all the European convents,
Clementina, spurious, i. 221 and n.
103; a mistake made by writers con-
Clergy, a perfect equality among them. cerning this order, ibid. h; jealous of
in i cent. i. 92; an artful parallel be- the Cistercians, 274; Benedictines de-
tween the offices of the Christian and generate in xii cent. ibid.
Jewish, with the pernicious conse- Cocceius, John, his sentiments followed
quences, 147; their vices in ii cent. by the Dutch divines in xvii cent. iv.
209; they assume superior dignity, 26; method of interpreting Scripture,
which occasions inferior orders, 210; 73; followers and tenets, ibid. 74; who
concubinage introduced among them, are united with the Cartesians, 115 ; his
211; crimes charged on them, with the sentiments concerning Holy Scripture,
cause, in iv cent. 275; their excessive and account of, 117; differs from Cala
pride in v cent. 351; and source of vin, and how, ibid. his chimerical sys-
their vices, 352; their vices not to be tem, ibid. sentiments concerning the
restrained by the legislature in viii doctrinal part of theology, 118; is op-
cent. 490 ; veneration for them greater posed, yet, after all stands his ground,
in the West than in the East, and why, ibid.
ibid. and k; the increase of their reve- Coddeus, Peter, assists Arnaud in propa-
nues, whence, 491 and l; are invested gating Jansenism in Holland, iii. 533.
with temporal dignities, 492; great li- Codinus, George, his works, ii. 547... .
berality to them, and the cause of, 492, Cænobites, an order of Monks in iv cent.
493 and n; their enormous crimes in an account of, i. 292.
ix cent. and sources of them, ii. 17, 18; Cogitosus, a writer of the lives of the saints
zealous in the cause of superstition, ii. in vi cent. i. 423.
33; their revenues increased through College de propaganda fide, founded at
the fondness that prevailed for relics, Rome in xvii cent. iii. 383; number of
37: vices in x cent. principally imputed members, ibid. and a ; business, 384;
to the examples of the pontiffs of Rome, another by Urban VIII. 385; some of
93; simony and concubinage frequent the same nature in France, ibid. alter-
among them, 101, 102 and e, f ; decay cations of their missionaries with those
of piety and discipline among them in of the Jesuits, 386.
xi cent. 144 ; their infamous lives in Collegiants, a Socinian sect, their rise in
xiii cent. ii. 346; complaints against xvii cent. iv. 173 and t, u ; founders,
them in xiv cent. 153; the great de- 174; whence called Collegiants and
cline of the Christian church in xv Rhinsbergers, ibid. and x; their customs
cent. through their neglect and vices, and tenets, 175 ; extensiveness of their
517 ; the objects of universal contempt community, which comprehends all
in xvi cent. iii. 16; the doctrines they Christian sects, ibid. debates among
chiefly inculcated, what 22; neglect a them, and concerning what, 176 and
reformation of principles, and why, 23. c.
prawnienia of Rome, their state in xvi cent. Collins, his impiety and Deism in xvii
iii. 144; obtain considerable advan. cent. iv. 188.
· VOL. IV.
Collyridians, a geci in iv cent. i. 330; they sed on his subjects by Francis I. of
worship the Virgin Mary, ibid.
France, ibid. and h.
Colonia, Dominic, the use of his History Conference between Protestants and Pa-
of the controversies in the church of pists at Ratisbon, iii. 467; at Newberg,
Rome, iii. 173.
ibid. at Thorn, between several Doctors
Columban, the disciple of Congall, an ac. of the Lutheran, Reformed, and Romish
count of, i. 414, 418 and u; the success churches, ibid. at Rheinfeldt, between
of his ministry in vii cent. 455.
the Reformed and the Catholics, 468
Comestor, Peter, his character, ii. 283. in France between Claude and Bossuet,
Commentaries, chains of them in ix cent. ibid. at Leipsic, between the Lutherans
and whence this name, ii. 38 and p. and Reformed, iv.8; at Cassel, ibid.
Commentators, few men of judgment and at Thorn, 9 and i.
among them in iv cent. i. 284; pervert Confessional, some groundless remarks in
the natural expressions of Scripture, it answered, iv. 214, 225. See Appen-
and search for allegorical senses, 285; dix II. and I11. 214, 226.
their character in vi cent. and division Confessors, who entitled to this name, is
into two classes, 421; few among the 71 ; veneration paid to them perverted,
Greeks in ix cent, and defects of the and their number ibid. records of their
Latin, ii. 39; allegorical, their funda- lives and actions lost, 72.
mental principle, and number of senses, Confucius, assertion concerning him, üi.-
ibid. 40; deserve little notice in x cent. 403; religious worship paid him, by the
110; many in xi cent. but very unequal Chinese, 404 and 3.
to the undertaking, 198; their defects Congall, abbot, propagates the monastic
in xii cent, 288; their character in xiv discipline in Great Britain, i. 413.
cent. 488; in xv cent. 556.
Congregation of Aid, why so called, ül
Commission court, high, account of, iii. 178; history of its proceedings uncer-
288 and p; exorbitant power, ibid. in tain, ibid. and m.
fine ; principles laid down by it, 289; - - of Cardinals, their office,
how answered by the Puritans, ibid. iii, 128, c.
- of the Holy Sacrament in
Commodus, ' Emperor, state of the Chris, France, and its founder, ii. 385.
tians under him, j. 134 and b.
Conrad, of Lichtenau, his character, ii.
Comnenus, Alexius, Emperor of Greece,sus. 340.
pects the designs of the first Crusade, -- - of Marpurg, the first German inqui-
and is at first afraid, ii. 124; a great pa- sitor, ii. 425; his barbarity and fate,
tron of letters, 135; his controversy. ibid. and k, l.
with the Manichæans, 220.
Constance, the famous council held at, in
- Emanuel, his character and xv cent. ii. 520 ; its design to heal the
works, ii. 299, 300.
divisions in the Papal empire, 521;
Conception, immaculate, of the Virgin Ma limits the authority of the Pope, ibid.
ry, contest about in xii cent. ii. 302 and its happy issue, ibid. and m, n; issues
h; the cause of additional veneration out a decree against the writings and
being paid her, 303; controversy about ashes of Wickliffe, 529; deprives the
it in xvii cent. between the Franciscans Laity of the cup in the Holy Sacrament
and Dominicans, iii. 540, 541 and g; and the reason, 530.
feast instituted in honour of it by Cle- Constans, obtains all the Western provin-
ment XI. 540, g.
ces, i. 255; is soon deprived of his em-
Concord, form, account of, iii. 209, 250; pire, and assassinated by the order of
why called Book of Torgaw, 253; its Magnentius, ibid.
compilers, and account of, ibid. b, c; Constantine the Great, made Emperor in
purposes for which used, 254; produces the West, i. 248 ; publishes an edict in
much disturbance, and opposed by the favour of the Christians, and restores
Reformed, ibid. and even by the Luthe peace to the church, 250; is involved
rans themselves, 255; their different in a civil war hereupon, and defeats
motives, with Julius of Brunswick's con Maxentius, ibid. grants the Christians
Quct, 256, 257; why rejected in his do power to live according to their own
minions, ibid. suppressed in Branden laws and institutions, ibid. is converted
burg in xvii cent. iv. 6 and d; disputes to Christianity, and different opinions
in Switzerland concerning it, 125; by concerning his faith, ibid. the sincerity
whom drawn up, and why, ibid. good of his faith proved, 251 ; is baptized by
intention of it frustrated, and contests Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia, a few
occasioned, 126; abrogated at Basil days before his death, ibid. and w;
and Geneva, and falls into oblivion, ib., whether influenced somewhat by
disputes about in Switzerland in xviii. worldly motives to embrace Christiani-
cent. and loses much of its credit, 209. ty considered, 252; the influence of
Concordate, what, iii. 14; forcibly impo... Christianity and superstition compared,