« הקודםהמשך »
Anastasius, how the cause of the Nestorian rise in xvii cent. and pernicious tenets,
controversy, i. 377; his sentiments ex- iv. 107, 108, and %, a, b.
plained by Nestorius, although keenly Antioch, Patriarch of, his jurisdiction in iv
opposed, yet gain ground, 378.
cent. i. 275; the extent of his power in
of Sinai, his writings, an ae- xvi cent. iij. 182, 0; four bishops claim
count of, i.416, 421 and e.
the title, ibid. p.
the Emperor, attached to the Antiochus, a monk of Seba, his character,
Acephali, protects them, i. 434. . i. 455; and work, or Pandect of the Ho-
of Palestine, author of some ly Scriptures, 459.
tracts against the Jews in viji cent. i.516. Antonines, their characters, i. 123.
an historian in ix cent. ii. 14. Antoninus, Marcus,listens to calumnies, and
Anchialus, patriarch of Constantinople,an persecutes the Christians, i. 132; many
eminent patron of letters in xii cent. apologies published, 133; false witness-
ii. 246 and a; seems to have been at- .es suborned by his judges against the
tached to the Aristotelian philosophy, Christians, ibid. his partiality to the Sto-
ics, and its effects upon learning, 136;
Andræas, Antonius, a Latin writer in xiv an ornament to the Stoics, 137.
cent. ii. 488.
- Pius, persecution under him,
Andrea, James, employed in reconciling i. 132; his edict in favour of the Chris-
the Lutheran Doctors, iii. 249. See tians, ibid. and x.
Form of Concord, 282, &c.
Antonius Paulus, endeavours to correct
Andrew, Bishop of Crete, his homilies the abuses among the clergy in xvii
considered as spurious, i. 456.
cent. iv. 39.
Andronicus, Emperor of Greece, forbids all Antony forms in Egypt the solitary Monks
controversies concerning speculative into a body, i. 290; the rapid progress
points of theology in xii cent. ii. 300 of this order in the East, and maxims of
their philosophy, which seduced the
Angelome, a monk of Lysieux, an acute Christians, ibid. the state of this order
but fantastic writer in ix cent. ii.40, and in si cent. ii. 190.
q; his expositions, ibid.
Apocryphal and spurious writings, many
Angers, Bishops of, refuse to subscribe the , in i cent. i. 94 and r.
declaration against the Jansenists, and
books, reading of them in the
the consequence, iii. 332.
church disliked by the Puritans, iii. 289.
Anglo-Saxons, oppress the Christians. i. Apollinarian heresy, its rise, i. 323 ; au-
340 ; some few converted by Augustin thor and tenets maintained by him,ibid.
the Monk, 398; an universal conversion the consequences deduced from the
among them in vii cent i. 440, the sentiments of Apollinaris seem unjust.
causes of this conversion considered,' 324 and c; its fate, ibid. and d.,
Apollonius Tyanneus, comparison of wrist:
Anhalt, princes of, embrace Calvinism, and him pernicious, i. 260.
and the reason, iii. 299 and n.
bis controversies about the pow.
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, im- er of the magistrate in church affairs,
proves the science of Logic, ii. 141; iv. 114; occasions a flaming dispute
inventor of the famous argument ascri- between Spanheim and Vander Wagen,
bed to Des Cartes, 142 ; his character ibid.
and works, ibid. o, and 194; the first Apologies, many produced in defence of
who composed a system of divinity, Christianity in ii cent. i. 153.
200; eminent for his moral treatises, Apostles of Christ, why limited to twelve.
201, and controversial writings, ibid. i. 56 ; the success of their ministry, af
of Laon, his character, ii. 282,289. ter the effusion of the Holy Ghost, 59:
of Havelsberg. strenuous advocate the election of one in the room of Judas
for the Latins against the Greeks in xii 60; founded many churches, 62; fables
cent. ii. 298.
related of them, ibid. their authority and
Ansgar, converts the Swedes in ix cent. office, 85 ; left the external forın of the
ü. 4; is created archbishop of Ham church undetermined, ibid. and 8; they
burgh, ibid. founder of the Cimbrian, and their disciples the principal writers,
Danish, and Swedish churches, ibid. a. 93; the creed, by whom composed, 99
Anthropomorphites, a sect in x cent. ii. and k, l; instituled many ritès, 104.
116; why encouraged and admired, 117. - account of a sect in xiii cent. ii.
Antichrist, ensigns of, what so called by 437; made no alterations in the doctri-
the Puritans, iii. 291.
nal part of the public religion, ib. their
Antidico-Marianiles, a sect'in iv cent. i. leaders and extirpation, 438 and h; the
330; their tenets, ibid.
credit given by them to the predictions
Antinomians, their rise among the Luther of the Abbot Joachim, 439."
ans in xvi cent. iji. 236; suppression by Apostolic Fathers, their general character.
Luther, ibid. tenets, 161; English, their i. 97 and h.
Apostolics, a sect in xii cent. ii. 320; the particularly in the West, ibid. under
remarkable purity of their lives, ibid. Valens, a friend to the Arians, ibid. un-
some peculiarities among them deserve der Gratian and Theodosius the Great,
who favour the Nicenians, ibid. excess-
Apostoolians, an inferior sect of Anabap. es on both sides, ibid. various sects of
tists or Mennonites in xvii cent. iv. 167; it which may be reduced to three
their founder Samuel Apostool, who classes, ibid. this division detrimental
opposes Galen Haan, with an account to the Arians, 322 ; is encouraged by
of his controversy and tenets, ibid. the Vandals in Africa, i. 374; its state
Appellants, great number of them in in vi cent. 432, 433; encouraged by
France, and why so called, iv. 193 andh. the Lombards in vii cent, i. 464. .
Aquinas, Thomas, a very powerful advo- Arians, two eminent writers among them
cate for the philosophy of Aristotle, and in xvii cent. iv. 173 and w; to whom
gives a new translation of his works, ii. the denomination of Arian is applicable,
344 and c; called the Angelic Doctor, ibid. most eminent patrons in xvïïi cent.
ibid. his character, 400 and g; method iv. 210; bad consequences of Arianism,
of explaining the Scriptures, 405; or ibid.%; points of its doctrine adopted
thodoxy questioned, 409; famous sum, by Mr. Wbiston, and consequence, 211
what, 411; polemic work against the sub %; controversy occasioned by Dr.
Gentiles, 412; several of his doctrines Clarke's opinions concerning the Trini-
opposed by John Duns Scotus, 491;. ty, and by whom opposed, ibid. sub z;
hence the origin of the sect of the no end to be gained by these disputes,
with Dr. Stillingfleet's excellent admo-
Arabian philosophers, their tenets, and nition to the disputants, 213 sub %.
reason of their name, i. 240; confuted Aristotelian philosophy, admired by the
by Origen, abandon their erroneous sen Nestorians in vi cent. i. 409 ; its pro-
timents, and return to the church, ibid. gress in viii cent. 486; the persons to
found schools in Spain and Italy in x whom its success was due, ibid. taught
cent. ii. 99; and source of knowledge by the reformed church in xvi cent. iü.
among the Europeans, ibid. and 138; 311; introduced into theology, and bad
authors of divination and astrology in. consequence, ibid. and n; its state in
the West, ibid. many of their works xvii cent. 436.
translated into Latin in xii cent. ii. 255 Aristotelians, poor subterfuge used bythem
before the inquisition in xv cent. ii.516.
Arabians, in Spain, converted in xiii cent. Aristotle, bis notions of God and the hu-
ii. 331; but expelled by the order of man soul, i. 40; has many admirers in
Pope Clement IV. 332 and y.
xiii cent. and the prejudice done by
Arabs, converted by origen in iii cent. i. them to Christianity, ii. 333 and a: the
reading of his works condemned by the
Arator, his works and character, i. 418. Bishops at Paris, 435: if preferable to
Arbricelles, Robert, founds a monastery at Plato, debated xv cent. 514 and a.
Fontevraud in xii cent. ii. 276 ; one sin- Arius, opposes the opinions of Alexander
gularity in his rule, 277; charge against on the second person of the Trinity, i.
bim, ibid. and p ; some nuns in Eng 315; espelled 'from the church 316;
land, ibid. and p.
defends his opinions with success, ibid.
Archbishops, the extent of their authority brings over Eusebius Bishop of Nico-
in iy cent. i. 271.
media to his cause, ibid. Constantine,
Archelaus, succeeds his father Herod in
after fruitless admonitions, calls a coun-
the kingdom of Judea; is infamous for cil at Nice,at whichArius is condemned,
his vices, and dethroned, i. 43.
and Christ is declared consubstantial,
Ardæus, excommunicated for censuring ibid. recalled from exile, 318 and x; is
the licentious clergy in iv cent. and received into the church, and invited to
forms a sect, i. 328 ; his principles im Constantinople, 319; is reinstated with
bibed by the Goths, ibid, errors falsely his followers in their privileges, but is
imputed to him, ibid.
denied a place among the presbyters by
Arianism, its rise in iv cent. i. 315 and m; the people of Alexandria, ibid. dies a
the tenets held by its author, 316; its miserable death, with some reflections
progress before the first Nicene council, on the manner, 320 and y.
in which the sentiments of its founder Armagh, the see of, erected by Patrick in
are condemned, 317 ; its history after v cent. i. 336 andr.
this time; 318; state under the sons of
Richard of, attacks the Mendi-
Constantine, 320 ; Constantius forces cants in xiv cent. ii. 467.
proselytes, ibid. under Julian, who fa- Armenia, Great and Less, Christianity es-
vours neither side, 321; under Jovian, tablished there in iv cent. i. 261; a
a defender of the Nicenians, ibid. under church founded at, by Gregory the En-
Valentinian, an enemy to the Arians, lightener, ibid.
Armenians, an account of, in xvi cent. iv. Arnold, Godfrey, disturbs the Lutheran
193 and 9; have three patriarchs, ibid. church, and his character, iv. 47; his
and r, s; their titular ones, 194 and t; ecclesiastical history censured, ibid. his
their state in xvii cent. iii. 562 ; coun- partiality in favour of heretics, which
try laid waste by Abbas the Great, he quitted when old, 46 and o.
King of Persia, ibid. and his generous Arsenius, his synopsis of the Greek canon
behaviourtoward them, ibid. the advan- law, in.xiji cent. ii. 398.
tages they received from the settlement Arlemon, his tenets, i. 187; uncertainty
of a great number of Armenians in dif- about these, ibid.
ferent parts of Europe, ibid. and %; re- Arts, seven, the wretched manner of
ligious books printed for their use in teaching them in visi cent. i. 488; divi-
Europe, particularly in Holland and ded into the Trivium and Quadrivium,
ibid. the works of Cassiodore and Boe-
Arminianism, its rise and progress in xviithius recommended for further progress,
cent. iv. 129. See Church Arminian, 489.
Ascetics, their rise and principles, i. 157;
Arminians, their leading maxim adopted why certain Christians became of this
by the Lutherans in xviii cent. iv. 25; seci, 158; the progress of this disci-
their rise and schism in this cent. 78; pline, 159.
condemned at the synod of Dort, ibid. Asculanus, Ceccus, a famous philosopher
the effects of this schism in Holland, 79; in xvi cent. ii. 451; imprudently min-
gain ground in England through Arch- gles astrology with his philosophy, ibid.
bishop Laud, 80; favoured in France, is accused of dealing with infernal spi-
Brandenberg, Bremen, and Geneva, ib. rits, and burnt by the inquisitors at
the further progress of this sect. See Florence, 452 and a.
Church Arminian, 127.
Asia, Protestant missions there in xvi cent.
Arminius, James, his tenets, and by whoin iii. 409; English and Dutch colonies,
opposed, with the decision of the synod 410.
of Dort, iv. 78; founder of the Armini. Asiatic, Gnostic, sect in ii cent. and tenets,
an church, 127; his great character and an account of, i. 173.
account of, ibid. professes publicly his Asinus, John Pungens, substitutes consub.
: opinions about predestination and stantiation instead of transubstantiation
grace, &c., in opposition to those of in xiii cent. ii. 415.
Calvin, 128; two favourable circum- Astesanus, his character, ii. 489, 493.
stances for him, ibid. by whom opposed Astrog, synods held there in xyi cent. iii.
and controversy thereupon, with his 297; their happy effects, ibid.
death, ibid. and c; progress of his sect Astrology, mixed with philosophy, consi-
after his death, 129.
dered as magic in siv cent. ii. 451.
Arnaud, his dispute with the Jesuits con- Asylum, right of, contest about, between
cerning a frequent approach to the holy Pope Innocent XI. and Lewis XIV. iii.
communion, ii. 172 and c; improves 487 and l..
and illustrates the doctrine of Les Car- Athanaric, King of the Goths, persecutes
tes, 507 and 0 ; a patron of the Janse. the Christian Goths in iv cent. i. 264,
nists, 525; flies into Holland, 533; and Athanasius, account of him and his works,
the consequences to the Jesuits, ibid. i. 277 and u; refuses to restore Arius,
and w; his dispute with Claude con- 319; is deposed by the council of Tyre,
cerning transubstantiation, 555..
and banished into Gaul, ibid.
Arndt, a moral writer in xvii cent. iv. 29; Atheists, few, if any, to be met with in
debates relating to, 56; his good cha- xviii cent. iv. 188; and those chiefly fol.
racter and works, particularly his True lowers of Spinoza, ibid.
Christianity, 57; is censured by some, Alhenagoras, an excellent writer in ii cent.
and by whom defended, ibid. a Para- i. 148.
Allo, Bishop of Vercelli, his works useful
Arnobius, character of his polemic works in describing the genius of the people.
against the Gentiles, in iii cent. i. 213. in x cent. ii. 104.
- the younger, an account of, i. Ave-Maria, added to the prayers in siv
cent. ii. 497.
Arnold, of Brescia, account of him and his Augsburg, an account of the conference
sect in xii cent. ii. 313; is justly censur- held at, between Luther and Cajetan,
ed for the violent impetuosity of bis in xvi cent. iii. 30; and its issue, 31 and
temper, but discovered in his character ge; the famous diet held by Charles V.
several things worthy of esteem, 314; Emperor, 67; famous confession made
is greatly admired, and his followers by the Protestants, 71 and e; its style
called Arnoldists, ibid.
justly admired, ibid. its matter supplied
of Villa Nova, his extensive by Luther, but received its form from
learning, ii. 345; unjust punishment, ib. Melancthon, ibid. contains twenty-eight
; VOL. IV.
chapters, and to what they refer, ibid. Bacon, Lord Verulam, his character, iii.
and d, e; a refutation of it attempted 430 and a.
by the Roman Catholics, ibid. and Me. Baius, his disputes about grace in xvi
lanctbon's anstrer to it, which is called cent. iii. 174; is accused and condemn-
A Defence of the Confession of Augs- ed with his unjust treatment, 175 and f.
burg, 72; three methods proposed for Balbi, John, promotes the study of the
terminating these religious dissensions, Greek language in xiii cent. ii. 341.
ibid. conferences judged the most effec- Balduin, his controversy concerning the
tual way to put a period to them, and merits of Christ, iv. 55.
why, 73 and f; but proved to be inef. Baldus, his character, ii. 449.
fectual, ibid. the severe decree against Balsamon, Theodorus, his erudition and
the reformers, 74 and g; religious peace diligence in explaining the civil and
concluded at the second diet held here, ecclesiastical laws of the Greeks in zii
92; acts favourable to the Protestants cent. ii. 281 and b.
passed, ibid. remarks upon, and proofs Bancroft, bis sermon at Paul's Cross, on
of, the ignorance and superstition of the divine right of Bishops, exasperates
the times, ibid. confession of, and its their contest with the Puritans, and the
defence, 208; and interpolations by effects, iii. 287, 288.
Melancthon, ibid. a; its associates, 295. Baplism, not to be considered as a mere
Augustin, Bishop of Hippo, his character, ceremony, i. 104; the manner of cele-
i. 279, 280, and l; admired for his di- bration in i cent. 107.
dactic writings, 286; his success against
in iv cent. by the Bishop with
the Donatists, 313, suppresses Pelagi lighted tapers, and on the vigils of Eas-
anism, i. 392; opposes the Predestina- ter and Whitsuntide, i. 306.
Baptismal fonts, introduced into the por-
a Benedictine monk, sent into ches of churches, when, i. 306.
Britain in vi cent. i. 398 and e; converts Baptists, general, Arminian, their doctrine,
many Anglo-Saxons to Christianity, ib. i. 348; in what they agree with the
St. Monks of, their rise in xiii particular Baptists, 349.
cent. and founder, ii. 369.
particular, Calvinistical, their
Augustus, base methods used by him to tenets, iii. 349; settle in London, ibid.
obtain power, i. 29.
Baradæus, Jacob, restores the Monophy. .
Avignon, Popes remove thither their resi. sites in vi cent. i. 434; his dexterity
dence in xiv cent. ii. 455 and h; their and diligence, 435; is acknowledged
power diminished, 456; invent new their second founder, and hence they
schemes to acquire riches, ibid.
are called Jacobites, ibid.
Aurelian, state of the church under him . Barbarians, western, persecute the Chris-
tolerable, i, 200, a dreadful persecution tians in x cent. ii. 84.
prevented by his death, ibid.
Barcepha, Moses, his great character, ii,
Aureolus, Peter, an account of, ii. 488. 29 and p.
Ausonius, his character as a poet, i. 266. Barcochebas, assumes the name of the
Austria, commotions in, against the Pro- Messiah, i. 129; a great enemy to the
testants, in xvii cent. iii. 455 and p. Christians, 131 and 26.
Authbert, the success of his ministry in Bardesanes, founder of a sect of heretics
Jutland and Cimbria in ix cent. ii. 4; in ii. cent. i. 176; the doctrine he taught,
converts the Swedes, ibid.
Autherius, Bishop of Bethlehem, founds Barlaam, his book of ethics shows the au-
the congregation of the Holy Sacra.. thor to be inclined to Stoicism, ii. 447;
ment inoxvii cent. iii. 385.'.
a champion for the Greeks against the
Authpert, Ambrose, his character, i. 507; Latins in xiv cent. 487, 494; finds fault
bis Commentary on the Revelations, with some Greek monks, 497; the names
ibid. his lives of the saints, 515.
he gives them, who are defended by
Autun, Honorius of, his character and Gregory Palamas, 498 ; is condemned
works, ii. 283; a polemic writer, 298. by a council at Constantinople, ibid.
Auxerre, William of, bis systematic divini. Barnabas, the epistle attributed to him,
ty, an account of, ii. 283.
supposed to be spurious, i. 97.
Awerri, in Africa, King of, converted to Barnabites, regular clerks of St. Paul,
Christianity by the Capuchins in xvii founded in xvi cent. and by whom, iii.
ceot. iii. 411.
150; soon deviate from their first rule
and their office, ibid. and u.
Baronius, Cesar, his Annals, an account
Bacon, John, an account of, ii. 488.
of, ii. 152 and .; confutations of them
a Roger, his great character, ii. 341 ibid. and a.
and q; and 400 k; bis extensive pro- Barre, Nicholas, forms the Pietists into a
gress in the sciences, 345 and d, e; un society in svii cent. iii. 503.
just imprisonment, ibid.
Bartolus, his character, ii. 449.
Barrow, Isaac, bis great zeal for natural fin. not. s; retires into France, and re-
knowledge, iii. 445.
turns, 269; is assassinated in his own
Barsumas, of Nisibis, a zealous promoter chapel, ibid. reasons to clear Henry II.
of Nestorianism, i. 381.
of England from consenting to his mure
- Abbot, brought the Eutychian der, and the punishment inflicted on the
opinions into Syria and Armenia in v assassins, ibid. t; is enrolled among
cent. i. 386, 387; but the former rejects the most eminent saints, 270 and U.
them, ibid. and h.
Bede, venerable, his character, i. 507 and
Basil, Bishop of Cæsarea, account of him u; exposition of St. Paul's epistles and
and his works, i. 277 and w.
Samuel, 509 : moral treatises, 515.
- the council held at, in xv cent. ii. Beghards, see Beguines, the origin of this
532; the designs of it, and vigorous pro denomination, ii. 392 and r; differed
secutions taken at it, alarm the Roman from the Fratricelli in what, 393; con-
pontiff, 533 and h, i; the decrees, and sidered as seculars and laymen, 395 and
acts, of it, 534; the attempts of Euge. s; the miseries they suffer under Charles
nius IV. to dissolve it ineffectual, 535; IV. in Germany, 481, 482 ; but not ex-
depose Eugenius, and elect another tirpated, ibid.
named Felix V. ibid. friars at Lausanne Beghards, Belgic and German, their ori-
ratify Felix's abdication, and confirm gin, ii. 395 and 4, 396 and 2 ; first soci-
the election of Nicholas, 538.
ety when and by whom formed, ibid.
Basilides, chief of the Egyptian Gnostics, and x; corrupted by the brethren of the
i. 179; gems supposed to come from free spirit in xiv cent. 500; a division
him, ibid. andr; enormous errors of bis of this sect, 501 c; the persecution of
system, 180; falsely charged with de. them and tragical conclusion, 502, 503
nying the reality of Christ's body, ibid.
and h. :
s; his moral doctrine, 181; bis errors,
Schwestriones, in sv cent. iii.
and how led into an enormous one,
449 ; their leading principle, ibid. the
ibid. and t.
miseries they suffer from the inquisition,
Basilius, of Seleucia, writes against the ibid. accounts of them by many writers
Jews in v cent. i. 362.
imperfect, ibid. h.
- the Macedonian, under him the - by corruption called Picards, ij.
Sclavonians and Russians are convert. 563: their horrible tenets, 564; severe
ed in ix cent. ii. 5; an inaccurate ac treatment from Ziska, ibid. and i ; call-
· count of the latter by Lequien, 6 h. ed Adamites, 565; this name afterward
- the founder of an heretical sect applied to the Hussites, ibid.
in xii cent. ii. 306; is condemned, and Beguines, see Beghards, how different from
burnt at Constantinople, ibid. his tenets the Belgic and German, ii. 395.
resemble the ancieni Gnostics and Ma. Behmen, Jacob, one of the Rosecrucian
nichæans, ibid. denies the reality of brethren, iii. 437 ; his chimerical no.
Christ's body, and a future resurrection, tions and followers, iv. 59 ; works, ibid.
Bassi, Matthew de, zealous in attempting Believers, who obtained this name in the
to reform the Franciscans in xvi cent. earliest period of the Christian church,
iv. 147 and i, k; founder of the order i. 88; how distinguished from Catechu-
of the Capuchins, ibid.
Bayle, a skeptical philosopher in xvii cent. Bellarmine, Robert, an eminent defender
iji. 448 and y.
of the Romish church in xvi cent. iji.
Beauvoir, account of the letters which 164: his character, ibid. is censured by
passed between him and archbishop the church of Rome, ibid. and u.
Wake, relative to their correspondence Bellator, his character as a commentator,
with the doctors of the Sorbonne, con- i. 420 ; translates the works of Origen,
cerning the union project, iv. 229; au- 425.
thentic copies of them, 252. See Wake. Bello-visu, Armand de, an account of, ii.
Becker, Balthaser, account of, iii. 445 ; bis 400.
peculiar sentiments, and contest occa. Bembo, Peter, Cardinal, a supposed infi-
sioned by them, iv. 122 ; work entitled del writer in xvi cent. iii. 119.
The World bewitched, ibid. argument Benedict, of Nursia, founder of an order of
against the being of spirits unsatisfacto- monks in vi cent. i. 414; his works, 417.
ry, ibid. . U; is opposed, and tumults - Abbot of Aniane, employed by
consequent thereupon, 123; is deposed Lewis the Meek, to reform the practi-
from his pastoral office, and continues ces of the monks in ix cent. ii. 27; re-
in the same sentiments to his death, stores the monastic discipline, ibid. sub-
ibid. and w.
jects the various monastic orders to that
Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, sub of Benedict of Mount Cassin, ibid, bis
scribes, and afterward rejects the Con discipline at first admired, soon declines,
stitutions of Clarendon, ü. 267, 268 sib ibid.