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manner of authority to treat with me. However, I shall venture at some answer or other to both their letters and papers; and so have done with this affair.
I cannot tell well what to say to Dr. Du Pin. If he thinks we are to take their direction what to retain and what to give up, he is utterly mistaken. I am a friend to peace, but more to truth. And they may depend upon it, I shall always account our church to stand upon an equal foot with theirs; and that we are no more to receive laws from them, than we desire to impose any upon them. In short, the church of England is free, is orthodox. She has a plenary authority within herself, and has no need to recur to any other church to direct her what to retain, or what to do. Nor will we, otherwise than in a brotherly way, and in a full equality of right and power, ever consent to have any treaty with that of France. And there-, fore, if they mean to deal with us, they must lay down this for the foundation, that we are to deal with one another upon equal terms. If, consistently with our own establishment, we can agree upon a closer union with one another, well; if not, we are as much, and upon as good grounds, a free independent church, as they are. And, for myself, as archbishop of Canterbury, I have more power, larger privileges, and a greater authority, than any of their archbishops. From which, by the grace of God, I will not depart; no, not for the sake of an union with them.
You see, sir, what my sense of this matter is; and may perhaps think that I have a little altered my mind, since this affair was first set on foot. As to my desire of peace and union with all other Christian churches, I am still the same. But with the doctor's Commonitorium I shall never comply. The matter must be put into another method; and whatever they think they must alter some of their doctrines, and practices too, or an union with them can never be effected. Of this, as soon as I have a little more leisure, I shall write my mind as inoffensively as I can to them, but yet freely too.
If any thing is to come of this matter, it will be the shortest method I can take of accomplishing it, to put them in the right way. If nothing, as I believe nothing will be done in it, 'tis good to leave them under a plain knowledge of what we think of ourselves and our church; and to let them see, that we neither need nor seek the
union proposed, but for their sake as well as our own; or rather neither for theirs nor ours; but in order to the promotion of a catholic communion, as far as is possible, among all the true churches of Christ.
I have now plainly opened my mind to you; you will communicate no more of it than is fitting to the two doctors, but keep it as a testimony of my sincerity in this affair; and that I have no design, but what is consistent with the honour and freedom of our English church, and with the security of that true and sound doctrine which is taught in it; and from which no consideration shall ever make me depart. I am,
FROM ARCHBISHOP WAKE TO MR. BEAUVOIR,
Oct. 8, 1718. WHATEVER be the consequence of our corresponding with the Sorbonne doctors about matters of religion, the present situation of our affairs plainly seems to make it necessary for us so to do. Under this apprehension I have written, though with great difficulty, two letters to your two doctors, which I have sent to the secretary's office, to go, with the next packet, to my lord Stair. I beg you to inquire after them; they make up together a pretty thick packet, directed to you. In that to Dr. Du Pin, I have, in answer to two of his MSS. described the method of making bishops in our church. I believe he will be equally both pleased and surprised with it. I wish you could show him the form of consecration, as it stands in the end of your large common-prayer books. The rest of my letters, both to him and Dr. Piers, is a venture which I know not how they will take, to convince them of the necessity of embracing the present opportunity of breaking off from the pope, and goilig one step farther than they have yet done in their opinion of his authority; so as to leave him only a primacy of place and honour; and that merely by ecclesiastical authority, as he was once bishop of the imperial city. I hope they both show you my lctters; they are this time very long, and upon a nice point. I shall be very glad if you can any way learn how they take the freedom I have used, and what they really think of it. I cannot so much trust to their answers, in which they have more room to conceal their thoughts, and seldom want to overwhelin me with more compliments than I desire, or am well able to bear. .
Pray do all you can to search out their real sense of, and motions at, the receipt of these two letters; I shall thereby be able the better to judge how far I may venture hereafter to offer any thing to them upon the other points in difference between us. Though, after all, I still think, if ever a reformation be made, it is the state that must govern the church in it. But this between ourselves.
A LETTER FROM ARCHBISHOP WAKE TO DR. DU PIN, DATED
October 1st, 1718, Spectatissimo Viro, eruditorum suæ gentis, si non si sui sæculi principi ; Dno L. EIT.
du Pin, Doctori Parisiensi. Gul. prov. div. Cant. Archs. in omnibus eu govery xull sunsgát Tery. Diu est, amplissime Domine, ex quo debitor tibi factus sum ob plures tractatus MSS. quos tuo beneficio a dilecto inihi in Christo D. Beauvoir accepi. Perlegi diligenter omnes, nec sine fructu ; pluriina quippe ab iis cognitu dignissima, vel primun didici, vel clarius intellexi; beatamque his difficillimis temporibus censeo Ecclesiam Gallicanam, quæ talem sibi in promptu habeat doctorem, in dubiis Consiliarium, in juribus suis tuendis advocatum ; qui et possit et audeat, non modo contra suos vel erroneos vel perfidos symmystas dignitatem ejus tueri, sed et ipsi summo Pontifici, ut olim B. Apostolus Paulus Petro, in faciem resistere, quia reprehensibilis est. Atque utinam hæc quæ jam Romæ aguntur, tandem aliquando omnibus vobis animum darent ad jura vestra penitus asserenda! Ut deinceps non ex pragmaticis, ut olim, sanctionibus; non, ut hoc fere tempore, ex concordatis; non ex præjudicatis hominum opinionibus res vestras agatis; sed ea authoritate qua decet Ecclesiain tam illustris ac præpotentis imperii ; quæ nullo jure, vel divino, vel humano, alteri olim aut Ecclesiæ aut Homini subjicitur; sed ipsa jus habet intra se sua negotia terminandi; et in omuibus sub Rege suo Christianissimo,
populum suum commissum propriis suis legibus et sanctionibus gubernandi.
Expergiscimini itaque, viri eruditi ; et quod ratio postuJat, nec refragatur religio, strenue agite. Hoc bonorum subditorum erga Regem suum officium, Christianorum erga Episcopos suos, heu! nimium extraneorum tyrannide oppressos, pietas exigit, flagitat, requirit. Excutite tandem jugum istud, quod nec patres vestri, nec vos ferre potuistis. Hic ad Reformationem, non prætensam, sed veram, sed justam, sed necessariam Ecclesiæ nostræ primus fuit gradus. Quæ Cæsaris erant, Cæsari reddidimus; quæ Dei, Deo. Coronæ Imperialia Regni nostri suum suprematum, Episcopatui suam úžiavy. Ecclesiæ suam libertatem restituit, vel eo solum nomine semper cum honore memorandus, Rex Henricus VIII. Hæc omnia sub pedibus conculcaverat idem ille tunc nobis, qui jam vobis inimicus. Sæpius authoritas Papalis intra certos fines legibus nostris antea fuerat coercita; et iis quidem legibus, quas siquis hodie inspiceret, impossibile ei videretur eas potuisse aliqua vel vi vel astutia, perrumpere. Sed idem nobis accidit quod illis, qui Dæmoniacum vinculis ligare voluere. Omnia frustra tentata; nihil perfecere inania legum repagula, contra, nescio quos prætextus protestatis divinæ nullis humanis constitutionibus subditæ. Tandem defatigato regno, dura necessitas sua jura tuendi oculos omnium aperuit. Proponitur quæstio Episcopis ac Clero in utriusque provinciæ synodo congregatis, an Episcopus Romanus in Sacris Scripturis habeat aliquam majorem jurisdictionem in regno Angliæ quam quivis alius externus Episcopus? In partem sanam, justam, yeram, utriusque concilii suffragia concurrere. Quod Episcopi cum suo Clero statuerant, etiam Regni Academiæ calculo suo approbârunt, Rex cum Parliamento sancivit; adeoque tandem, quod unice fieri poterat, sublata penitus potestas, quam nullæ leges, nulla jura, vel Civilia vel Ecclesiastica, intra debitos fines unquam potuerant continere.' En nobis promptum ac paratum exemplum; quod sequi vobis gloriosum, nec minus posteris vestris utile fuerit! Quo solo pacem, absque veritatis dispendio, tueri valeatis; ac irridere bruta de Vaticano fulmina; quæ jamdudum ostenditis vobis non ultra terrori esse, utpote, a Sacris Scripturis edoctis, quod maledictio absque causa prolata non superveniet. Prov. xxvi. 2.
State ergo in libertate qua Christus vos donaverit. VOL. IV.
Frustra ad Concilium Generale nunquam convocandum res vestras refertis. Frustra Decretorum vim suspendere curatis, quæ ab initio injusta, erronea, ac absurda, ac plane nulla erant. Non talibus subsidiis vobis opus est. Regia permissione, Authoritate sua a Christo commissa, Archi-. episcopi et Episcopi vestri in concilium nationale coeant; Academiarum, Cleri ac præcipue utrorumque principis Theologicæ Facultatis Parisiensis consilium atque auxilium sibi assumant; sic muniti quod æquum et justum fuerit decernant; quod decreverint etiam civili authoritate firmandum curent; nec patiantur factiosos homines alio res vestras vocare, aut ad judicem appellare qui nullam in vos authoritatem exposcere debeat, aut si exposcat, merito a vobis recusari et poterit et debuerit.
Ignoscas, vir moduzzogule, indignationi dicam an amori meo, si forte aliquanto ultra modum commoveri videar ab iis quæ vobis his proximis annis acciderint. Veritatem Christi omni qua possum animi devotione colo. Hanc vos tuemini; pro hac censuras Pontificias subiistis, et porro ferre parati estis.
Ille, qui se pro summo ac fere unico Christi vicario venditat, veritatem ejus sub pedibus proterit, conculcat. Justitiam veneror; Ac proinde vos injuste, ac plane tyrannice. si non oppressos, at impetitos, at comminatos; at ideo non solum non penitus obrutos, subversos, prostratos, quia Deus furori ejus obicem posuit, nec permiserit vos in ipsius manus incidere; non possum non vindicare, et contra violentum oppressorem, meum qualecunque suffragium ferre.
Jura ac libertates inclyti regni, celeberrimæ ecclesiæ, præstantissimi Cleri cum honore intueor. Hæc Papa reprobat, contemnit; Et dum sic alios tractat, merito se aliis castigandum, certe intra justos fines coercendum, exhibet. Siquid ei protestatis supra alios Episcopos Christus commiserit, proferantur tabulæ ; jus evincatur; cedere non recusamus.
Siquam prærogativam Ecclesia Concilia sedis Imperialis Episcopo concesserint, etsi cadente Imperio, etiam ea prærogativa excidisse merito possit censeri; tamen quod ad me attinet, servatis semper regnorum juribus, ecclesiarum libertatibus, episcoporum dignitate, modo in cæteris conveniatur, per me licet, suo fruatur, qualicunque primatu; non ego illi locum primum ; non inanem honoris titulum invideo. At in alias ecclesias dominari; Episcopa