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INSTRUCTION XXI.

ANGLO-SAXON ROOT-WORDS.

IF we take the cluster of words, HOME, homely, homeless, homelier, homeliest, homeliness, the word, home, is the root of all the others. It is a root-word.

A root-word is one that gives rise to others. Thus, the root word, FATHER, gives rise to fatherly, fatherless, unfatherly.

We are about now to enter upon the study of root-words of Anglo-Saxon origin.

What is a root-word ? Give an instance.

INSTRUCTION XXII.

SYLLABLES.

THERE are many words which can be sounded at once. Such are the words, son, child. There are also many words which cannot be sounded at once. Such are the words, father, mother. They are broken into parts, called syllables; as, fa-ther.

A syllable is a word, or so much of one as can be sounded at once; as, man, child-like.

What is a syllable ?

INSTRUCTION XXIII.

QUANTITY.

IF I sound the vowels, a, e, i, o, u, the voice is lengthened. If I sound the consonants, such as k, t, d, the voice is shortened. When I speak the word, father, the voice is long on the syllable, fa, and short on the syllable, ther. This is called quantity.

Quantity is length of voice as heard in letters and syllables. It is long, or short, and is marked thus, -; as in consme.

What is quantity ? Give an instance of the long and short quantity of letters and syllables. What are the marks of quantity?

INSTRUCTION XXIV.

ACCENT.

The voice, in sounding words of more than one syllable, changes its force. It is stronger on one than on another. This is called accent.

Accent is force of voice on one or more syllables of a word. It appears on the syllable, ty, in the word, tyrant. Its mark is as on the word, mínute.

What is accent?

INSTRUCTION XXV.

ARTICULATION.

WE sound all the letters and words by using the organ of speech. This organ is divided into three parts:

1. The part for breathing; as, the lungs and wind-pipe. 2. The part for voice, as, the larynx, glottis, and epiglottis.

3. The part for articulation, or jointing; as, the tongue, palate, teeth and lips. In speaking words, these parts come together, and this is called articulation.

Articulation is the joining of parts of the organ of speech to form the sounds which make words. Thus, in sounding t, I have to join the tip of my tongue and my upper gums.

Articulation should be a daily exercise. The child should repeat the table of letters and sounds daily.

What are the parts of the organ of speech? What is articulation

INSTRUCTION XXVI.

ENUNCIATION.

IF we notice the voice as we sound the letters of the alphabet, we will see that it goes forth in different ways. It swells on o, glides on z, hisses on s, crushes on ch, and rings on N. This is called enunciation.

Enunciation is the way in which we give out the sounds of letters. It should be clear, strong and distinct; and form a daily exercise.

What is enunciation What should it be?

INSTRUCTION XXVII.

PRONUNCIATION.

LETTERS are formed into words, and undergo some changes. A, for instance, has one sound in father, and another in fate. To is sharp in thin, but flat in thine. To mark these changes, and give the true sounds of letters in words, is the part of pronunciation.

Pronunciation is the giving of the right sounds to letters in words, and accents to syllables. Thus, neither should be pronounced as if written nee' ther, and not as if written nayther, or neethér.

What is pronunciation What two things belong to it?

INSTRUCTION XXVIII.

ORTHOEPY.

THE spoken word comes to the ear. It is a sound, and can be studied. The branch of knowledge that tells us all about it, is called orthoëpy.

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Orthoëpy comes from two Greek words, and means correct speaking. It teaches us the spoken word-its sounds, syllables, quantity and accent.

What is orthoëpy? What does it teach? What belongs to its

INSTRUCTION XXIX.

ORTHOGRAPHY,

THE written word is seen by the eye. It has form and parts, and can be studied. The branch of knowledge that tells us all about it, is called orthography.

Orthography comes from two Greek words, and means correct writing. It teaches us the written word—its letters, syllables, quantity and accent. (See Lingual Reader.)

What is orthography: What does it teach? What belongs to it?

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WE cannot write words unless we know the sounds that make them, and the letters which stand for these sounds. I hear, for instance, the word, child. How shall I be able to write it? By learning that it is made up of the sounds,

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and that these sounds are written by the letters, ch, i, l, d. This is spelling.

Spelling is naming the sounds that make a word, or writing the letters that stand for these sounds. Thus, I spell the word, thin, by naming the sounds, - -, or writing the letters, th, i, n. Writing is the only sure way of learning to spell.

What is spelling? How many ways can you spell? Which is the better way

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The sounds given to the letters in the alphabet are not the sounds which they have in words. The letter, H, for instance, is called aitch, in the alphabet, and never has this sound in words. Its true sound is heh ; as in he.

as in he. This is very troublesome to children in spelling. Thus, we spell the word, hat, aitch, ā, te, and pronounce it, hat.

Phonetic spelling does away with this trouble. It gives the true sound to each letter—the sound which it has in the word. Thus, we spell in this way, the word, church, cheh, ŭ, er, cheh-church.

What is phonetic spelling? Give an instance.

INSTRUCTION XXXII.

THE MEANING OF WORDS.

WORDS are signs of things, and have a meaning. This must be known, or words are of little use to us.

I have, for instance, the word, deck. How shall I use it? Its meaning will be my guide. Deck means to dress or adorn. The child decks her head with flowers.

The meaning of a word is what it stands for. It is best learned by seeing or feeling the thing. Thus, the word, tooth-ache, stands for a pain in a tooth. I know its meaning when I feel that pain. (See Sentential Reader.)

No word should be allowed to find its way into the mind without its meaning.

What is the meaning of a word? How is it best learned?

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