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"Have in good repair your coats of mail and helmets; have the laces of your shields well secured:—presume not to have any of these but in perfect order. Prepare your bows and arrows ; temper your lances and spears; sharpen your pointed and edged weapons: —presume not to have any of these but in good condition.

care of the oxen and horses of the army ; further, that the troops on no account leave their runk6 or go astray; and finally, he appoints the day when he will commence operations against the enemy, and commands that all tho requisite preparations be made.

P. 1. Opening of the speech. Occasion of the expedition. By ' men' we are to understand all in the host, his own subjects of Loo, and the troops of States whom he had called to aid in the expedition,—officers and common men. *f|j

tnere *8 8 difficulty here with the interpretation of Ts'ae, after Soo

Shih, takes the characters as = 'for

merly,' so that the meaning of the clause is— 'Formerly, the wild tribes of the Hwae and the Ts'eu rose in insurrection together.' But why refer to what they had done in former times? We must understand, on this construction, something like—'And now again, they take advantage of our present circumstances, and give fresh trouble, so that we have to take the field against them.' This is the way in which the ' Daily Explanation' brings out the mean

—'0$ il£ Gan-kw6's view was differ

ent. He took indeed as = not adverbially, however, but as a verb, meaning 'to go,'—' we are going,' or 'let us go.' The ^£

is = lj;|^, 'this,' or 'these.'—'We are going to

those tribes of the Hwae and of Seu, who have risen up together;' i.e., we are going to chastise them. This construction is followed by Lin Che-k'e and Keang Shing, the latter of whom

expounds the clause:— =5" jj£ ffjfc

&Jtmmi$m%- I trans

lated according to this view. 'The wild tribes about the Hwae' are mentioned so far back as the time of Yu;—see 'The Tribute of Yu,' Pt. i , p. 35. They belonged to the province of Ts'eu, and why there should be mentioned in addition to them another tribe, called the 'Jung

of Ts'eu' is a question which cannot be fully

answered. was properly the name of tlie

wild people on the west of the Middle kingdom. Possibly, a tribe of them had forced their way to the eastern coasts, and settled in one or more places of Ts'eu, continuing to retain their original designation. Wang Kang-yay [often

mentioned likewise as Wang Ch'ung-ynn ( -f*

~3tt nas an 'nstruct've ai>d suggestive

note on the passage:—' means " to go." The

passage is best taken with K'ung Gan-kwo as meaning—" We are now going to smite those K and Jung." K'ung says that the various tribes of wild people were simply bridled by the emperors of the early dynasties and allowed to dwell in different places within the different provinces; but I venture to think that the true state of the case concerning them was this:— Anciently, when the country was first peopled, it was not possible for the principles of propriety and righteousness to penetrate everywhere with a transforming power. All who wereunaffected by those principles were classed as E or Jung, and all who recognised them and came under their influence were said to be Hwa

andHea(j|l^gj| ^ ^ We are not to

suppose that it was necessary to be living outside the nine provinces, in what are called "the four seas," in order to be Jung and E. In the account of Yu's five domains, indeed, the Man and the E are said to have been in the domain, of Restraint and the Wild domain; but when we examine the state of the empire of Chow,.

we find "the white Teih" ( £j fy) in T>aeyuen [in Shan-se], the E of the Hwae and the Jung of Ts'eu in the province of Ts'eu, the Lae

E in Ta'e ^ ^ and the Jung

of Luh-wun about the E river (ffi J||

^J* Even such great States as

Woo and Tsoo had to drive out the E and Teih. It is plain that these tribes were not confined to the two domains to which we have referred. Shun told Kaou-yaou to restrain by punishments the Man and E who were disturbing the empire, which simply means that he was to punish those who denied the principles of propriety and righteousness, and violated them. The critics, not examining the case sufficiently, have rashly said that Kaou-yaou took weapons of war to deal with those people. They have not considered that the Man and E were dwelling with the mass of the ordinary population of the Middle Kingdom. There was no occasion for military operations against them. It is absurd to think of such measures as those of after ages,—the despatch of a great general to punish and smite the various tribes of barbarians.'

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"We must now largely let the oxen and horses loose, and not keep them as usual in enclosures:—do you shut up your traps, and fill up your pitfalls, and do not presume to injure any of the animals let loose. If any of them be injured, you shall be dealt with according to the regular punishments.

"When the horses and cattle are seeking one another, or when your followers, male or female, abscond, presume not to leave the

P. 2. The soldiers must have their weapons all in good order. is defined in the "j^T

by 'to select,' and the -fe similarly

gives M for it. Ts'ae explains it by1 to

stitch and make whole,' and K'ang-shing by

at, which comes to the same thing. The

meaning evidently is that in the translation, whatever may be the specific force of this term. The 'coats of mail and helmets' were made of leather, which may have been studded or fenced

with more or less of metal. j§jjjr means

properly 1 the strings attached to a shield.' The soldiers are required to see that they were

in good order. Ari Ti m (teih),—1 in

perfect condition.' ^3 = iii. Ts'ae defines

by yfy. 'to put in the fire and then in

water,' «= ' to temper.' The character denotes

the 'forging' of metals generally. §^ 5jJ,

—' sharp points and edges,'—i.e., weapons for thrust and cut.

P. 3. The people must look after the ground in the line of march, so that the cattle of the army should not be injured. The charge here must be taken as addressed to the people, though that is not mentioned in the text.

JBI'—9o is Jefined in the jet as

5^, 'an enclosure or stable for oxen

and horses.' K'ang-shing endeavours to explain it from ^jf, 'manacles,' i.e., hobbles attached to the feet; but this is to be rejected. As they marched through the country, the soldiers would have, especially at night, to let loose (,2jSc=^£) their cattle, to rest them

and let them seek pasture, instead of keeping them in stables or enclosures. They would

have to do this, J^, 'extensively and carelessly'

often. The critics all define here by

'greatly;' but the other meaning which I have indicated must not be omitted. Below,

to indicate the cattle. Ying-tft says:—=a

4" "t!i' ^nHt '* >nt'matcd about the character of the country shows how thinly it must have then been peopled. With and

ffi comp. H|: and |£jfl in 'The Doctrine of

the Mean,' Ch. vi. 'to fiu UP-'

None of the commentators touch on ' the regular punishments' for the offences here indicated, nor do I know what they were.

P. 4. The soldiers must on no account leave their entrenchments or ranks; and the people must carefully return strayed animals and absconded followers. JjJ| ^ ft J^—the diet, explains M, with reference to this passage, by 'to stray;' but usage shows that such straying is like that' when the wild ass snuflcth up the wind; -4t ^fc j$ $fi f g £ JR

is talc

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ranks to pursue them. But let them be carefully returned. I will reward you who return them according to their value. But if you leave your places, to pursue them, or if you who find them do not return them, you shall be dealt with according to the regular punishments. And let none of you people presume to rob or detain vagrant animals or followers, or to jump over enclosures and walls to steal away horses or oxen, or to decoy away servants and female attendants. If you do so, you shall be dealt with according to the regular punishments.

"On the day Kea-suh I will punish the tribes of Seu ;—prepare roasted grain and other provisions, and presume not to have any deficiency. If you do, you shall suffer the severest punishment. Yemen of Loo, from the three environing territories, and the three tracts beyond, prepare your posts and planks. On Kea-suh I will commence

followers who had to gather fuel, cook, &c. Kin Le-ts'eang tells us that 'to every chariot there were attached three men in mail, and 70 foot soldiers, with other 25 followers, who are those

intended here by gf W,-- all means 1 getting over' the entrenchments.

till a tnia must understood as ad

dressed to the country-people who should fall in with such animals and camp-followers. Both they, and soldiers who should themselves pursue after the vagrants, are addressed in ~J*j I

7$> tt-^cH1] ^1% M; but the rest of the

par. regards only the people who should thus offend. Gan-kw6, indeed, supposes that i&E j^, -7^—7^-, is addressed to the soldiers, against stealing from the people, and Woo Ch'ing that it is forbidding them to steal one from another; but the view which I have proposed seems much more likely. a jf| ^ jfr-'I will deliberate and reward you;'—the meaning is, as I have expressed it in the translation. The peculiar force of i^^>'to appropriate on temptation of occasion offered,' should be expressed in a translation.

P. 5. The time is fixed for direct operations, and everything required to be in readiness. We are to suppose that the marching would be over by the day Kea-suh, and that they would be

then in front of the enemy. lI^F^^Hf fit,
'to have collected and prepared.' ^
— i§^>'tne country beyond the
capital to a certain extent was called and
beyond this again it was denominated gr

Gaubil observes that' it is difficult at the present
day to get correct ideas of what was really
intended by these designations of the frontiers;
and that it is difficult to account for the mention
of three keaou and three say.' Wang Sub thinks
that the troops from the keaou and suy on the east
were left to guard the country, and hence, as
only those from the other three went forth on
the expedition, only they are mentioned. This
was the view also of Gan-kwfl. Ying-ta, how-
ever, puts forward another view, which is in,
consistent with this, though he does not seem
to be aware of the inconsistency.—In the
imperial domain, to a distance of 100 le was

called at, and beyond that was the 3k. In the ^JJ were the six Many vhich furnished the 'six basts' j|i), while the

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my entrenchments;—dare not but be provided with a supply of these. If you be not so provided, you shall be subjected to various punishments, only short of death. Ye men of Loo, from the three environing territories, and the three tracts beyond, prepare the forage, and do not dare to let it be other than in abundance. If you do, you shall suffer the severest punishment."

to them, as they were nearer than the others to the seat of war. 36fl: Bl, —' punishments without remainder.' It is difficult to say what punishments are meant. The addition

of ^k. shows that they were short of death.

Ohii-kw5 simply says—'various punishments'
K'ang-shing and Wang Suh, agree in saying
that the punishments were such as would in-
volve the parents and children of the offender,
so that none should be exempt from them.
We have in this par. and the last the 1 regular

punishments' ;Jfl])> which were well de-
fined and known; the ^£ ^f|J, 'great punish-
ment' or death; and these first f&fe Bl.

It are distinguished as 'new-mown grass

and hay.'

s«y extending 200 le beyond, furnished, if need were, six subsidiary hosts. In a large State of 100 Ir, square, the ketiuu extended 20 le. from the capital; and as it was supposed to furnish only 'three hosts,' and, if need were, three auxiliary hosts, it is inferred that these might all be

called £fl = £ \. The Ian

guage in the text, therefore, is simply equivalent to 'the army of Loo,' and we do not need to inquire further about a 4th keuou and a 4 tli Shjt.

;j>jjj are 'the posts and planks' for the framework in which walls are raised in China by pounding earth and lime together

<M 0 0 (t From t,ie men

tion of the 'men of Loo, it is inferred that there were men of other States also in the army, while they were required to provide the planks and posts, and forage, such labour being easier

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The duke said, "Ah! my officers, listen to me without any noise. I solemnly announce to you the most important of all sayings. It is this which the ancients have said, 'Thus it is with all people,

Name Of The Book.—gig 3fp, 'The Speech of the duke of Ts'in.' At the time w hen this speech was made, the States of Tsin and

Ts'in (W) were among the most powerful of the empire. In n.c. 630, they were engaged together in the siege of the capital of Ch'ing (j=f|J)i and would have extinguished that principality, but the duke of Ts'in was suddenly induced to withdraw his forces, leaving three of his officers in friendly relations with the court of Ch'ing, and under engagement to defend the country from aggression. These men, however, were entirely in the interest of their own prince, and one of them, called Ke-tsze

f), sent word, in B.C. 627, to Ts'in, that he was in charge of one of the gates of the capital, and if an army were sent to take the place by surprise, Ch'ing might be added to the territories of Ts'in. The duke—duke

Muh ^—laid ">e ma"cr before his

counsellors. The most experienced of them— the famous Pih-le He ( jf| jj^t) and Keen

shuh a ?{sS0—were against taking advantage of the proposed treachery. The duke, however, listened rather to the promptings of his own ambition, and the next year sent a large force, under his three ablest commanders, hoping to fall upon Ch'ing all unexpected. The attempt failed. Ch'ing was warned of the approaching danger; and the commanders, vexed and disappointed, were leading the army back, when it was attacked by the troops of Tsin

among the passes of the Heaou mountain

111), in the pres. dep. of Ho-nan, and sustained a

terrible defeat. The troops were nearly all cut to pieces, and the three commanders were taken prisoners.

The duke of Tsin was intending to put these captives to death, when he was persuaded by his mother to send them back to Ts'in, that duke Muh might himself sacrifice them to his anger for their want of success. Much, however, did no such thing. He went out from the capital to meet his defeated officers, and comforted them, saying that the blame of the defeat was his own, who had refused to listen to the advice of his wise counsellors. Then it is said he made the speech here recorded, for the benefit of all his ministers.

That the speech was made on the occasion thus described rests on the authority of the preface to the Shoo, which has generally been

followed by the critics. The however, while it relates how Muh met his commanders and comforted them, says nothing of the speech. And Sze-me Ts'een places it three years later, and on a different occasion. After some unsuccessful attempts to wipe out the disgrace at the Heaou hills, Ts'in made a great raid on its neighbour in n.c. 621, when Tsin did not dare to meet the enemy in the field. Then duke Muh crossed the Ho, and had the bones of his slaughtered host collected, and interred in one place, making great sacrifices, and mourning on the occasion, and delivering this speech, to acknowledge and transmit the memory of the fault he had committed.

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