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and the invading barbarous tribes of the west have greatly injured our empire. Moreover, among the managers of my affairs, there are none of age and experience, and distinguished ability, in their offices. I am thus unequal to the difficulties of my position, and say to myself, 1 My grand-uncles and uncles, you ought to compassionate my case. Oh! if there were those who could establish their merit in behalf of me, the one man, I might long enjoy repose upon the throne.'
* # # # # Ik m
'among the managers of my affairs, there are none of age and experience. The evils are on my person.' This is not liable to the difficulty which presents in the common reading; but the sentiment docs not seem appropriate to the place. ^ 5^.—' I then not
adequate;' i.e., feeble, unsupported; in the midst of calamities, the king felt unequal to the difficulties he had to cope with. £jj 'j'fj: ^?
7^.—the £J indicates that the king thus spoke to himself. As Ying-ta Bays,
W- fffH. t# 3ci8 an "PI*8110 th9
princes of the same surname with himself. As we have seen, denotes 'uncles,' will be 'grand-uncles.' The 'Daily Explanation' gives for it-|g ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ft§. ^£ ^j. Medhurst has missed the
meaning, and renders—' Of those who have stood before my grandfather and father.' Gaubil has missed it in a different way:—'Quel est done celui qui pourra me tenir lieu de grandpere et de pere?' ^[ is here a particle, ■» ^e 'lnve to suppose a second — as the nominative to fyg. The end of this par. thus corresponds to that of the preceding. Chang Kew-shing observes that the weakness of king P-ing's character is here apparent. He shows no self-reliance. He has no higher aim than to live quietly and have tranquillity in his time.
"Uncle E-ho, you render still more glorious your illustrious ancestor. You were the first to imitate the example of Wan and Woo, collecting the scattered powers, and continuing the all-but-broken line of your sovereign. Your filial piety goes back to your accomplished ancestor, and is equal to his. You have done much to repair my losses, and defend me in my difficulties, and of you, being such, I am full of admiration."
The king said, "Uncle E-ho, return home, survey your multitudes, and tranquillize your State. I reward you with ajar of spirits made from the black millet, mixed with odoriferous herbs; with
P. 3. The king acknowledges the services which prince Wffn had rendered, and praises him. By
'your distinguished ancestor,' we are to understand the prince of T'ang. He also is intended by the |jfr A below. fj(^jflj x whether we define by ilk, as in
the translation, or by 'earnestly,' as Keang Shing does, it seems very extravagant to be comparing prince Wan to the kings Wan and Woo. Ts'ae observes that the principles of Wan and Woo might te said to be extinct, when the ministers about the court were only such as are described in the last par., but now prince Wan had begun to lead the way to their revival,
prince of a how and arrows was understood to invest him with the power of punishing all within his jurisdiction who were refractory to the imperial commands, but not of taking life without first reporting to the court. See in the Xe Ke, Bk. (till, Pt. ii., p. 19,_J|§ q
Whether anything special was denoted by send-
two sets of arrows, I do not know.
&\ 'lilt 8f here iB ra08t Probably
to be understood as used not for the chief city only, but for all the other cities of the State.
Ts'ae, after Gan-kwo, makes it = ^ffi
M, 'from the capital to the borders.' Soo
Sliib made the M refer to ' the officers'
it -f-)) over whom the prince should
keep a watchful eye, and to the people, for
whom he should exercise a compassionate care
(\fa ^Mi R). It is by no means clear
to me that this Charge is the appointment of
Wan to be a 'chief of a region.' That
opinion probably arose from the view to which I have referred, that it was duke Won to whom the Charge was given.
Concluding Historical, Note. In the 51st or last year of P'ing's reign, occurred an eclipse of the sun, Feb. 14, Bx. 719. He is the last of the emperors of the Chow dynasty, with whom the Shoo has anything to do; but the 'Spring and Autumn ' commences in B.c. 721, with the first year of duke Yin of Loo, and
continues the history for about two centuries and a half longer.
It may be well here to give a list of the rest of the sovereigns of Chow. F'ing was the 13tb.
The duke said, "Ah ! ye men, make no noise, but listen to my commands. We are now going to punish those wild tribes of the Hwae and of Seu, who have risen up together.
The Name Of The Book.—J@ 48"> 'Th0 speech at Pe.' This Book carries us back from the times of P'ing to those of Ching, the second of the emperors of Chow. The speech recorded in it is attributed in the Preface to the Shoo to Pih-k'in the son of the duke of Chow; and there is a general acquiescence of tradition and critics in this view. We may account for its position out of the chronological order from its being a record not of any imperial doings, but of the sentiments of the prince of a State. K'ang-shiug and others placed it before 'Lea on Punishments,' which arrangement, still leaving it out of the order of time, would deprive lis of the explanation just given. The speech has reference to some military operations against the tribes on the Hwae and other wild hordes of the province of Seu or T'seu; but we saw that they were in insurrection many times during the reign of Ching, and we cannot tell to what year the Book should be referred. Pitt- k'in presided over his principality for the long period of 53 years, and died B.c. 1,062. The speech was made at Pe 0^1^;—see Ming-shing on what he says was the older form of the name). On the situation of this place I give the note of Ch'in Sze-k'ae:—'Pih-k'in had his capital in the pres. dis. of K'euh-fow (|JJj §.), dep. of Yen-chow, and Pe was in the dis. still so called, in the dep. of E-chow Cftf N). Now, acc. to the gjl, E is east from
Yen-chow 385 le; Pe is 95 le to the north-west of E; K'euh-fow is east from Yen-chow 30 le and thus from K'euh-fow to Pe was 280 le or
thereabouts. At the commencement of tha "Spring and Autumn," Pe was an independent principality, for in the first year of duke Yin
(b.o. 720 we read in the A that 'the baron of Pe led a force to fortify Lang' i& Afterwards, it became
the chief city of the Ke family of Loo, as we read again, in the first year of duke He (b.c. 658), that'he granted to Ke Yew the fields on
the south of the Wan, and Pe' fjjfy
jHZ^ZBR^ I" "-Analects also Min Tsze-k'ecu appears as asked to be governor of Pe (Ana. VI., vii.). We may conclude, therefore, that, in the time of Pih-k'in, Pe did not belong to Loo. But it was in his jurisdiction as the chief or ruling prince of the
regions of the east "f R). Gan-kwS is
wrong when he says that Pe was a place in the eastern border of Loo, and Ying-ta when he says that Pih-k'in did not go beyond the territory of Loo. Pih-k'in's speech was like that of K'e at Kan, or of T'ang at Ming-t'eaou, or of king Woo at Muh ; i.e., it was made like those when the army approached the territory of the enemy.'
The Book is in both the texts.
Contents. Pih-k'in appears at tho head of his host proceeding against the tribes of the Hwae and the wild people of T8*eu. Having commanded silence, he issues his orders, first, that the soldiers all have their arms in good order; next, that the people of the country take