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the following effect:—" Uncle E-ho, how

1 The king spoke to illustrious were Wan and Woo! Carefully did they illustrate their virtue, till it rose brightly on high, and the fame of it was widely diffused here below. Therefore did God cause his favouring decree to light upon king Wan. Thereafter there were ministers who aided and illustriously served their sovereigns, following and carrying out their plans and counsels great and small, so that my fathers sat tranquilly upon the throne.

Introductory Historical Note. The Book of the Shoo at which we have now arrived is separated from the last by an interval of two hundred years. Between king P'ing who gave the Charge to the prince Wan and king Mull there had reigned seven sovereigns of the House of Chow ; and it is remarkable that not a single document of the reign of any of them was incorporated by Confucius with this volume. Of such monuments there must have been many. No Books have here been lost. Those two hundred years in the dynasty to which he himself belonged were left by the sage a blank. This fact is sufficient to prove that Confucius did not compile the Shoo as a history of his

country, or even intend that it should afford materials for such a history. His design, we may rather judge, was to bring together such pieces as might show the wonderful virtue and intelligence of ancient sovereigns and statesmen, who should be models to those of future ages. But in all the space of time of which I am writing, there wa3 neither sovereign nor statesman to whom it could give him pleasure to refer. Indeed, king Woo, the first of the sovereigns of Chow, had no successor equal to himself. But for his brother, the duke of Chow, the dynasty would have come to an early end. There was a constant degeneracy after king K'ang. Its progress was now and then temporarily,

but feebly, arrested. Power and influence passed with a steady progress from the imperial court to one feudatory and another, till in the time of Confucius himself the successors of Woo were hardly more than 'shadows of an empty name.' According to my plan I introduce here the names of the sovereigns between Mull and P'ing, and a few particulars of their reigns.

[ i. ] E-hoo (|pj j§^)> tlie 8on of Muh, and known as king Kung -f-), or 'The Re

Succeeded to the throne B.C. 945, and reigned for 12 years, ace. to the common chronology. The only incident of his reign of which we find mention is given by Sze-ma Ts'een from the

HI va' $*i inf l, and is t0 th0 effect that the king was on one occasion rambling near the river King, in the pres. dep. of P'ing-leang

(^P trio, Kan-suni attended by the duke

K'ang of Meih (^ff -^V^' a sma^ principality in that part of the country, when three young ladies introduced themselves into their company. Duke K'ang's mother advised him to leave them to the emperor, but he appropriated them to himself. Within a year the king made an end of him and his principality, indignant, we are to suppose, at the duke's conduct in the matter of the three ladies. I do not know that this story, as I have given it, is entitled to much faith. None is due to the romantic account of it, which is found in the history of P. de Mailla.

[ ii. ] King Kung was succeeded, B.C. 983, by his son Keen (|?j|)> known as king E or 'The Mild' (|^ ill ^ f| ^

0 Jpjj^), who reigned 25 years. All that Ts'een says of him is that in his time ' the royal House went on to decay, and poets made him an object of their satire.' He removed the

capital to Hwae-le (Jjjfy J|l), a place in the

pres. dis. of Hing-p'ing (J|L T), dep. of Segan. This seems, however, to have been merely a temporary measure. The 'Bamboo Books' speak of several irruptions of barbarous tribes in this reign.

[ iii. ] A brother of king E, by name Peihfang (,;{|^| succeeded him, and is known as king Heaou ('^ J), or 'The Final'

^MM^UB^- ^'een say. nothing more of him than that he came to the throne and died. His reign, however, lasted from B.C. 908 to 894. During this period, the chiefs of the House destined to supersede that of Chow begin to make their appearance on the stage of affairs. They traced their

lineage np to the baron Yih (-^j^; often called

f|^f), the Forester of Shun. One of them, named

Fei-tsze Ts had made himself famous at this time by his skill in rearing horses, and was taken into the king's service to superintend

his studs in the plains near the rivers K'een and

Wei (Z^f a )• an<1 wa9 final'y test

ed with a small territory of which the chief city was Tsin, still the name of an inferior department of Kan-sub. The king appointed him there to continue the sacrifices to Yih, as

the head of the Yang clan or family Q

w*1'c'1 thenceforth begins to make a great figure in the empire.

[iv. ] On the death of king Hcaou, the princes raised a son of his brother and predecessor, of the name of See (^grp, to the throne, which he occupied for 16 years, till B.c. 878. He is known as king E E), or '^''e Peace

awe ■ <m & ^ & if M B He

proved a weak sovereign, and was in bondage to the princes to whom he owed the empire. It is objected to him that, when he gave audience to them, he descended from the dais to meet them, as if he were their equal merely. The chief of the State of Tsoo extended the possessions of his House during this reign, and assumed the right of investing his sons with his conquests without reference to the court. He arrogated to himself, moreover, the title of king. The imperial authority was evidently but little cared for.

[ v. ] King E was succeeded by his sou Hoo

CjjjJJ), known as king Le a; 3E)i or ''^h®

A long reign of 51 years, is assigned to him, but during the last thirteen years he was a fugitive, and the govt, was administered by two of the nobles. In B.C. 841, the people rose in rebellion, their patience exhausted by the various oppressions, engendered by the avarice, suspicions, and cruelty of the sovereign. The king made his

escape, and fled to Che (at), in the pres. sub.

dep. of Huh (jpa J>|>|), dep. of P'ing-yang, Shan

se, where he found a refuge. Disappointed by the escape of the tyrant, the people sought to wreak their fury on his eldest son, by name

Tsing quite a youth, who had hidden

himself in the house of the duke of Shaou, a descendant of Sbih so famous in the early reigns of the dynasty. The loyalty of the ancestor had descended to the present Head of the family. As a minister, he had remonstrated, though in vain, with king Le, on his evil courses; he now sacrificed his own son to save the heir to the crown. The people surrounded the house, and insisted on Tsing being delivered to them that they might satiate their fury by tearing him in pieces. The duke gave his own son, of the same age as the prince, into their hands, and on him they worked their pleasure. Subsequently, the dukes of Shaou and Chow carried on the govt, for the prince until Le's death, which took place in Che in B.c. 827.

[ vi. ] Prince Tsing commenced a long reign of 46 years in B.C. 826. He is known as king

Seuen J), or "The Distinguished'

gl || N Q 1|> He had learned wisdom in the school of adversity, and from the statesmen who had protected his youth. Most of the princes returned in a measure to their allegiance, but the empire was distracted by irrnptions of the barbarous tribes on every side. In B.c. 821, there was a great drought, and the misery of the people was extreme. The virtue of the king seems to have experienced a decay. In B.c. 815, ne neglected,notwithstanding the remonstrances of his ministers, the custom of putting his own hand to the plough, and turning up a furrow in a field enclosed for the purpose, as an acknowledgment of the dependance of the empire on agriculture, and an example to all its husbandmen. He was proceeding to resign himself to idle habits, when the queen divested herself of her ornaments, and accused herself of seducing the king to selfindulgence, and to lie long in bed. This roused him to resume his early ways. In his 39th year, n.c. 788, he took the field against one of the western tribes, known by the name of the

Keang (^^)> as if they were sprung from the

same stock as the princes of Ts'e, and sustained a

great defeat at a place called Ts'een-mow (=^-*

gj^), or 'The Thousand Acres.' From the chagrin of this he never recovered. A few years after, he was proceeding 'to number the people,' like king David of Israel, with a view to collect an immense force, and wipe out the disgrace he had incurred. His ministers succeeded in averting his purpose, but he became melancholy and capricious, put to death some of his most faithful advisers, and died in a fit of moody insanity, as we may judge, in B.c. 779.

[vii. ] Seuen was succeeded by his son Ne'8 (Jgg)> known as king Yew (|&Ji|), or •The Dark' (|g & $ $ ft ft Q J^j), who was slain by a tribe of barbarian

invaders called 'The Dog Jung' *fter an inglorious reign of 11 years. In the sixth year of his reign, on the 29th of August (new style), B.c. 775, occurred an eclipse of the sun. It is commemorated in the She King, Pt. II., Bk. IV., Ode iii., as ' an announcement of evils by the sun and moon.' Other symptomatic aberrations, as they appeared to be, in the order of nature are mentioned by the poet along with it:—

* The thunder roars, the lightning flashes;—
There is a want of repose, a want of good.
All the streams are overflowing;
The tops and crags of the mountains fall.
High hills become valleys;
Deep valleys become hills.
Alas! that this man
Will not correct himself.'

This eclipse gives us a point of chronological certainty for the history of this reign. It is the first of the long list of eclipses, by the mention of which Chinese history from the 8th century before Christ acquires more certainty than belongs to that of the earlier ages. The ruin and death of king Yew were brought about by the ascendancy which a female favourite, called

Paou-sze (jBjjjs ^£J[)' gained over him. He had married andestablished as queen a daughter of the prince of Shin (t|?. This principality was

in the pres. sub. dep. of Tang [^jj ^j^], dep. of Nan-yang, Ho-nan); and his son by her, called E-k'ew £j)> was recognised as heirapparent of the throne. The rise of Paousze was followed by the degradation of the prince and his mother. E-k'ew was sent, as a preliminary measure, to the court of Shin, ' to learn good manners.' His mother was then reduced to a second place, and Paou-sze was declared queen in her room, and an infant son by her took the place and dignity of heir-apparent. Scenes were enacted like those of Keg and Me-he, or of Show and Ta-ke. To please Paousze the king made game of all the nobles. The prince of Shin called in the assistance of the Dog Jung, and attacked the capital. He did not intend the death of the king, but only that of the intruding favourite and her son, and the restoration of his daughter and grandson to their rights. His barbarian auxiliaries, however, could not be controlled; the king flying from Haou was pursued by them and put to death, while Paou-sze became the captive of their chief.

Thus ended the sway of what is called 1 the Western Chow.' The victorious nobles having expelled the Jung from the capital with some difficulty, brought back E-k'ew from Shin, and hailed him as king. He is known as king P'ing

^ I )•or' T1,e TranquUUzer' |Jfc y ^EJ ^l] 0 ^P)- H'8 nrst measure was to transfer the capital eastwards to LS-yang, fulfilling at length, but under disastrous circumstances, the wishes of the duke of Chow; and from this time, B.C. 769, dates the history of' the Eastern Chow."

The Name Of The Boox.— ^ -jjjj.

'The Charge to prince Wan.' I have related in the above note how the Jung who had been called in by the prince of Shin to punish king Yew went far beyond his wishes, killing the king, and wishing to keep possession of the capital. To get rid of them he obtained the

assistance of the princes of Tsin (.^E^h Tain

(f||b, Wei Ojgj), and Ching who in the

first place drove out the barbarians, and then Bent for Yew's son from Shin to take possession of the vacant throne. Among his earliest measures was the rewarding of the princes who had come in this way to the relief of the royal House; and this Book is said to contain the appointment of the prince of Tsin to be president

or chief of several of the other princes ( J^jJ ^J^'

The princes of Tsin were descended from king Woo's son, called Yu, and generally styled, from the name of his appanage, the prince of

T'ang (j^- ;Jjj£ Jj|^). His son removed from T*ang to Tsin; and in course of time the principality came, though not without a struggle

with a usurping uncle, to Ch'ow in B.C.

780, and was held by him for 36 years. He received after death the title of Wan, or 'The Accomplished ;'—it was he to whom the Charge iu this Book was given. See in the dictionary

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"Oh! an object of pity am I, who am but a little child. Just as I have succeeded to the throne, Heaven has severely chastised me and cut off our resources of bounty to the inferior people;

no fewer than six different descriptions of character, any one of which might be considered to be expressed by the title Win.

In this account of the time ami occasion of this Charge, I have followed the authority of the prefatory note, supported by Gan-kwO, K'ang-shing, and Wang Suh. The Book itself, however, it will be perceived, does not mention the name of the king, and the name of E-ho, by which the receiver of the Charge is called, is only, as will be seen on par. 1, an occasion of perplexity. There was a tradition during the Han dynasty that the Book belonged to a later period, and in Sze-ma Ts'een's history the Charge appears as given, B.C. 631, by king Scang ( J) to duke Wan of Tsin, who was then the leading prince of the empire. Ma Vung also, we may infer from his explanation of the characters ^| jjsfj, held this view. There is nothing in the matter of the Charge itself absolutely decisive in favour of cither hypothesis. It seems, perhaps, to suit better the relations between king P4ng and the prince (= marquis) Wan than those between Scang and duke Wan. The Book is found in both the texts. Contents. The Book is short, containing only four paragraphs, which are divided into three and one by the usual mark of change of subject in the 'Announcements' and 'Charges' of the Shoo,—the compiler's statement of 'The king said.'

The king begins by celebrating the virtue and happy condition of Wan and Woo, and the services rendered to the State by the worthy ministers of subsequent reigns. He contrasts with this the misery and distraction of his own times, deploring especially his want of wise counsellors and helpers, and praising prince Win for the services which he had rendered. The Book then concludes with the special Charge by which the king would reward the prince's merit in the past, and stimulate him to greater exertions in the future.

I*. 1. The king celebrates the virtue of Wan and Woo who founded their dynasty, and the happiness of their successors who were assisted by able ministers. sfH'—' Uncle E-ho.'

The princes of Tsin, we have seen, were a branch of the imperial House; and hence the king addresses Wan as his 'uncle;'—see on Book XXIII., p. 6. But Wan's name, as


Other explanations of the characters were attempted by K'ang-shing, _and_ Ma Yung, which

may be seen in the

■^p "jfr —this is the common way of speaking about the origin of the Chow dynasty, —that the divine appointment lighted on king Wiin. But as king Woo has just been mentioned along with him, as equally virtuous and distinguished, it seems strange that he should be dropt in this important declaration. The truth is that father and son in the persons of Wan and Woo were blended together as one founder of the dynasty of Chow. If the appointment of Heaven lighted on WSn, it would also have dropt from him to the ground but for the character of Woo. In interpreting the rest of the par. we may begin with the last clause, where the klngmust intend by jjj^,' my forefathers,' not Wan and Woo, but those who succeeded them. The 'Daily Explanation' would limit them to Ching and K'ang, with whom the line of powerful monarchs of Chow may be said to have ceased. But king P'lng might not have been willing to acknowledge this, and we may suppose that he speaks of his predecessors generally, as having fallen on better times than himself. Explaining

jfliL tnus °* tne soverc'Bn8 subsequent to Woo, the same individuals are probably intend

0,1 h? Wk and the phrase JE

denotes ' their ministers;'—also generally, without any special application, Wiin's own ancestor, 'the prince of T'ang,' being included among them. Comp. the 2d par. of the 'Kcun-ya.' H iR.-aee on Bk. XXI., p. 6. ^ 'to be tranquil.' ffi

P. 2. The Icing deplores the unhappiness of his own position, himself young and feeble, and the empire cliastised by Heaven and torn by barbarian invaders, while lie could expect little assistance from his ministers. jjjjjjj ~J\ jj^,—Gan

kw5, Wang Suh, and Keang Shing, all take :m!l as TM 5^' 't0 ,neet w't'1'' 80 tuat 'l govcrng

we carry

This is quite allowable; but when on the regimen of to the next

has been mentioned, was Ch'ow (y^), so that f _^

we are brought to the conclusion that he is clause,—^ -JT, the construction

here called by his 'style' (^) or marriage j becomes too forced.^ I therefore adopt^the designation. Such is the view of Gan-kwO. : view of Ts'ac, that ^^jtR. auu Bfll'J i&T

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