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regular duties of life. In examining criminal cases, the officers executed the law not only against the powerful, but also against the wealthy. They were all reverence and caution. They had no occasion to make choice of words in reference to their conduct. The virtue of Heaven was attained to by them; from them was the determination of so great a matter as the lives of men. In their low sphere they yet corresponded to Heaven, and enjoyed its favour."

descriptive of the ministers and princes:—

is ingenious; but the ordinary view is to be preferred.

P. 11. The impartiality of the administration of justice under Shun. JtiL ^= J& ^

g, 'the officers presiding over criminal causes,' under Kaou-yaou. j^fj^j(*=^')

^mm^zm^mnm

Mi'^;lJ i^''thpy not only carricdout

tlie law against the powerful, but also against those who offered bribes, i.e., they were neither bent by terrors nor seduced by gain.' This seems to be the meaning, tho' the language has been variously interpreted. Lin Che-k'e, for instance, makes it an indignant expression of contempt against minions of justice, especially among the Meaou, who gratified their own spleen and pride by the terrors with which their office invested them, or sought to enrich them

ielves by taking bribes.

make choice of words, and then to speak.' 'j^ J^T. —jr^ -p^i—^ would seem necessary to explain these clauses of the officers in criminal causes. Gan-kwO did so, and expounds :—I>jj

mtkmz^um w

(it will be seen he does not interpret the par. historically) ^ jft g

This is not very perspicuous, but by the

help of Ying-ta's paraphrase and glosses we can see that the pass, was supposed to say ' that all judges, with the reverence and caution mentioned, being just and impartial like Heaven, made for themselves a great decree, securing long life and other prosperity, responding to

(2|E = '|'=^) the mind of Heaven, throughout the empire.' This is very vague and unsatisfactory. Ts'ae interprets of the Jl$L ^jNf

•<_. f=i' a^ter Gan-kw8, but confines himself, as is too much his wont, to vague and general phrases, so that we cannot tell what he under

stood by ^ <gft, and @fl ^ ~f. I have translated after the 'Daily Explanation,' which may be supposed to give the more definite expression of Ts'ae's views. Its language is:—

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III. The king said, "Ah ! you who superintend the government and preside over criminal cases throughout the empire, are you not constituted the shepherds of Heaven? Whom ought you now to survey as your model? Is it not Pih-e, spreading among the people his lessons to avert punishments? And from whom ought you now to take warning? Is it not from the people of Meaou, who would not examine into the circumstances of criminal cases, and did not make choice of good officers who should see to the right apportioning of the five pnnishments, but chose the violent and bribe-snatch

possession of the empire long continued, and the favour of Heaven. He supports his explanation of a as = gj, by Jpj <)ft£ JH

^ 4 f by % @E Jt % in 'The T'ae-kca,' Pt. iii., p 3, and by g|I ^ ^ jffi,

in Bk. XIV., p. 8. The editors of Yung-ching's Shoo mention his view with approbation, but do not positively decide in favour of it. His

interpretation of yrj -fjjj is better supported

than that in the translation; but I cannot bring myself to admit that king Muh turns here to speak, either historically or by way of admonition, of sovereigns generally.

Ch. III. P. 12. The king Addresses The

PRINCES AND OFFICERS OF JUSTICE ON THE GROUND OF THE STATEMENTS WHICH HE HAS MADE, AND URGES THEM TO TAKE THE BARON E AS THEIR MODEL, AND TO LOOK TO THE MEAOU AS

A Beacon, gg -jj ^ m ^-from

Gan-kw6 downwards, the critics all take this as

a designation of the g|J <0|, or 'princes,' so

that the king is addressing not them and their officers of justice, but them only. The view is to my mind very questionable. It is grounded on the appellation of ' shepherds of Heaven,' which follows. That is often given, no doubt, to the princes who rule,—to the sovereign par eminence, and to all who hold appointments under him; but why may we not suppose; that it is here extended to judges also, whose decisions should always be according to the truth,—according to

the mind of God? Stt=la J^f 't0

consider and imitate.' This determines the meaning of j^it. which is in opposition to it, as =>

'to condemn and beware of,' ' to take as a warning.' ^ H^F (=11) i& M

jft Z, J$L'tnere's ncre tne same difficulty which we found in trying to explain the

tfr l*i tfl ffl of par. 8- Perl,aPs tl,e

in the sense of 'readings ' (f|j| is appro

priate to the functions of £, whose rules of ceremony and propriety might be considered as designed to avert men from punishments and punishments from them. So, it will be seen, I

have translated ^ff|J ^* . This is putting some stress on the characters, but it gives a more satisfactory explanation of the text than any of the constructions proposed by the critics. Gan-kw6 takes jffa = jf^", and gives fcr the

it in mwmftm

Z M ifij Z 801 KSang shin8:

1 Daily Explanation' seems to get, by a roundabout process, to the same conclusion with

myself :-<ff H# ft % £ A jjjf,

ttRZAi-mm mmz %m*m.mmm®MZ &%>tit&tt%fri%zm

if ft (-*) R

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ers, who determined and administered them so as to oppress the innocent, until God could not hold them guiltless, and sent down calamity on Meaou, when the people had no plea to urge in mitigation of punishment, and their name was cut off from the world?"

IV. The king said, "Oh! lay it to heart. My senior uncles, and all ye my brethren and cousins, my sons and my grandsons, listen all of you to my words, in which, it may be, you will receive a most important charge. You will tread the path of satisfaction only by being daily diligent;—do not have occasion to beware of the want of diligence. Heaven, in its wish to regulate the people, allows us for a day to make use of punish

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Ch. IV. P. 13. The Kino Addresses HimSelf TO THE PRINCES OF THE SAME SURNAME WITH HIMSELF, AND CALLS THEM TO CO-OPERATE WITH HIM IN THE DILIGENT AND CAREFUL ADMINISTRATION OF PUNISHMENTS. -^J See On

Bk.XXHI.,p.6.

—these were all the king's cousins, his R, m, Brothers may also be included. On

i& ify and 8ee Con-Ana > xvm

xi. Both Gaubil and Medhurst are wrong in taking At together, as meaning 'junior

uncles,''mes oncles paternels cadets.'

Ir. -jfS^,—when we consider that king Muh was now a hundred years old, he may very well have had grand-children who were high in office or rulers of States. [Keang Shing reads

fit and not jjti arguing that EU was properly the designation of 'a menial' or 'servant,' and

that of 'a young person.' There is a

note in the diet., under a, to the same effect, where it is added that in the lapse of time, through inadvertence and error, the characters have changed meaning.] Jfft ^| ffi fjjj

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ments. Whether crimes have been premeditated, or are unpremeditated, depends on the parties concerned ;—do you deal ivith them so as reverently to accord with the mind of Heaven, and serve me, the one man. Though I would put them to death, do not you therefore put them to death; though I would spare them, do not you therefore spare them. Reverently apportion the five punishments, so as to complete the three virtues. Then shall I, the one man, enjoy felicity; the people will look to you as their sure dependence; the repose of such a state will be perpetual."

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have been variously pointed and interpreted.

-+■ is spoken of the design of Heaven in the use of punishments. It is to bring the people to a state of adjustment and good order. So far, all agree; but here agreement ends. I have put a comma with Ts'ae after

£J as in the translation.

Then and jfife are interpret

ed after the analogy of the same expressions in Bk. IX., p. 8; and it is very natarnl to do so, because the discourse there is all on the subject of the administration of the penal laws; and the meaning thus obtnined well suits the general tenor of the paragraph. Gan-kw6 pointr

0 n

yh* > eXP'(lnat'0n

of this i6 hardly intelligible:—^ ji^t 7^

i^TKiti^^ 0^

ffi, \ ffi ft. Of all who have adopted this pointing, Ch'in King may be said to have succeeded best; and the editors of Yung-ching's Show commend his interpretation, which is given in the (^ij" j^fe, and is to this effect:—'Heaven would by punishments regulate the people, and not being able to do so itself, entrusts the work to me. But Heaven's heart of love lor the people is inexhaustible, and I also cannot in one day complete the thing. For associates to complete it, I must look to others, and depend on them.' On other attempts to give a consistent meaning to the

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14 V. The king said, "Ho! come, ye rulers of States and territories, 1 will tell you how to make punishments a blessing. Now it is yours to give repose to the people:—what should you be most concerned about the choosing of? Should it not be proper men? What should you deal with the most reverently? Should it not be punishments? What should you calculate the most? Should it not be to whom they should reach?

passage on tins construction, I need not dwell. Ts'ae has here outstript all the other commentators. ^ 'reverently

anticipate—meet—what Heaven has appointed;' i.e., do you seek simply to do justice This will be to fulfil the mind of Heaven, and also the best service you can render to me.

advice here is the same with that given by king Ching to Keun-ch'in, Bk. XIX., p. 8; ^

taken as = Jjg£, and then as = |{^, 'punishment,' being the putting forth of the terrors of rule. It is here again—'many men, many minds.' Most critics do not admit any re

ference in the words to the king's owu wishes; and take the meaning to be substantially as Ch'in King gives it:—'In using punishments, although people seem to give a dread submission, do not you think that realized; though they praise you, do not you think what you have done worthy of praise. Never be weary or satisfied, and so your way and mind will be iu accord with the inexhaustible heart of love belonging to the sovereign and to Heaven.'

Kfcang Shing edits |J£ ^ jg| after ^jf, and would exclude ^ j£ }f|J ;on very poor authority. ffli, —the 'three virtues' are those of 'The Great Plan,' p. 17,—the virtues of 'correctness and straightforwardness,' of 'strong government,' and of ' mild government.'

As Wang Yen says in the ^| pj£ :—'Punishments being light when they ought to be light, this would be "mild govt.," and the mildness would not be weak indulgence. Being severe when they ought to be severe, this would be " strong govt.," and the strength would not be oppression. Being intermediate between light and heavy, this would be "correct and straightforward govt.," and the correctness and straightforwardness would not degenerate to one-sidednes.' (}f|J ^ gg jffi $g, j#

VOL. III.

fljjg \tif)- The three concluding clauses all show the happy result of the princes' listening to the king's advice. Gan-kwfl is wrong in taking \^ ¥ ^

3&, and then making the other two clauses dependent on this. Ch. V. Pp. 14—20. The Kino Shows All

HIS PRINCES AND CHIEFS HOW THET SHOULD PROCEED IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE SO AS TO HAKE PUNISHMENTS A BLESSING. This

chnpter must be considered the most important of the Book. Its contents are what is intended

by,he Jfc Id if ffl<* pRr- !• 1npp°',«

that the various things here announced in a general way by the king were all drawn out, and had been published, with the necessary details and explanations, by the prince of Leu.

P. 14. Preliminary address to all the princes,

Pf 3fc^-3W±'-Pf in the diet. »|^ ^ H^?,'a particle of doubt and surprise.' We have had it seven times already in the Shoo, where our 'alas!' was always suitable. But that expression of feeling is not what we should expect here. Lin Che-k'e makes the term on the contrary here expressive of joyful alacrity tff ^ ^ f|£ jfi) Vf.

<1 ®. W "tfe»)- We bave tlie different

readings of -J- and (woo). ^jj

(another reading is J^) P^J may 08 con* sidered as descriptive of the princes of the empire generally,—of the imperial surname and of others. Keung Shing says that ^ (so he reads) indicates the princes outside the imperial domain, and -y*, those having appanages within it; but I do not think we can thus discriminate the phrases. jjQ

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