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the example of my immediate predecessors, to respond to and display the bright decree conferred on Wan and Woo:—so shall you be the mate of your bygone fathers."

The king spoke thus:—"Keun-ya, do you take for your rule the lessons afforded by the former courses of your excellent fathers. The good order or the bad of the people depends on this. You will thus follow the practice of your grandfather and father, and make the good government of your prince illustrious."

Woo; -fijy, what was conferred on them.

HE ~f T A, —t'"s °lRU8e must have refer-
ence to Keun-ya, and not, as Gan-kwO supposed,
both to the king and the ministers. m
are the grandfather and father of Keun-ya,
already referred to. Literally the clause is—
'Going back, you will match your former men.'

P. 7. The king finally urges Keun-ya to follow the example of his father and grandfather in the same office. ^ ^ ^ tff (=^) j£ (= —lh*i comp. the same phrase in IV., Bk. VIII., pt. iii., p. 10. There, however, it denotes 1 the former premier,' or chief of the

administration of Slung, while here we can
only understand it of Kenya's father and
grandfather. Zj^ it, —'on this;' i.en your
thus following your fathers. 2|i Jfy,
-jT,—the 'Daily Explanation' has for this:—

l^ti^&73ri&#£ ft

[The whole of this Charge appears forced and exaggerated.]

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The king spoke thus:—"Pih-keung, I come short in virtue, and have now succeeded to the former kings, to occupy the great throne. I am fearful and conscious of the peril of my position. I rise at midnight, and think how I can avoid falling into faults. „ ^ J& & 2. >b ^MX

The Name Ov The Book ; and Date.—M

■fjj^, 'The Charge to Keung.' The prefatory note says that * king Man appointed Pih-keung to be the 'j^t |~p, and thereupon was made the 'Charge to Keung.' From par. 1 we learn that Pih-keung JJJj) was the name of the individual to whom the charge was given; the title therefore might have been a

■j^y, or simply -^J after the analogy of the title of the last Book. No reason can be given for the form of the name as we have it, but that it was the fancy of the compiler to call it so. As Lin Che-k'e says, jj^ M jj^

As to the office which Pih-keung was appointed to fill, there are two opinions. In the preface it is called ^£ J£; and in the Book, p. 4,

He is no doubt included among tlio

of p. 6, and we must admit, therefore, the

designation in the preface as correct. Now ^jj^ is used first for 'servant,' without reference to the nature of the service. The diet, gives the

definition of the f& ^ %,

'one who renders services,' and illustrates tma by a passage from the Le Ke, —•ff^

public officer is called j^jt ; an officer in the

family is called 'rat' But the character also

means 'a charioteer' (^J m Q ^). The difft. views depend on whether the general meaning or the special be supposed to predominate in the case before us.

When we refer to the Chow Le, we find many officers in the dept. of the minister of War

denominated as In Bk. XXXI., we have

and iu Bk. XXXII, we have the ^ |^ (,^( is taken here to=.f|),$f|, %

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2 Formerly, Wan and Woo were endowed with all intelligence, august and sage, while their ministers, small and great, all cherished loyalty and goodness. Their servants, charioteers, attendanst,

-fit, and {JJ <H|. The student naturally, and I think correctly, supposes that he has in the ^ of Bk. XXXI. the office of Pih-keung; but Gan-kwo and Ying-ta, whose views Lin Che-k'e approved of, were of opinion rather that he should be identified with the A 'till of Bk. XXXII. The duties of the ^ ^ are described in many parr. He, or they-- for there were two officers so denominated—regulated the dress of the emperor on difft. occasions, and the positions where he should stand or sit. He received the great commands of the emperor, and delivered them to those for whom they were intended; and conveyed on the other hand to the emperor memorials from without. He went before the emp. to and from audiences. These details are sufficient to show how close were his relations with the emperor, and how intimate were the services which he rendered.

Tlle un(*tr wnom (though this Point

is not so clear) appear to have been the at &c., mentioned above, had charge of the grand carriage of the emperor, and drove him in it to sacrifices. So far they were close enough together, but their relations were by no means so numerous and intimate as those of the emp. and the gt. Why should we suppose that Pih-keung was appointed ^£ ^ and not ^

The only reason is that the were great officers of the second degree (Pj?

while the ^Jj£ were only of the third ^£ jfe ). There would be force in this, if the one office had been under the other. But there is no evidence to show that this was the case. The two K'ungs erroneously supposed it was, and hence they were led to a wrong conclusion about the office of Pickering.

There were two 'flS, under whom were 4 petty servants ), 6 servants for sacri

fices (^5 ^|), 12 special servants 2 treasurers (R), 4 clerks (A), 2 helps (a'), 20 waiters (^J:), with perhaps others. Pihkeung must have been the senior or chief of the two. Biot translates the term by, 'Grand Do

mestique.' 'High Chamberlain' is the I can come to it in English.

[This long investigation of the office of Pitt- keung may be wearisome to some readers. I thought it worth while to enter on it, because many Chinese critics have professed themselves unable to determine the point. M. de Guignes, who had certainly read the Shoo with care, at least in Gaubil's version, strangely says, in his summary of the Book, that 'Keung was one of the great officers of king Muh. He is named Pih-keung ('fQ a), because he was chief of several vassal princes!' So difficult is it, without prolonged and close study, to interpret correctly documents in this language.)

The Book is only found in the 'old text.'

Contests King Muh represents himself as conscious of his own incompetencies, and oppressed with a sense of the important duties devolving on him. His predecessors, much superior to himself, were yet greatly indebted to the aid of the officers about them;—how much more must this be the case with himself!

He proceeds to appoint Keung to be the High Chamberlain, that he may guide correctly all the other servants about the imperial person, and so promote his virtue; telling him the manner of men whom he should employ, and the care which he should exercise in the selection of them.

Pp.1—3. Preliminary to the appointment, I, The king's great anxiety in the thought of his own incompetency and his high position. 'tjjj

'r —'I am not competent in the point of virtue.' Compare Kaou-tsung's

3& % Min ,The Charge to Yue-'Pti-.p-2- FfHi'J A ^6 3i B>-%

-E ; ^\*=-j^. Ts'ae gives for the whole.

'^p—see Mencius, IL, Pt., I, vi. 3. Ying-ta says here, that the phrase denotes 'the commotion of the heart g?(j 2: A . || 'perilousness.' r£ pd

perhaps has an adverbial force, =' thereupon.' 2. Wan and Woo, sage as they were, were yet greatly aided by the servants about Otetn. ^jf—Jill, or fifty, 'grave,' 'august.'

who were about them, on the right and left, mid-

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and followers, were all men of correctness, morning and evening waiting on their sovereign's wishes or supplying his deficiencies. Those kings, going out and coming in, rising up and sitting down, were thus made reverent. Their every warning and command was good. The people yielded a reverent obedience, and the

3 myriad regions were all happy. But I, the one man, am destitute of goodness, and really depend on the officers who have places about me to help my deficiencies, applying the line to my faults, and exhibiting my errors, thus correcting my bad heart, and enabling me to be the successor of my meritorious predecessors.

4 "Now I appoint you to be High Chamberlain, to see that all belonging to your department and my personal attendants are correct,

istering and waiting; ^|]=^p ^ 'charioteers ;' = gt gt, 'the chamberlains and all their subordinates;' fit = Ji^

T jjj^", 'all in close attendance on the sovereign's person.' Choo He remarks that anciently and in the Han dyn., 'all who were even in mean offices about the sovereign were officers

of some rank' ^Hll 'to accord with,' 'to obey.' = E

'to support and correct.' Jjj /\ ijj

—this is to be understood of the sovereigns.

ffl, ^ "Wang Gan-shih observes that'intimations of the imperial will to serve as warnings were called while such as were to have the force of laws were

3. The king declares how much more he must be dependent on the good services of those about him.

Vol. in.

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that you may strive to promote the virtue of your sovereign, and

5 together supply my deficiencies. Be careful in choosing your officers. Do not employ men of artful speech and insinuating looks, men whose likes and dislikes are ruled by mine, one-sided

6 men and flatterers ; but employ good men. When these household officers are correct, their sovereign will be correct; when they are flatterers, the sovereign will consider himself a sage. The sovereign's virtue and his want of it depend equally on those officers.

7 Cultivate no intimacy with flatterers, nor get them to fill the offices of my ears and eyes;—they will lead their sovereign to

would yet include among them the various officers of the carriages who were under the which, I said, we saw to be wrong.

The $|] here can have nothing to do with the carriages. I have my doubts, indeed, whether it should be translated 'charioteers' in p. 2.

Hi^'—' cu't'va'° together.' ^J? is used as in a (E a, Mencius, I, Pt. h, i,

8. Wang Ts'caou says on it:—=5"

should be careful in selecting his officers. 'jjj^

IS 7*1 f$'-l&=°ffl<,friend8'' '»«"ptm

ions,' 'brother officers.' But we must take the term here as meaning the subordinate officers of the Chamberlain's dept. It would appear from this that, under the Chow dyn., it was the business of every head of a dept. to select all the members of it. There were, no doubt, general principles for his guidance, but it was his to choose the men. T-lj =j~ ti ,— see 'The Counsels of Kaou-yaou,' p. 2. a Jkl—sec Ana., XVI., iv. Ts'uc defines them

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