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have altered. Through the four quarters of the empire there is no occasion for anxiety, and I, the one man, enjoy repose.

The prevailing ways now tend to advancement and now to degeneracy, and measures of government must be varied according to the manners of the time. If you do not manifest your approval of what is good, the people will not be led to stimulate themselves in it. But your virtue, 0 duke, is strenuous, and you are cautiously attentive to small things. You have been helpful to and brightened four reigns, with deportment all-correct, leading on the inferior officers, so that there is not one who does not reverently take your words as a law. Your admirable merits were that of many in the

if we reckon from the date of the 'Announcement about L6,' we have more than 40 years. A supposition of Gaubil, that king K'ang intends the time which had elapsed from the death of the duke of Chow, seems to me

very likely. —°ur wor<i'generation' answers to Ts'ae says;—^£

£EJ fth> 'Father and son are called a [tfV— 'One generation passcth away, and another cotneth.' JJCJ ~Jj foE j^,—see the use

of $C JjH in Pt. II, Bk. IV., p. 6.

P. 4. Govt, must be varied according to the character of the people; the time vol come for discriminative measures. fl* —it would be hard to say how Gan-kwo understood this clause. - His comment on it is—

Ving-tfi only makes more dark by hit

which ■ his expansion of it. I have followed Ts'ae who observes that x^J —■ 'generous,' 'affluent,'

•good;' and ^ |g£ =^ fjj, 'foul,' 'impure;' and then illustrates this clause and the next by saying that, when the duke of Chow took charge of Chiug-chow, the character of the people, with their evil habits all-unchanged, rendered a firm and cautious dealing with them necessary. When Keun-ch'in took charge, the people were considerably improved, and hence liL- was enjoined to be forbearing witli them,

and promote harmonizing measures. jf\

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times of the former kings; I, the little child, have but to let my robes hang down, and fold my hands while I look up for the complete effect of your measures."

6 III. The king spoke, "Oh! Grand-tutor, I now reverently

7 charge you with the duties of the duke of Chow.—Go! Signalize the good, separating the bad from them ; give tokens of your approbation to their neighbourhoods, distinguishing the good so as to make it ill for the evil, thus establishing the influence and reputation of their virtue. Where the people will not obey your lessons and statutes,

leading on those below you.' But by ffi

we are to understand all the deportment. Lin Che-k'e refers, aptly enough, to the words of Confucius about the man in authority, Ana.


ti me is a verb, =' to imitate,' 'to take as a

model' MWi^'fit I'-*"1 clause is in a measure opposed to the next.— • Even under my predecessors your admirable merits have been many; how much more must

I be indebted to you!' yj> -^*,

•y^,—we must not understand 'the robes let

down and the hands folded' as expressive of idleness and indifference. The king figures himself in the ancestral temple, in his robes and attitudes of reverent ceremony, happy in the thought that he had so able a minister on whom he might entirely depend. Compare the same language in the conclusion of Bk. III., p. 10.

The king certainly is not sparing in his laudation of the minister.

Ch. III. Pp. 6—11. Second part Of The Charge:The Special Duties Which The Duke Was To Discharge; The Difficulties With Which He Would Have To Contend ; And The Method By Which He Might Be SuccessFUL. 6. -jjjj,—' reverently charge.'

The charge being so great, being communicated in the temple of king Wan, having respect to the completion of the work of the duke of Chow,

king K'ang could not but have a feeling of reverence in delivering it. The work that Keunch'in had done is not mentioned, but he appears in p. 13. 7. Many of the people of Yin had profited so much by the labours of the duke of Chow and Keun-ch'in with them, that they might be pronounced reformed, and should receive marks of favour, while those who continued obstinately bad should be made to feel that

they were marked. ht (low. 4th

tone) gB,—these clauses show how

the good should be dealt with, fj^ is the name of a peculiar kind of flag, used among other purposes to mark out places or paths; as a verb here, it = our ' to signalize.' Jtjlj, ^

the meaning in the translation. J^JJ S

M=^^#A^JgM ft.

—'a signal,' 'to set up a signal;'—akin to it.

^ ^ Wi M Tbe two parts of tl,e

clause are connected as in the first clause.

$U <z M, Si? -with m £ c°mp- tu<>

expression Ana., XIV., xvi. The whole

= 'planting—setting up—for them, i.e., the good, their influence and reputation.' The 'Daily Explanation' gives for it—

these three clauses describe how the bad

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mark off the boundaries of their hamlets, making them fear to do evil and desire to do good. Define anew the borders and frontiers, and be careful to strengthen the guardposts through the territory, in order to secure the tranquillity of the whole empire.

"In measures of government to be consistent and constant, and in proclamations a combination of completeness and brevity, are valuable. There should not be the love of what is extraordinary. Among the customs of Shang was the flattery of superiors. Sharptonguedness was the sign of worth. The remains of these manners are not yet obliterated. Do you, O duke, bear this in mind.

should be dealt with. pt gt jjfj^ ■=

J*JW3£#JB»#- #-'the

wells,' about which their farms were distributed. It may be translated here by 'hamlets.' We see how the people—the peasantry—of Yin were distributed over the country of which Ching

chow might be considered the centre. fjp ill" !5?P Jt^p—Ti'ae says that j^y and are the same; but the meaning of given for #t in the diet., answers very well. Wang Ts'e'aou says:—' The city of Lo and the honoured capital of Chow were the two centres of the imperial domain. The honoured capital of Haou might be considered to have a square of 800 le, or 64 squares of 100 le each, attached to it; and L5 or Ching-chow to have a square of 600 k, or 36 squares of 100 le each. The extent from east to west was greater than from north to south, but altogether there was as much as a square of 1,000 It. Thus the borders of IA were also the borders of Haou.' See the

[j§j ^J" 'rt', 'strengthen the places of ward within the boundaries over which you are appointed.'-^ 4$ £ A, ^ |®

Wang Clrung-yun observes that, while the separation of the good from the bad was calculated to have a beneficial moral effect upon the people, these latter measures were a safeguard against any attempts at insurrection.

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9 I have heard the saying—' Families which have for generations enjoyed places of emolument seldom observe the rules of propriety. They become dissolute and do violence to virtue, setting themselves in positive opposition to the way of Heaven. They ruin the formative principles of good; encourage extravagance and display; 10 and tend to carry all future ages on the same stream with them.' Now the officers of Yin had long relied on the favour which they enjoyed. In the confidence of their prideful extravagance they extinguished their sense of righteousness. They displayed before men the beauty of their robes, proud, licentious, arrogant, and boastful;—the natural issue was that they should have ended in being thoroughly bad. Although their lost minds have been in a measure

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Ming dyn.) defines J|jsj as=)\£ 'the dis-
soluteness of the mind;' = '^fio
voluptuousness of the mind;' |2^ = A^
'the arrogance of the mind;' f&"=J^*
'the froth of the mind.' jfvf-— th<5
jj^ shows the natural issue of the various ways

and attributes which have been described, and
attributed to the officers of Yin. It would be
wrong to translate it as an historical future,
We find a portion of this par., without any note

of quotation, in the k -^t. where appears instead of - J|, ZL + -e

tjjft -jg ^ZT>il is nere that tho

phrase, ^£ wives, 'the lost mind,' to which so

much importance was subsequently attached by" Mencius, occurs for the first time in the classics.

^\—' to bar them.' 'The root of evil,'

says Ch'in King, 'might still be present; and though the lost mind has been recovered, it may be carried off again on the occurrence of temptation.' 11. (it 'goods,' 'pro

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11 recovered, it is difficult to keep them under proper restraint. If with their property and wealth they can be brought under the influence of instruction, they may enjoy lengthened years. Virtue and righteousness!—these are the great lessons. If you do not follow with them these lessons of antiquity, wherein will you instruct them?"

12 IV. The king said, "Oh ! Grand-tutor, the security or the danger of the empire depends on these officers of Yin. If you are not too stern with them nor too mild, their virtue will be truly cultivated.

13 The duke of Chow was able to exercise the necessary caution at the beginning of the undertaking; Keun-ch'in displayed the harmony proper to the middle of it; and you, O duke, can bring it at last to a successful issue. You three princes will have been one in aim, and have equally arrived at the proper way. The penetrating power of your principles, and the good character of your


—by ^5 llcre we must understand the whole empire. The king had said in par. 3 that he had no occasion for anxiety about anything in the empire. His language here is different. 'It shows,' says Ts'ae, 'that he was one who could not rest easily in small achievements.' He would make assurance doubly sure.

Ti Hi] 5{c""""tui8 is tue rule of

conduct for the duke of Peih. He was to pursue the right medium in dealing with the officers of Yin. 13. ff£ JH] 4V 3| gt ^,-comp. Bk. XXI, p. 7. HBi Aj>' |SJ J£ i^>—Wang Ts'eaou says:—

difficult to say whether we should understand ^|| kt as meaning, 'Having property and wealth, if they can also be instructed,' or 'Notwithstanding their property and wealth, if they can be instructed.' I think the former

view is preferable, as Ch'in King says:—

A^£jE»|£.#r II IE lit

Bs5f = ;^- 'The lessons of antiquity' can only mean those of 'virtue and righteousness.' The crowding of difft. subjects into one short paragraph is annoying and perplexing.

Ch. IV. Pp. 12—15. The Conclusion Of


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