« הקודםהמשך »
THE BOOKS OF CHOW.
BOOK. XXIII. THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF KING WANG.
1 I. The king came forth and stood in the space within the fourth gate of the palace, when the Grand-guardian led in all the princes of the western regions by the left half of the gate, and the duke of Peih those of the eastern regions by the right half. They then caused their teams of light bay horses, with red manes and tails, to be exhibited; and the princes, raising aloft their secptres and other presents, said, "We, your servants, defenders of the throne, venture to bring here the productions of our territories and set them forth." With these words, they did obeisance twice, bowing their heads to the earth. The king, righteously continuing the virtue of his predecessors, returned their obeisance.
which is here recorded. The Book is found in both the texts; but something more must be said on this point.
The Connection Between This Book And The Last. The Book is found in both the texts. In Fuh-shang's Shoo, however, this Book and the last formed only one Book. Yet the 'little preface' shows us that there were in Confucius' Shoo two Books, one called 'The Testamentary Charge,' and one, 'The Announcement of king K'ang.' We cannot but believe also that Fuh-shang's one Book contained the whole of them both. The only question is as to where the division of them should take place. Choo He says, 'Take away the prefatory notices, and we should not think of making any division. The one part runs naturally, by the connection of the style, into the
«**er, # iP ft % |g % m %
III $3 $c AU the old inter"
preters, excepting Gan-kwO,—K'ang-shing, Ma Yung, and Wang Suh,—extended the Testamentary Charge to par. 3 of the Announcement, and made the latter very brief indeed. Much more natural is the division as it stands in the text us recepttis, and which I here assume was ma lo by Gan-kwfi, whether he acted merely on his own sense of fitness, or had special authority for the arrangement in the recovered tablets which were submitted to him. As the Books now stand, the first is complete, and the second. The portion which precedes the Announcement is a proper introduction to it, while it is out of place as an appendix to the Testamentary charge.
Tae Tung-yuen, of the present dynasty, pronounces both divisions wrong, but his own view, if he can be said to have one on the point in hand, is very unsatisfactory. Accepting Fuh-shang's arrangement of the whole in one Book, he would divide it into three parts:—the first, parr. 1—13, relating to the Testamentary Charge; the second, parr. 14—29, describing the accession of king K'ang, the year after his father's death; and the third, being all comprehended in the Announcement, relating all that took place at the first public audience or levee by the new monarch, immediately after the accession. Granting all this, he still divides the two Books at the same point as Gan-kwfi. Of his view, that from p. 14 of the Charge the things described all belonged to the year after Chang's death, I shall speak on par. 1. See ^£
Contents. The action of the Book follows immediately that of the last. A great assembly of princes do homage after their fashion to the new king, and caution and advise him on the discharge of the great duties to which he is called. He responds with the declaration which has given name to the Book, referring to his predecessors, and asking the assistance of all his hearers that his reign might be a not unworthy sequel of theirs. With this the proceedings terminate, and the king resumes his mourning dress which he had put off for the occasion. It will be seen that I have arranged the paragraphs in three chapters.
Ch. I. Pp. 1—3. Fiust Audience Of The Princes And Ministers Held By Kino K'ang. Their Offerings ; And Advice. 1. -|
king went out from the Loo gate, and stood in the space between it and the Ying gate.' The jf^j? gate, we have seen, was the 4th of the palace gates. It took its name, according to Chin Sze-k'ae, from a drum near it which was called
the gjjr. Between it and the 6th gate was held the if,
. the ptj It r, to call it, with
pj tgj or 'audience of govt.,' at which king Wang on this occasion received the homage of all the princes, showing himself to them for the first time, as ' the son of Heaven.'
[Ts'ae, by mistake, calls this' would not be correct, however, Sze-k'ae, the SB.]
On the Guardian and the duke of Peih's leading the princes of the west and the east respectively, see on the last Bk., p. 3. The princes of the west entered by the left or eastern side of the gate, and those of the east by the right or western side, and took their places accordingly. This appears to have been all according to rule. The Le Ke, Bk. (iii, h. Pt. ii., p. 29, says, 'The host enters on the right of the gate, and proceeds to the eastern steps; the guest enters on the left, and proceeds to the western steps.' From west to east and from east to west, therefore, was the rule. See Lin, Che-k'e,,nfoe. If =fl7(=|$)^^ t —a team of four horses |7lj ) was called Those horses were 'yellow
and red.' The former character expresses the general colour of the animals. But 1 yellow ' in Chinese is applied to many shades; that intended here being, I apprehend, a ' light bay.' is understood to denote that their tails and manes were dyed this colour. This is inferred from a passage in the first, ^j? -Jwhich describes such an operation :—-^j^
mentions that some interpret the of 'baskets of yellow and red silks,' such as are mentioned in 'The Tribute of Yu ;' but such an interpretation it very unlikely in this passage.
'The princes raised aloft the several maces which they kept, and their other presents.'
— gg ^;-see the Chow Le, Bk. XXXVIII., by is meant all the princes from the
The Grand-guardian and the chief of Juy, with all the rest, then advanced and bowed to each other, after which they did obeisance twice, bowing their heads to the ground, and said, 'O Son of Heaven, we venture respectfully to declare our sentiments. Great Heaven altered its decree in favour of the great empire of Yin, and Wan and Woo of our Chow greatly received the same, and carried it out,
pj^jfctl- If this criticism of Ts'ae
Thou domain inwards. -rj^,—these are the
maces or gem-tokens conferred on them by the emp., and which they brought with them when they appeared at court. Ving-ta thought that by
^tj^ we were to understand the horses already
exhibited—or a portion of them at least—in the courtyard; but I cannot believe so. A passage in the Book of the Chow Le just quoted, on the
duties of the y|\ beginning
1^, may be consulted. Other offerings, referred
to in the address below, are no doubt intended. The princes, indeed, could not be raising them aloft themselves; but they had attendants with
them who did so. —■ *. G^,—' we, one or two ministers.' Comp. the use of *. —• in the Ana., Ill., xxiv., tt al. j^Sj l^N. =
are to suppose that one of the princes spoke in the name of all the others.
wortl8 Ural %
introduced by the recorder of the Book to explain how it was that the young king returned the obeisance of the princes. Lin Che-k'e observes that, as a rule, the sovereign does not
return the of his ministers, yet K'ang was
on this occasion the host and the princes all were his (/vests, and such an interchange of courtesies was according to etiquette. Ts'ae, Woo Chung, and Keang Shing, all find a deeper meaning in the language. K'ang, they say, was now the declared successor to the throne, but until the year of his father's death was elapsed, his reign could not chronologically commence. His returning the obeisance, therefore, was a recognition by himself and all the princes that he and no other was to be their sovereign;—it was done ' in righteousness,' though not perhaps
in rule. Ts'ae says:—^! IR JjP Jjt comment is;—(so he reads) |lfi HJJ
&c. be correct, as I believe it is, it disposes of the view of Tae Tung-yuen, that all the ceremonies from par. 14 of the last Book took place in the year after Ching's death. There remains, indeed, the difficulty on which he insists.—How was it that the princes of the various domains happened to be at court with their offerings, &c, as if in readiness for the old king's death, and the accession of the new? The difficulty must be acknowledged; but perhaps it would disappear if we had fuller information about the time. To my mind it is not so great as that of supposing that the action is suddenly carried over many months, between parr. 13 and 14 of the last Book, without the slightest note of time in the text:—to say nothing of the conclusion of Ts'ae and others from these words
Pp. 2, 3. The advice given by all the princes to
the young king. -j£ ^ ^ ^ ^J-the
princes advanced in the last par. to present their offerings under the leading of the Guardian and the duke of Peili, as the Chiefs of the east and west respectively. Now the duke of Peih gives place to the baron of Juy, the minister of Instruction, and ranking among the six K'ing next
to the prime minister. 'ill ^ jjft $|.—
it seems the simplest construction to take Jp£
= the -^jp which immediately follows, meaning all the rest of the princes and ministers, who then ^} J^_, 'moved their left or right arms
to one other,' as they took their several places in the order required by the court etiquette. Seethe account of Confucius' movements in the court of Loo, Ana., X., iii., 2. Ying-ta would confine Jjjj^ life to the Guardian and the baron of Juy.— 'These two made all the others advance, motionM A ffl M *
3 manifesting their kindly government in the western regions. His recently ascended Majesty, rewarding and punishing exactly in accordance with what was right, fully established their achievements, and transmitted this happy state to his successors. Do you, O king, now be reverent in your position. Maintain your armies in great order, and do not allow the rarely equalled appointment of our
high ancestors to come to harm."
ing to them with their arms to take their proper places, to which motion the (princes responded.' Woo Ch'ing has still a difft. view, taking as
^■JJ^.J^t^U,^ A; but thisonly complicates
the construction. Er-- the Guardian was
no doubt spokesman for all the others.
Set the difficulty here is with
■^P ytjy which Ts'ae acknowledges that he does
not understand. He mentions the view of Soo Shih, that somehow there is an allusion to the confinement of king Wan by the tyrant Show
in J|} ; but I do not see how this is to be
brought out of the text. He mentions also the
conjecture of some that is the same as
Jjfik ✓H"' 'n P" being an error of the text
for M. Gan-kwo took as meaning »||f. Ma Yung and Wang Suh did the same. Ying-ta observes that and are allied in sound, and that therefore we may explain by . I have translated accordingly (^J^ A
^ It ml Hg Z* thon*h I rather suspect that the text is corrupted. Rang Shing makes and says:— ^ ^ Jig 2:
There is no authority for such an interpretation of the char. J^T [JEj -J-,—the patrimony of the chiefs of Chow was in the west. It was in that part of the empire that their virtue was first recognized, and the foundations of their influence laid. '[^ ^ 'the newly ascended king.' Ching was not yet buried, and had not received his honorary title, lie could only be thus spoken of.
^ ffli 31 A tk-'~by tue 'rewards and
punishments,' which king Ching is said to have 'finished harmonizing,' i.e.. administering according to what was right, we are to understand probably the investitures of many princes, and the suppression of rebellions, with the punishment of the rebels, in which the duke of Chow played so conspicuous a part. These are all, allowably, attributed to the king himself; and by these he completed the work begun by Wan and Woo, and the dynasty might be considered established in the possession of the
empire. ■= jj^T, 'he succeeded in.'
— may be considered
as in the objective gov. by 4& is under
the govt, of the preposition jjfe understood. Woo Ch'ing gives the meaning of the whole very clearly ^, ^ ^, at
—'Keep your six armies like a bent bow, and magnify them.' The duke of Shaou would seem to have in mind the counsel given to himself by the duke of Chow, Bk. XVI., p. 21, and also what was said by that duke to king
Ching, Bk. XIX., p. 22. ^tt ( = ty.)
% m =f m %% H % O
2, z Juj 0 ie *p I? a,
II. The king spoke thus:—"Ye princes of the various States, chiefs of the How, Teen, Nan, and Wei domains, I, Ch'aou, the one man, make an announcement in return for your advice. The former sovereigns, Wan and Woo, were greatly just, and enriched the people. They did not occupy themselves with people's crimes. Pushing to the utmost and maintaining an entire impartiality and sincerity, they became gloriously illustrious throughout the empire. Then they had officers brave as bears and grisly bears, and ministers of no
J# H R ^ St- Wang Suh's comment is brief and satisfactory:—j(£
"tfc* ^^^f,—'they did not bend their minds on—address their efforts to—the faultsof the people.' The meaning seems to be that they were not on the watch to find out crime and punish it. To quote again from the Daily Kxplanatiou:-A $ ^ ^ # Q
irn ffl w K>) fi ^ rrn zm-m
no means accept Keang Shing's definitions of § = TM* He says:-£
JJgjj Jd' 5|i, 'they pushed the practice and carried it to the utmost.' The question arises of what it was that they carried to the utmost? Was it the rirtucs indicated in the two previous parr.,
so that 7^ and are merely adjectives? or
are we to take those two characters as nouns, denoting other virtues, having a substantial meaning of their own? Lin Che-k'e, Ts'ae. and the Sung critics generally take the former view. Ts-aesays:-^^,^^
Ch. II. Pp. 4—6. Reply Of The Kino To
THE PRECEDING ADDRESS; CALLED HIS ANNOUNCEMENT. 4. The prince.'i do not appear as parties in the preceding address, nor are the viinislers (S^ |iL) mentioned here. But we must suppose that the address emanated from the princes as well as the ministers, and that the reply was made to them equally. No mention is made of the domain which was between the Nan and the Wei; no doubt the chiefs from it were present, and they may have been present also from beyond the Wei, though the text says
nothing about them. —> ^
the emperor called himself—'I, the one man,' and did not add his name. It was the rule, however, for the successor to the throne to do so, while the period of mourning for the deceased sovereign lasted. —See the case of the
young emperor mentioned in the ^,
fl3f-+Zl#. #tfr-Lin Chek'e expands this ^ ^ jfc, j$ ft
i$i Z.' 5" merit* of Han
and W oo; and how they were supported by their ministers and officers. j^J",—as in the
last Bk., p. 5. 2|£ ^||,—' were greatly
just and rich.' The critics are probably correct in interpreting the language of the govt, of Wiln and Woo,—that it was just, carefully guarding the rights of the people, and that it was liberal, making taxation light, so that the people had plenty for all their wants. The paraphrase of the 'Daily Explanation.' is: —