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蟻 蟻士由王立一瞿垂



冕 景 麻太麻鹰離階執西冕 麻太麻 前

易 冕史位冕卿裳O 銳垂執


front and eastern end of the hall. One man, in a great officer's cap, and holding a somewhat different lance, stood at the front and western end of the hall. One man in a great officer's cap, and

holding a pointed weapon, stood by the steps on the north. 22 The king, in a hempen cap and a variously adorned skirt,

ascended by the guests' steps, followed by the nobles aud princes

of States, in hempen caps and black ant-coloured skirts. Having 23 entered, they all took their places. The Grand-protector, the Grand

historiographer, and the minister of Religion were all in hempen are described as being varieties of the la 'a arrive at any certain knowledge about the spear or lance with three points. I do not

various arms here mentioned. Wang Suh conthink that their exact form can be determined. tented himself with saying that the characters See the figures in Ch'ing Yaou-teen's CR were names of ancient weapons.' 田)考工創物小言 in the 皇清

Pp. 22–24. The announcement of the testa

mentary charge; and the manner of it. All was 經解,卷五百三十七: The dict

now ready for the grand ceremony and all the defines 垂 by 堂之盡處,近階者, performers, in their appropriate array, take 'the extremities of the hall, near the steps.' their places in the ball. 22.麻冕一 These men stood east and west respectively from the bearers of the six] and the fil. See

see Ana , IX., ii. ,-the skirt of the

emperor's dress on sacrificial occasions was Yaou-teen's T *** i variously adorned. See the · Yih and Tseih, p. 百三

4. 百三十五:一人至側階: The axe”(離) was on of the gure upon

, -Ts'ae says that ought to be to, after by synecdoche, for all the others. It may be

it, and Ying-tă supposes it is mentioned here, Ying-tă, and on the authority of the pa so; but I take as in p. 15. Ch'aou is here *, which, however, only defines the character for the first time called 'king ;' but still he

goes up by the guests' steps,' not presuming as 'a weapon grasped by the imperial attend to ascend by the others, while his father's corpse ants(侍臣所執兵) 側階,一the was nothe hall 啊一升 執

- in . - 蟻裳 side steps ;' but both Ts'ae and Këang Shing 'ant skirts ;' meaning dark, like the colour of agree in saying that the steps on the north of ants. "They all entered and took their places;' the hall, of which there was only one flight are i.e., the places proper to them, according to their to be understood. Shing says:-up te various ranks. 28. 太保至形裳,

-We can easily see how the three dignitaries 下階也,在北堂之下,側 The to, #tele Ž T U Ź here mentioned should take the prominent part 言特北堂惟一階,故日側

in the ceremony which they did. Their skirts 階· So, also Ying-ts, who observes further,

were of a pulo red colour (=XmE),—the that of the seven weapons mentioned in this proper colour of their sacrificial dress. 介 par. it is only the ť of which we have any $-the grand mace' (=t)

, a cubit particular account. Of the rest we have no and 2 inches long, called also fill See the description. The names and forms of ancient and modern weapons being different, we cannot Chow Le, Bk. XIII, on the duties of the E




大 未 書上業

的 、 答大君 命憑

遗册 階宗太 揭周 命玉 命膺奉保

和邦 汝几O 階太同承 武天鎏嗣道口嚼、史介 武率

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caps and red skirts. The Grand-protector bore the great mace. The minister of Religion bore the cup, and the mace-cover. These two ascended by the eastern steps. The Grand-historiographer bore the testamentary charge. He ascended by the guests' steps,

and advanced to the king with the record of the charge, saying, 24 Our great lord, leaning on the gem-adorned bench, declared

his last charge, and commanded you to continue the observance of the lessons, and to take the rule of the empire of Chow, complying with the great laws, and securing the harmony of the empire, so as to respond to and display the bright instructions of Wăn and Woo.”


the nomina

1. It belonged to the emperor, and was one and the minister of Religion ascended by the

east or emperor's steps, because the authority of the emblems of his sovereignty. 上宗of king Ching was, as it were, in their persons, to --this was, no doubt, the minister of Religion, be conveyed in the present ceremony to his son. the 16 of Bk. XX., p. 9. In the Chow Le is the testamentary charge which the historiohe is called to 16, and immediately sub-grapher had written or graved on tablets by the

guardian's order ;-see par. 12. He ascended by ordinate in his department were the two

the guests' steps, being only an employé in the

premier's department. Other reasons for his 14. Thus,' says K'ang-shing, “there doing so have been assigned ;-—unsatisfactorily. were three 余伯, By 上宗 here are in-御 here is best defined by 進, and 御王 tended the 大宗伯 and one of the 小宗册命-以册命進於王

}王 伯 one of them carrying them, and the other

- saying.' Some make

tive to this, as if what follows were what had the HT: This view may be rejected without been written. But this is not to be supposed. hesitation. Er is the par eminence, ken, as recorded in parr. 4—9. In presenting

What was written was what the king had sposo denominated probably as superior to the two the record the historiographer made the brief

小宗伯·同 is defined-爵名, the spech which is here given. 道揚末 name of a cup: "It must have been some part

' ticular cup which the emperor only had the right

宣揚臨終之命 命 to employ in sacrificing. 11, see on the ik hil it m *

一 汝嗣訓一命汝嗣守文武 *Can. of Shun,' p. 7. This was what I have Ź til, "charged you to continue to keep called there 'a sort of frame by which the genuineness of the gem-tokens conferred on the

the great lessons of Wăn and Woo.' 臨 difft. princes was tested. We see here that it & H#3-to descend and be sovereign over was itself made of gem. We can easily understand how the other tokens or maces could be

the country (= empire) of Chow.' 大 tested by it; but it is not explained how it was 卡=大法, the great laws. This clause applied to the The Grand-guardian seems to declare that the emperor was not

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祭王乃忌四其予答王之 四 FEZ

王 三受天方能末日再光 E

它 威



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25 The king twice bowed low, and then arose, and said, “I am

utterly insignificant and but a child ; how can I be able to govern

the four quarters of the empire with such a reverent awe of 26 the dread majesty of Heaven?” He then received the cup and

the mace-cover. Thrice he advanced with a cup of spirits ; thrice he sacrificed; and thrice he put the cup down. The minister of Religion said, “ It is accepted. absolute, but subject to certain constitutional the top of the western steps a little eastwards, laws. Sëč Ke-seuen, however, would make the with his face to the north. The historiographer great law' to be that delivered by Shun to Yustood by king Ching's coffin, on the south west in Pt. II., Bk II., p. 15.

of it with his face to the east. There he read

the charge, after which the king bowed twice, Pp. 25, 26. Ch'aou's acceptance of the sove- and the minister of Religion, on the south west reignty. D), derived from the eye and small, of the king with his face to the north, presented has the sense of 'little, insignificant... The and having given the cover in charge to an

the cup and mace-cover. The king took them, repetition of it expresses that idea strongly. The attendant, advanced with the cup to the place whole expression—; p; F# F between the pillars where the sacriticial spirits is a very humble designation of himself by the were placed. Having filled a cnp, he advanced

to the east of the coffin, and stood with his face new emperor. its L-L is in the

to the west; then going to the spot where his sense of Y. The critics nearly all take iti father's spirit was supposed to be, he sacrificed,

pouring out the spirits on the ground after -RA, and complete the meaning-# ! which he put the cup on a bench appropriated

for it. This he repeated three times. Such is to me. It can I govern the the account of the ceremony given by Ying-ta, four quarters of the empire as my ancestors which must be nearly correct, if it be not so in did ? This does not seem to be necessary.

every particular. He says three different cups # in L -# fos

were used, while we should rather suppose that i Ve 14 y, according to a common usage Til which is mentioned. The account in this of jhi. E First-comp. He point, however, agrees better with the EP

in par. 6. & E occurred in Bk. PÉ being taken in the sense of , 'ta IX., p. 19. 26. TV 31,-the set down a cup. There is a difference of opinion


a king received these things from the minister

both as to the form and meaning of this char

acter. On these points Ch‘in Leih has said :of Religion, who had taken them up to the hall. "He received them, says K-ang-shing, one "There are two explanations of pĚ Gan-kwở with each hand;' but we do not know the manner of the action. Nothing is said of his defined it as meaning , " to put down a receiving 'the great mace,' which the guardian cup;” and most scholars have concurred in his had borne up. No doubt he had received it, and view. Soo Shih, however, considered that it disposed of it somehow. 三宿,三条,

=+=*, meant “ to raise to the teeth without drinking,” =pt:-Ts'ae after Gan-kwò defines by like me, in the par. below. At first I was in

clined to agree with Soo, principally because of 'advanced the cup.? K‘ang-shing says: the mouth'(71) at the side of the character. 一宿,肅也,徐行前日肅·宿

Subsequent examination altered this view. PE i. 9. , meaning to go gently forward.' The

is a mistake for with which the two definitions, it will be seen, may admit of a similar interpretation. When the king received quotes the passage. Gan-kwo's explanation the record of the charge he was standing at ought not to be altered. If PÉ and He were the


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出太同祭拜。宗同受 受宗 廟 廟保拜嚼0人秉同

丰宁 門 王宅大益同璋降響。 侯。收? 答授保拜以幽

手 諸拜。宗受王昨以太 侯 0人 人同答授異保

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The king

27 The Grand-protector received the cup, descended the steps, and

washed his hands. He then took another cup, and in his hand a half mace, in order to make the responsive sacrifice. Having given

the cup to an attending officer, he did obeisance. 28 returned the obeisance. The Grand-protector then took back the

cup, and sacrificed with it. He then just tasted the sacrificial spirits, returned to his place, gave the cup to the attendant, and

did obeisance. The king returned the obeisance. 29 The Grand-protector descended from the hall, when the various

articles were removed, and the princes all went out from the temple gate and waited.

same in meaning, why should we not find one With the new cup and this mace the guardian or the other of them in the two contiguous par again ascended the steps-agraphs?' See the 集說上宗日

'to return the sacrifice;' here, it seems to 變-both Gian-kws and Wang Suh explain

me='to repeat the sacrifice,' to offer a second this—The minister of Religion said to the king, sacrifice.' The young king had in his sacrifice “ Drink now;"' referring to the custom for the acknowledged to the spirit of his father that offerer to drink some of the sacrificial wine, he had received his testamentary charge; it and so receive blessing from the spirit or spirits now belonged to the Grand-guardian to in. sacrificed to. I prefer to take the meaning as form the same spirit that he had communicated in the translation. The Daily Explanation' that charge. 授宗人同拜一以 says: 宗伯乃傳神命而言日,授宗人而拜, By 宗人 一

宗人而拜人 we are to 先王已變之矣

understand one of the employés in the dept. of the

minister of Religion. The bowing' was to the Pp. 27–29. How the Grand-protector conclu- spirit of the departed king, represented probably ded the ceremony. 27. * * M,- by a tablet, where it was supposed to rest. The

guardian could not bow, and carry the cup and the There must be that which the king had mace at the same time; he therefore handed used. If we are to suppose with Gan-kwồ that them to the attendant. 王答拜,一the a difft. cup was employed for each libation, I king returned the obeisance as for his father. should think that the may have been used 28.瞭一 PE in the last par. to fill them. The hotel "descended –r.e., went - The Daily Explanation ’expands down the steps, putting the cup back into a busket (下堂反于館)-and washed

it into一退居其所立之位 his hands. It was customary to wash the hands W, IFE,-as in the last par. Many before offering sacrifice. The Fij is described critics, however, say that the bows were made to

the new king, and returned by him for himself. as a ‘half mace carried by ministers' (#! I do not think this is unlikely. The crities

have not borne sufficiently in mind that the , . f ). Its make is called service described in this Book was one of an B XI), in the Chow Le, Bk. XX., # ii extraordinary character. 2.收一有

- see on



of the coffin and by the sacrifices, been con

verted into a sort of ancestral temple. P9,-this is the Loo gate, The private apart-1-waited;" i.e., they waited to have an 司收撤器用, the proper officers rements had for the time, through the presence audience of the new sovereign. moved the apparatus of the service.'

嫌正豈藍成非出公外議而之評宜而以後今已 起至也隙乎豈故召內可矣卒護權變權免古而 肯公者門變有變乎使之密倉之變處之不乎人 不大忌侯大未之計施髮者於世處然謂猶用一 而以顧觀一所履之設一室儀後日論乃變易尹 肉之所此古身患其無王禮免雖法是處可伊 骨行無餘倡命日慮命臣定定不哉常經公權者 待念而究心顧前危未之級考終畏以其召議權 心之然姦人之創防張大以暇而可易失公之用 之疑洞料惑王懲此恢小所不間吁未不周世善

當正多大之服足天聖制公擁鎮公不人 只一不之氏成誠公之事周宰宜周而聖



一中紀之為釋萬聖輔無王以下人嫌 命為終是謂以暫為之夾常武主天聖為


I append here the remarks of Wang Pih on this Book and the next. The difficult point on which he dwells will be found treated of on the last par. of the Announcement of king K'ang:


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