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attendants on the musicians.' In the -fc ft», Pt. i., p. 3, again, we find A IS* jjjj^, which is more to the point, showing that certain 3^ or were employed in per

forming the more servile offices at the ceremonies of funerals and mourning. I suppose they were natives of some of the wild Tei/i tribes; and we know that some of the Jjjlj? or-' guards' were taken from those people. I have ventured to translate the character by our old term 'salvage,' which seems to convey

a less intense meaning than savage. H^J^I the meaning of as called ^

—we have see;

^ on p. 10. What ia represented as a screen, with axe-heads figured on it, which was placed under the canopy that overshadowed the emperor, and behind him. As to the meaning of the terms, the Bk. II., sect. 'jsT, says that

1 the space, east and west, between the window and the door, was called Jp| Jf3 ^

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may believe, with many of the critics, that from its place it took its name. [The only difficulty in the way of this is that in the JJ^jj the character is in the 1st tone; whereas in combination with jjjjjjj it is pronounced in the 2d.] Anything painted or embroidered black and white alternately is said to be The jJllj, sect. jjvp says that 'an axe is called the wooden handle being black as compared with the glittering head and edge.' However this be, the screen about which we are concerned is called indifferently Jp| and Jp|, the axe-heads on it being understood to be emblematic of the decision of the imperial determinations. We are to understand that four such screens and tents were arranged in the four positions immediately indicated. Gaubil is wrong in translating both and Jpg> in the singular.—'L'officier nppelle Tie eut soin de mettre en dtat l'ecran, sur lcquel etoient representees des baches.' Wo are to understand a] Mi that all these and other arrangements were made by the direction of the GrandGuardian. The-j^y of the preceding paragraphs is to be conceived to be constantly repeated.

15. The first tent and screen were placed in front of the 'rear hall' belonging to the private apartments, of course directly fronting the south. There the king was in the habit of giving audience to his ministers and to the

princes (jjfc ^ |]£ jjf |g §g |g

^ £ 4*> lip [Sj vould scem-to

mean 'between the windows;' but from the account of given above from the 5Jtt.

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spread out.' On these mats the king sat; there were three of them, one over the other; and the text would lead us to suppose that all those mentioned here were made of bamboo splints woven together, having the edges bound with silk stripes of black and white alternating

is explained above; J^jjjj [read cAwn, 2d tone) = 'a border].' Ying-ta, however, quotes a passage of the Chow Le, Bk. XX., on the duties of the ffj ^jfe, which, while it throws considerable light on the text, states that the three mats were each of a difft. material, and

that each had its peculiar border.— J>jj

passage, as translated (not quite accurately, but sufficiently so for my purpose) by Biot, is:— 'En general, dans les grands reunions du printemps et de l'automne, dans les grands banquets, dans les ceremonies oil l'on tire de l'arc, oil un royaume est concede en fief, oil un grand dignitaire est nomme, il dispose le paravent brode en uoir et blanc, a la place que doit occuper l'empereur. Le devant du paravent fait face au midi. II place la matte en joncs fins a bordure varice. II ajoute Ia natte a lisicre qui a une bordure peinte. II ajoute la natte a rangees qui a une bordure mclangee de noir et de blanc. A gauche et a droite sont les pctits bancs en jade pour B'appuyer.' Gan-kwti thinks that [this character is disputed] j8 the 2^ of the above passage, the topmost of the three mats, the historian not thinking it necessary to describe the others particularly. Possibly it may be so; but the point is really not of much importance. jjfe -ffi] J]^,

fj§ 3£ = >|2 §1 3£' 'gems of Tarie" gated colours.' The bench was adorned with,

such, ^fj is used as an adj., = 'usual,' 'ordinary;' intimating that the bench was the same which was used in such position by the

living emperor ££| fa, jjj £ fgf f>ft gjj). Woo Ch'iug, however, explains the term differently, but by no means in so satisfactory a manner. He says:-^ f}| gf£ fftj

W ^Jc ii?''The benehe8 are calle<l tyj

because, though they were ornamented and lacquered, their proper material could still be distinguished, its substance not all concealed by the ornamenting. The reason of this was

o t

16 bench and adorned with different-coloured gems. In the side space on the west, facing the east, they placed the different rush mats, with their variegated border; and the usual bench adorned with veined

17 tortoise-shell. In the side space on the east, facing the west, they put the different mats of fine grass, with their border of painted

18 silk ; and the usual bench carved and adorned with gems. Before the western side-chamber, facing the south, they placed the different mats of fine bamboo, with their dark mixed border; and the usual lacquered bench.

at in festive matters the ornamental takes the ninence; but on occasions of mourning and sorrow, the simple and substantial. Perhaps

we ought to translate in the plural, acc. to

the pass, of the Chow LC, just referred to.

16. ill? M !t is <lifflcult without

a picture to get for one'sself or to give the reader an idea of the They were on the

front hall (^y ^jg*) of the private apartments.

The wall which was the boundary of this portion of the 'hall' did not extend all the way across, and from the extremity of it short walls were built towards the south, coming forward to about a Hue with the pillars that supported the roof. These walls were originally called the

^,acc.tothe^^;-^rlj|tr!tl j^. They were so called, as 'fencing or differencing between the inside and out'

(#f J# #'1 ft 1116 8creen and

tent here spoken of were placed, I believe, in

the side space between the and outer wall

of the hall. The is descriptive of

the position of this space, and is not to be understood of the aspect of the screen and mats, which must always have been 'towards the south.' Gaubil translates ill? 8 by 'devant l'appartemcnt occidental,' and Medhurst by 'in the western ante-chamber;' but both are wrong. The space was not an 'apartment,' but A portion of the hall with its own designation. Here the emperor, morning and evening, took his seat to

listen to affairs of business (jj^ JrJ^ -^7

^ Z 4* J5§ $5.-'bottom

mats.' Ma Yung, Wang so, and Gan-kwo, all say that these mats (or at least the bottom one of them) were made of y|j|, 'green rushes or reeds;' and I have so translated.

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They set forth also the five kinds of gems, and the precious things of display. There were the red knife, the great lessons, the largo ponvex symbol of gem, and the rounded and pointed maces,— all in the side space on the west; the large gem, the gems from the wild tribes of the east, the heavenly sounding stone, and the river plan,—all in the side-chamber on the east; the dancing habits of Yin, the large tortoise-shell, and the large drum,—all £ # WIJ1 £ fa

at the ceremony of communicating his dying charge to his son. They could not tell at what particular spot it would choose to be, and therefore would enable it to have a choice. As Ts'ae

expresses it, t{$ f$ % £ gjg ^, $ff

P. 19. Display of various precious relics.

3l 0i $$1 tllclnuse covers

the rest of the par., which gives in detail the gems and precious relics, with the places in which they were set forth. Ying-tahas noticed

this construction of the par.:—

take passively, and understand a before -fc, governing both it and ^j^.

TI, —' the red knife.' This was, no doubt, a

knife which had been distinguished at some time in the history of the empire. It would be of no use wearying ourselves, as the critics have done in vain, to discover what knife it was. Concerning ' the great lessons' Gaubil enquires: —' Was this the history of the empire, or some Book of religion or morals? or the one and the other?' We might put such questions indefinitely. Wang Suh thought we were to understand the Canons and Counsels of Parts I. and II. Ts'ae would go farther back, to the ' Books

of the three j|| and five 'fjjV mentioned by Gan-kwu in his Introduction to the Shoo; but he thinks the lessons of Wan and Woo may also be included! ^/|(=^^) ^jg,—see on Bk. VI., p. 4, where also the duke of Chow is represented as holding a mace (Jj|r) in his hand. To the imperial jjjr, 'maces,' or 'sceptres,' belonged the J^g From the text we should naturally have concluded that one article was in

tended by those terms; but from the Chow Le, Bk. XX., on the duties of the IjfL Jpfjj, we leafli that there was one ' gem-token' called J^S, and

another called J^. They were each 9 inches,

long:—the former rounded, expressive of good will; the other pointed, expressive of sharp severity against evil. All these articles were exhibited in 'the western side-space,' behind

the screen, &c., of p. 16. ^ Eg j|£ j^,—-fc, 'great gem-«<one;' but said by

K'ang-shing to be from mount Hwa. -]-;, 'gem-stones contributed by the E, or wild tribes of the east.' Ts'ae would take as=*^, 'common,' which does not seem at all so likely a meaning. ^Fj st, —see for the meaning of J^, on the 'Yih and Tseih,' p. 9. Gaubil

thinks that ^ Jjj^j means 'the heavenly sphere, a celestial globe, or something else, to represent the movement of the stars.' But the use of the character JjJ^ for 'a globe' is quite

modern. FT —this was some scheme to represent the first suggestions of the eight diagrams of Fuli-he. The fable was, that a dragon -horse came forth from the waters of the Ho, having marks or signs on his back, from which that emperor got his idea. See what is

said on the 'Book of Lo,' p. 321. Jj=j

iii jJEJ jf^,—J|j, see on the name of Pt. III.,

Bk. IV. A J?|.—' great tortoise-shell.' Among the gifts by which the friends of king Wan propitiated the tyrant Show, when he had confined the rising chief in prison, mention is made of a tortoise-shell curved as the pole of a carriage. There was a drum under the Chow

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in the western apartment; and the spear of Tuy, the bow of Ho, and the bamboo arrows of Suy,—all in the eastern apartment.

The grand carriage was by the guests' steps, facing the south. The next carriage was by the eastern steps, facing the south. The foremost carriage was in the front of the left lobby; and the next carriage was in the front of the right lobby.

instrument transmitted from former times.
By the western and eastern apartments we are
to understand two rooms, east and west of the

gt', forming part therefore of the private


apartments. They were behind the *
the 4 rear hall,' and of larger dimensions.
At 2: Eg Jk jpf,—Tuy, Ho, and Suy were,
no doubt, fatuous artificers of antiquity, and
distinguished respectively for the making of the
several articles here mentioned. That is all we
can be said to know of Tuy and Ho, but Suy is
supposed to be the same with Shim's minister
of Works.

Ts'ae suggests that the various articles here enumerated were set forth not merely as relics of the empire, but as having been favourites with king Citing;—to keep up the illusion of everything appearing as if he were there alive. He gives also a good remark from Yang She

Sp* fits "rW Q,, 'articies of llonour wcre set forth at the sacrifices, to show that the emperor could preserve them; they were set forth at the ceremonies of announcing a testamentary charge, to show that he could transmit them.'

P. 20. Display of imperial carriages. In the Chow Le, Bk. XXVII., on the duties of the ft) m, we have a full account of the imperial carriages, which were of five kinds,—

M . and :—>.e, the grand carriage ornamented with gems; the second, ornamented with metal (gold, we may suppose); the third, ornamented with ivory ; the fourth with leather and lacquered; the fifth, a wooden carriage, lacquered. Ts'ae supposes that all the five carriages are included in the text, the grand

carriage being the jjj^ (or which is the more common designation); ijj^, 'the

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'the front carriage' the Mr; and ^
'the next carriage (or carriages) in order,' both
the ^j^and the UN. In this view he dif-
fers from all the old commentators. Gan-kwu,
Ma Yung, and Wang Suh took the carriages in
the par. to be those of the Chow Le in the order
of their rank, the fourth, or leather carriage—the
chariot of war—being omitted, as inappropriate
to the occasion. K'ang-shiug had a view of his

own. The ijj^ was with him, as the others,
the J£§, but the was also a TI

$t No. 2, while the and the ^

were the || and a ffc $| No. 2 (^£

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prefer to adopt the view of Gan-kwS and those who agree with him. There can be no satisfactory explanation given of the names a, fir

and and our course is simply to translate them as we best can. The carriages were all arranged inside the Loo (Jj^) gate; and this gives us some idea of the dimensions of the palace, or the ground which it inclosed, as two carriages could stand opposite to each other (and not close together, we may suppose) between the gate and the steps by which the hall was ascended. On the west of the hall were the guests' stops, those by which visitors ascended; on the east were those appropriate to tho

host, the ^ called here [J^ j^. The front of those steps was of course towards the south. The || ^ says-f^ tit £ ^

g|j lijjffii, 'Halls by the side of the gate

were called We may translate jg by

'lobby.' Ts-ae observes that the carriages were thus displayed, as in the case of the screens, tents, and relics, that everything might be done as when the king was alive. The student will ask where they were brought from, and how they were brought inside the Loo gate. Of course


Two men in brownish leather caps, and holding three-cornered halberds, stood inside the gate leading to the private apartments: Four men in caps of spotted deer-skin, holding spears with upturned blades, stood one on each side of the steps east and west, and near to the platform of the hall. One man in a great officer's cap, and holding an axe, stood in the hall near the front at the east end. One man in a great officer's cap, and holding a somewhat different axe, stood in the hall, near the front at the west end. One man in a great officer's cap, and holding a lance, stood at the

H A m ffi £&-th; M # TMdif

ferent in form from the jj^: in being without the surmounting cover. It was made of the skin of a spotted deer, probably the axis. The

spear had a blade with upturned edge, projecting on one side from the base of the point.

jg! Jfj| EJ ^E- 'The side of the plat" form of the hall was called faQ' 'The two stairs' are mentioned, in the last par. We are to conceive of a guard accoutred as described, standing near the platform of the hall on each side of the steps by which it was ascended. —■ ^» jflij *^**,—the here was of

the same form as that worn by the emperor, but distinguished from it by the number of the pendents and the nature of the gems strung upon them. The critics are probably right in

determining that the -J^ here was that worn by a or 'great officer,' having 'five

pendents with black gems.' is the com

mon name for 'a battle-axe.' The was a

weapon of the same kind, but with some peculiarity of form, which it is difflcult to ascertain.

By r)|j 'j^T and ^tg* we are to understand the portion of the 'front hall' or platform east and west, in front of the two JjJ described on par. 19. K'ang-shing says:—pS^

they were brought, by the officer called
from their usual houses or repositories. How
they were brought inside the Loo gate cannot
be explained so clearly. Ming-shing says that
from the Loo to the Kaou or outer gate there
was a level way. This is not the case now in
the structure of the large public buildings from
which I have endeavoured to give a general
idea of king Ching's palace.

P. 21. Arrangement of guards about the gate

and hall. A M ^ ft'-^ U

sometimes used as a general designation for all coverings of the head used in ancient times. Here it denotes a leathern cap worn by^guards, and which is figured something like a having the surmounting cover, but no pendents attached. —' sparrow cap,' i.e., acc. to K'angshing, with reference to the colour, which was like a male sparrow's head. The Jjfa^ was a species of a kind of spear or lance, sharppointed, with hooks bending downwards

<£fc). Gan-kw5 says the !Bp was —£ |Sp|

'a three-cornered maou.' I suppose the point above the 'hooks' was fashioned in this way, which would make it more a halberd than a spear. We have seen that :§i. is another

name for W. These two men stood, cacli on one side, inside the fifth gate, within which ■everything yet described had been transacted.

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