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will be free from error. Make the regular statutes of our dynasty your rule, and do not with artful speeches introduce disorder into your offices. To accumulate doubts is the way to ruin your plans; to be idlo and indifferent is the way to ruin your government. Without study, you stand facing a wall, and your management of affairs will be full of trouble.

17 I caution you, my high nobles, exalted merit depends on the high aim, and a patrimony is enlarged only by diligence. It is by means of bold decision that future difficulties are avoided.

18 With rank, pride comes unperceived, and extravagance in the

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yay thinks they are those of others to whose suggestions the officers listen. What is said in 'The Charge to Chung of Ts'ae,' p. 7, may lie pleaded to determine in favour of either view,

compare Con. Ana., XVII, x. 17. The

necessity of a high aim, of ditiyenee, and of decision. This advice (and we may suppose, with Ts'ae, the others that follow also) is addressed to the jj^j|J -f-, 'the chief ministers and officers;' but we need not confine its application to them. Gau-kwo says ^ y\ jfi ^ >f&,

?f? 1f£ tllis may 1,6 exPressed by ^)

fiJxMMT1}^'&c- 1 cal1 attention to

this to illustrate the use of the 'Iffij, which may
he called the particle par eminence of the Shoo.
Choo He illustrates the sentiment by J£|Jj-

[J^ -jhlj- This last expression is from the
•^j^. We say—' Procrastination is the thief of
time;' the Chinese say—' Procrastination is the
thief of business.' 18. Aaainst pride and

extravagance. Jf\ for the

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same way with emolument. Let reverence and economy be real virtues, and do not show them in your affairs with hypocrisy. Practise them as virtues, and your minds will be at ease, and you will daily become more admirable. Practise them in hypocrisy, and your minds will be toiled, and you will daily become more stupid.

19 In the enjoyment of favour think of peril, and never be without a cautious apprehension. He who is without such apprehension

20 finds himself amidst what is to be feared. Push forward the worthy, and give place to the able, and harmony will prevail among all your officers. When they are not harmonious, the government becomes a tangled confusion. If those whom you advance are able for their offices, the ability is yours. If you advance improper men, then you are not equal to your duty."

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V. The king said, "Oh! ye charged with the threefold business of government, and ye great officers, reverently attend to your departments, and conduct well your affairs of government, so as to assist your sovereign, and secure the lasting happiness of the millions of the people:—so shall there be no dissatisfaction among the myriad States."

Kfing-yay says that the last clause, 1^
^ff fitt is inexplicable. The 1S&. as

describing the feeling of the people to the officers,
is inadmissible, he thinks, and he cannot con-
strue the '|^. But there are many more dif-
ficult passages in the Shoo. I do not think the
meaning is that the States would never be
wearied of the officers, but that they would
never be weary of the dynasty sustained by
them in such a way.

Ch. V. P. 21. The End or The Address: The Happy And Permanent Results Of The Ministers And Officers Acting As They Were

Exhorted. —• ^,—see last Book, p.

7. The 'six ministers are intended by the

phrase; but how to classify them as the

A, jjjj 5^c>an(* 4$> resPect've'yi I do not

know. By are intended all the subor

dinate officers of the six departments. St^fS&'-lL is evidently = Vft. Wang

THE BOOKS OF CHOW.

BOOK XXI. KEUN-CHTN.

I. The king spake to the following effect, "Keun-ch'in, it is you who are possessed of excellent virtue, filial and respectful. Being filial, and friendly with your brethren, you can display those qualities in the exercise of government. I appoint you to rule this eastern frontier. Be reverent!

Introductory Note. Keun-ch'in was the successor, in 'the eastern capital,' of the duke of Chow, who henceforth passes off the stage of the Shoo, which he has occupied so long. Between the 'Officers of Chow' and the 'Keunch'in' there were two Books, which are both lost. The loss of the second we must much deplore, for it contained an account of the death of the duke of Chow, and an announcement made by king Ching at his bier. The duke died in Fung, the capital of his father Wan, and, dying, signified his wish to be buried at Ching-chow, which he had built and watched over. The place was dear to him; but his wishes in regard to it were always to be disappointed. He had sought to make it the capital of the dynasty, but king Ching would not leave Haou. He now wished that his dust should rest in its soil, but the king chose rather to have him buried in Peih, the cemetery of their House (in the pres. district of Han-yang, dep. of Se-ngan). The object, according to Sze-ma Ts'een, was to honour him. He says that 'the king buried him in Peih, near by king Wan, to show that he did not presume to look on the duke as a minister.'

The duke of Chow was undoubtedly one of the greatest men whom China has produced, and

I do not know the statesman of any nation with whom his countrymen need shrink from comparing him. But this is not the place for writing either his history or his eulogium; I only wish, before passing on with the translation of the Shoo, to consider the claim which has been advanced for him to the invention of the mariner's compass. Gaubil held that he was versed both in astronomy and geometry, and says expressly that the use of the compass was known to him ;—see 'Le Chou-king,' p. 214, note 4. The common opinion of the Chinese is that not only was the use of the instrument known to him, but that he discovered it. In

the chapter on 'Inventions' (still in the

%)j ^ ljl ifjjf. or 'Inquiries into ancient things for the use of Learners,' it is said —'The duke of Chow made the south-pointing chariot, which has come down to us in the form of the mariner's compass' (Jjjjj •W* Jj^

The circumstances under which he is said to have made this instrument may be given first in the narrative of P. De Mailla, in his 'Histoiro Generate de la Chine,' pp. 316—318. When I subjoin the sources of his narrative, the reader will see how the history has been compiled, and whether we can put faith in the things related. V. De Mailla says:—-This same sixth year of his reign, king Ching, after having established his different officers, received the news that the ambassadors of a foreign kingdom, called rug.

tchang tchi (^jjj J^), were come to

bring him presents and do him homage. This kingdom, situated to the south of the country

of Kiao-tchi or Cochin-china, had

never sent anybody to China. The emperor gave orders that the ambassadors should be con- ducted to the court, and that great honours should everywhere be paid to them. This prince ( ? the king, or the duke of Chow) received them very well, treated them with distinction, and accepted their presents, among which was the white pheasant,—a species heretofore unknown ; after which he made the inquiry be put to them on what business they had come. They replied by interpreters, that the elders of their country said loudly, that for three years they had had neither winds nor tempest, no unseasonable rains jior great waves of the sea, and that there must be some special cause for such favour of Heaven; that apparently the throne of China was occupied by a sage emperor, who had procured for them these benefits.

'After that, the duke conducted them to the ancestral temple of the reigning family, where he c aused to be displayed on the one side the presents which they had brought, and on the other those which king Ching was sending to their prince. Among these were five chariots of a new invention. They accommodated the travellers, and indicated at the same time the route which they kept, by means of a small box, made in the form of a pavilion or dome, suspended from the roof, in which was a hand that always pointed to the south, to whatever side the chariots might turn. It was on this account that they were called Tchi-nan~t*he (^pj jj}.), or

chariot of the south. This machine was very useful to the envoys of Yue-tchang-tchi, for when they were arrived at the kingdom of Founau-lin, on the borders of the sea, they took to come barques, and by means of this compass they needed only one year to return to their own kingdom.'

Now, the Shoo does not contain, and never contained, any account of this embassy from Cochin-china, and I have searched in vain for any mention of it in Sze-ma Ts'een. The earliest mention of it is in Fuh-shang's 'Introduction

to the Shoo' (fjjj' A ^). His account is the following ^V. Jg i{jf§ ^

the sixth year of the duke of Chow's regency, he framed the ceremonial and official statutes of the dynasty, and made its music. The whole empire became harmonious and tranquil. At that time, ambassadors came from YuC-chang, with three elephants, and interpreters speaking nine languages, and presented a white pheasant. King Ching put them in the hands of the duke of Chow, who said, "Where the benefits of his virtue have not been experienced, the superior man declines to receive gifts; and a sovereign does not acknowledge as his subjects those to whom he has not issued the orders of his govt.; —on what ground is it that this offering comes to us ?" The ambassadors begged to say, "We come by the command of the elders of our kingdom. They said, 'For a long time there have been no unusual winds nor unseasonable rains in the sky. Is it not likely that there is a sagely man in the middle kingdom? Why should you not go and pay homage at his court ?'" On this the duke of Chow presented them in the ancestral temple.'

It will be observed that in this account no mention is made of the ' south-pointing chariot's.'

We come to Han Ying, not much later than Fuh-shang. In his 'Introduction to the She

King' at 3^; 'f^p, composed about tho

middle of the second century B.C., we have substantially the same account of the embassy from YuS-chang, but with certain marvels which

preceded it. He says :—^ £ H^p, ^

t&n—& & z* H * «

time of king Ching, three stalks of grain grew through a mulberry tree and came out in one flowering head, which was almost large enough to fill a cart, and long enough to fill the box of it. The king said to the duke of Chow, "What is this thing?" The duke replied, "Three stalks growing into one head probably betoken that the empire is now at length becoming one." Sure enough, three years after, the ruler of YuC-chang soil an embassy with

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