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III. "I appoint the Grand Tutor, the Grand Assistant, and the Grand Guardian. These are the three Kung. They discourse of the principles of reason, and adjust the States; harmonizing also and regulating the operations of Heaven and Earth. These offices need not always be filled:—there must first be the men for them.

111 appoint the Junior Tutor, the Junior Assistant, and the Junior Guardian. These are called the three Koo. They assist 0^ w mK? &

Ch. HI. Pp. 6—14. The Second Part Op


Kuny, and three Koo. We cannot well translate

/£\ and in these parr. Medhurst calls the

—| 'three dukes,' and the —■ j^,'three

conspicuous ones.' But the terms are here as names of office, and not of nobility. We may suppose that the Kung were so called with reference to the public spirit and freedom from

all selfishness which denotes. The diet.

says the Koo were so named to show that, though they were assistant to the Kung, they were not to be considered as subordinate officers of their departments. Gan-kwo's account of the name

is somewhat similar:—^, J|L jfe

it is said—'I appoint the Grand Tutor,' &c.,

(jfe ;/£ fjjji "ZT ^*)> we ^ not to understand that these names and the offices belonging to them were first constituted by king Ching. From Pt. IV., Book XL, we see that they were in existence in the time of the Shang dyn. King

Wan had for grand Tutor, and under

Woo that office was exercised by the duke of Chow, while the duke of Shaou was Grand Protector or Guardian. The meaning must be, that the offices were now more definitely declared a part of the governmental system of the Chow dynasty. Lin Che-k'e is of opinion that little is to be gained by attempting curiously to define the names fjjjj, ^3^, and and distinguish them from one another. Kea K'wei ^||) held that had reference to the preservation of the person; -j^, to aiding in virtue and righteousness ; and ^jjj, to the guidance of instructions. Gan-kwo said that 'the fjjjj was the

emperor's pattern; the -j^, his helper; and

the ^j^, his sustainer in virtue and righteousness.' The renderings in the translation cannot be far from the exact meaning. The business

of the three Kung was j|£ ^J$,

jj^ HHr. By we are to understand all

principles of reason and truth,—all the courses or ways, which it was proper for the emperor to pursue. The effect of the Kungt' discoursing on these with him would be seen in the States of the empire, in the govt, of which there would be no disorder. It would be seen also in the harmony of all the elements of nature, and the material prosperity which was dependent on them. This seems to be what is intended by 'harmonizing and regulating the Yin and Yang.'

On the two characters |j£ and [^r, which occur with their mystical application nowhere else in the Shoo, it may be sufficient here to give the note of Gaubil:—' Chinese books are filled with these two characters. In their natural sense signifies "clear," "light," and "obscure," "darkness." In Chinese Physics (^r is "movement," or the principle of movement; and Jfa^ is "repose," 01 the principle of repose. The moral and metaphorical applications of the terms are infinite, and extend to whatever is susceptible of them more or less, whether in Physics or in Morals. The sense of this paragraph is that all goes well in the empire; that the laws are in vigour; that commerce flourishes; that there are no public calamities; that the seasons are not deranged.' I believe that the meaning is not more than what Gaubil says. The remarks of Wang Kang-van are quite express on the

point=-^ j§ m m, mmi&&

±- ifij % 91 t'rto is a sad mis* representation], tff jj& -fc jfr, J[ *f*

o n ^ o - m

the Kung to diffuse widely all transforming influences; they with reverence display brightly the powers of heaven and earth :—assisting me, the one man.

"I appoint the prime minister, who presides over the ruling of the empire, has the general management of all other officers, and secures


3®f^^^^'^T"2^- Seemyremarks

on 'The Doctrine of the Mean,' i. 5; el al.

W % $k # 'It ^ A-the raeani,,8

of this is briefly and clearly given by one of the brothers Ch'ing.—m ^ A j^rj

the right men cannot be got to put in these positions, it is better to leave them unoccupied.'

jSi 4^' 'seconding ( = helping) the Kung.'

Mb 0WTMPond t0 Hf/ in tne former par. Tsoo-hiien says that 'Heaven and Earth are used with regard to the visible forms of those bodies or powers, and kt and |||r with regard to their or operating energy.'

Gaubil is wrong when he would understand 'religion' by 'Heaven' and 'government' by «Earth.'

[I have stated, in the introductory note from Ts'ae, the objection taken against the genuineness of this Book, from the Chow Le's saying nothing about the duties of the three Kung and three Koo. But the existence and exalted dignity of these offices is referred to repeatedly in the Chow Le. For instance, Bk. XXL, p.

3, commences-^ a EE A UN*' ^ ^f)j "Hf3» wmcn declares the existence of the Kung, and intimates their superiority in rank to the executive ministers of the government. Par. 32 of Book XXXVI., again, gives the Koo likewise precedence of those ministers.


ft i£ The Chow Le therefore is

not silent on these great ministers, as we might suppose from what Ts'ae says. It only does not treat of them separately, defining their duties, and enumerating the officers in their departments. But they were not the heads of departments. They composed the emperor's cabinet or privy council. Biot calls them happily—'les conseillers auliques,' and 'les vieeconseillers.' They were the prototypes of the

P9 or 'Inner Council' of the preeent day. It did not belong to the plan of the Chow Le to speak of them more fully than it does.

But if we could not thus account for the little that is said about them in that Work, the inference would be against it, and not against this Book. There can be no doubt as to the genuineness of the first half of par. 5. If all the rest

of the Book be forged, so much—~ff ^£ pfjj,

iC if - % & 'If H <&-has come

to us with the guarantee of Ch'ing Heuen ; and even Keang Shing edits it as a veritable fragment of ' The Officers of Chow.']

Pp. 7—12. The six chief ministers of the executice. Only the minister is mentioned, but in every case we are to understand that he was the head of a department with many subordinate officers. There is a close correspondence between those six departments of Chow, and the 'six

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(=^\^) —'the great or prime governor.'

The name was as old as the Shang dynasty, for we find it applied to E Yin, Pt. IV., Bk. IV., p. 1. This was the office of the duke of Chow (see Bk. XVII., p. 1.), who united with it the dignity of 'Grand Tutor.' The 5j2 jg 'the

officer of Heaven' (-^ 'ti) of the Chow Le, and is represented now by the 'Board of Civil Office' (j^? "rj?)- ^e waa 8Uperior to all the other great ministers, and was called 'their Head' Ch 2: "^"). This difference between him and them is intimated, I think, by

tne jrf ItT' ''las tne tfenora' management of all the officers.' This is probably what is intended by the difficult clause in Pt. IV., Bk.

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8 an uniformity throughout all within the four seas: the minister of Instruction, who presides over the education of the empire, inculcates the duties attaching to the five relations of society, and trains

9 to obedience the people: the minister of Religion, who presides over the ceremonies of the empire, attends to the service of the spirits

10 and manes, and makes a harmony between high and low; the minister of War, who presides over the military administration of the empire, commands the six hosts, and secures the tranquillity

11 of all the States: the minister of Crime, who presides over the prohibitions of the empire, searches out the villainous and secretly

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Men,' of the Chow Le. Gaubil says: —' H s'agit des ceremonies religieuses pour les csprits, et des civiles pour les hommes morta.' One cannot restrain a smile at the distinction which he introduces between the ceremonies, as here

'religious,' and there only ' civil!' f* F,

—all festive, funeral, and other ceremonies, as

well as those of sacrifice, came under the

(tr, who had therefore to define the order of

rank, precedence, &c. This is what is intended by the 'high and low' of the text. 10.

-m —The says that 'no arm of warlike

measures is more important than the cavalry, and hence the minister of War was called

"master of the Horse "' (j|f jj^T ^

.if. & vx % M % tr>xhis

does not appear among the officers of Shun. He is the 'officer of Summer' (Jj of the Chow Le, and appears in the 'Board of War * (-E -$5) of the present day. ^ ffc ilk, ■—'handles the govt, of the empire.' But the same might be said of every other minister;— why is the name of ' government' used only in connection with the minister of War? Ts'ao says:—'Military measures are used to punish and to smite,—to correct the evil-doers ; they are the greatest of the measures of imperial govt."

* IE 3>ffi.

see on 'The Punitive Expedition of Yin," p. L 11. ff] —' manager of banditti' (I

to H 71^' Kaou"yaou was Shun'g minister of Crime, though he was only called -f"; see the 'Can. of Shun,' p. 20. There is

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w icked, and punishes oppressors and disturbers of the peace: and the

12 minister of Works, who presides over the land of the empire, settles the four classes of the people, and regulates the seasons for obtaining the advantages of the ground.

13 "These six ministers, with their different duties, lead on their subordinates, and set an example to the nine pastors of the provinces, enriching and perfecting the condition of the millions of the people.

14 In six years the chiefs of the five tenures attend once at court. When this has been done a second six years, the king makes his tours of

now the 'Board of Punishments' (Jf|J ^); but the text says that the minister of Crime * handled the prohibitions of the empire.' 'He is so described,' observes Chin King, 'toshow the benevolent purpose of punishments, as instituted to deter men from doing evil.' This minister was 'the officer of Autumn' "ii') of the Chow Le. 12. j|fj jept,—' the minister of Works.' He was the 'officer of Winter" {^f. of the Chow LC, the portion of which relating to his department was unfortunately lost, though the scholars of the Han dynasty have endeavoured to supply it. The present 1 Board of Works' ( ~T corresponds to this minister, and his functions. In the 'Canon of Shun' we have the name of fjj jcjjjj, and also of t , which appears to have been the more ancient designation ;—see the ' Can, of Yaou,' p. 10. pj jjj^ may be translated—'overseer of the unoccupied,' suggesting to us that the earliest duties of this minister must have been to assign unoccupied lands. Kin Le-ts'eang says:—'The 'ffj fit was the minister who managed unoccupied grounds dividing and defining them

in preparation for the investiture of ministers; for donations to officers; for assignment as fields to husbandmen, shops to mechanics, and stances to traffickers. All the ground unapportioned was under his management ; once apportioned, the minister of War, and the minister of Instruction had then to do with it.' See the

M it J§ pi Keetties the f°ur

classes of the people,' i.e., arranges that scholars or officers, farmers, workers, and merchants

shall all live in the places best adapted for them.

U^p jfy 7^)J,—1 times the advantages of

the earth.' This would seem to imply that different operations might be required at different times, and that changes and removals of settlements might come to be desirable;—all to be done by the advice aud authority of the minister of Works.

Pp. 13, 14. Relation of the six ministers to the pastors of the provinces; and rule for imperial progresses, and appearances of the various princes at court. 13. ig. 'm it M,-- 'each

one leads on those belonging to his department.' The subordinates of each department amounted, in theory, to sixty. As the Chow Le exists, however, the dept. of the prime minister has 68 officers; that of the minister of Instruction, 76; that of the minister of Religion, 69 ; that of the minister of War, 69 ; and that of the minister of Crime, M. The excess in each, it is supposed, belonged originally to the officers of the dept. of the minister of Works, the account of which is commonly believed to be lost. See the work of

Ch'in Sze-k'ae in loc. \% ^ it,-- 'to go before—be an example to—the nine pastors.' We do not learn from the Shoo how communications were maintained between the six ministers at the imperial court and the

pastors of provinces. 14. ay

A in the Chow Le, Bk. XXXVIII., it

is said that the princes of the How tenure appeared at court every year; those of the Teen, every two years: of the Nan, every three years; of the Ts'ae, every four years; of the Wei, every five years; and of the Yaou, every six years. This seems a different arrangement from that described in the text. The text mentions five

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inspection in the four seasons, and examines the regulations and measures at the four mountains. The princes attend on him, each at the mountain of his quarter, and promotions and degradations are awarded with great intelligence."

15 IV. The king said, "Oh! all ye men of virtue, my occupiers of office, pay reverent attention to your charges, and be careful of the commands you issue ; for, once issued, they must be carried into effect and not be retracted. By your public feeling extinguish all selfish aims, and the people will have confidence in you, and be gladly obedient.

16 Study antiquity in order to enter on your offices. In deliberating on affairs, determine by help of such study, and your arts of government

~J*J {i| 't^'wnat commands are we to understand by here? Most critics take them as 'governmental notifications' 5^

-^), but I cannot think so. Such orders would go forth air from the sovereign himself. I understand the commands here, with Leu Tsoo-heen, as orders to be issued by superior officers to their subordinates; to which I would add notices by any of them to the people under their jurisdiction. ^} ifj, ^

IsL-M. Jej *I ■'to return'"to come

It is here nearly equal to our ' to retract.'

tenures and not six;—perhaps the Yaou tenure was too distant, and too little reduced to the order of the nearer domains, to be made much account of in king Ching's time. The text of the Shoo and of the Chow Le so far agree, that in six years the princes from all the tenures had appeared at court. They differ in this, that the text would appear to make the princes to appear there only once, whereas, acc. to the other authority, all but those of the Yaou tenure would have appeared repeatedly. The interpretation must be strained either in the one case or the other, to make the two

accounts agree. E B$ J# "fvCompare parr, 8, 9. Shun's progresses were made every five years, and the nobles all appeared during the intermediate ones. As the empire and its population grew, it was found necessary to separate the progresses by a longer interval.

Ch. IV. Pp. 15—20. Third Part of The


15. Hov> they should attend to their offices, especially in the matter of issuing orders, and in

putting away all selfishness. -^p* is best

taken here as ^ ;the king thus

■hows his respect for his officers. fh

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