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13 and virtue. He would not himself appear in the various notifications, in litigations, and in precautionary measures oi' government. There were the officers and pastors to attend to them, whom lie simply

14 required to be obedient and not disobedient. Yea, as to litigations and precautionary measures he ivould seem as if he did not presume

15 to know about them. He was followed by king Woo, who carried out his work of settlement, and did not dare to supersede his right

and to employ them with entire confidence. Gan-kwo, indeed, took the language differ


'king Wsin was able to set his mind on this,—the putting far off the bad and elevating the good.' But, as Choo He has observed, if this were the meaning, we should have read ^ pj and not fjffc

j\^>. Ke'ang Shing reads ^ ^£ £j|

}$K l^t w'"cn ne interPrct8—' King

Wftn employed his deliberating mind.' ~J*j

Jp£ are intended the of par. 1, and

fcy %t A the ffi ik Tbe A

are not mentioned here, unless the jjj

be taken to include them and all the other officers who have been enumerated. J^j[

^«i-WIf if

jfrj ^| ^fi, being a description of the qualifications and virtue of Wan's officers. 13, 14. These parr, are intended to show how king Wan, having appointed the right men, U>ft them to the management of their offices, and did not interfere with them in the discharge of their duties. 'jj^ •=

^& fijy 'lie in no way interfered

with;—did not attend to, along with his own duties.' Jflf == 'governmental orders and notifications.' This seems to be the only proper meaning of thi3 phrase in the connection. It must run on with the JjtjF

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eous and virtuous men ; who entered also into his plans, employing as before his forbearing and virtuous men. It was thus that they unitedly received this vast inheritance.

V. "Oh! young son, the king, from this time forth be it ours to establish the government, appointing the high officers, the officers of the laws, and the pastors;—be it ours clearly to know what courses are natural to them, and then greatly to employ them in the government, that they may aid us in the management of the trust of the people, and harmoniously conduct all litigations and precautionary measures. And let us never allow others to come between us and iffiEf f Ilf


should understand fig ^ ^;

similarly jgt We get an easier meaning

certainly by taking the expressions in this way, than if we understand them of king Wan himself.

Ch. V. Pp. 1G—24. The Duke Addresses


Illustrated. 15, 16. How the king should carefully choose, entirely trust, and steadily maintain his officers. -r, -}-,—this language

has been pressed to show that the address was delivered when the king was a minor.

■^p, it must be conceded, is properly ■= Ah,

'a sucking child ;' but it is used away from that signification, whether it was applied to Ching about his 15th year, or his 20th. When the duke of Chow had resigned the regency, he still continued to think of the king as the boy he had watched over, and ruled for, and so he calls him here, when offering these counsels which are not at all appropriate to him as a minor.

a lift 3| A ,—the critics all say

that here (and in other clauses below) refers

to king Ching. Woo Ch'ing says, 'The six

in pp., 15, 16, are all the duke's ^^ing king

Chi-*' & ft % ft Jfc I). Ch'xn Ta

yew says, 'By the Mr. the duke identifies him

self with the king. Sovereign and minister should compose, as it were, one body' at yjfj"

— flifl). All this

may be correct, but we may as well translate by the plural of the first personal pronoun, it

covers the Jj£ tits A, A, as *l (loes (f l9tf| in p. 7. It is remark

able how the order of enumeration, when speaking of the ' three positions, is continually varied.

ft £ & jjft & m

the language of p. 6. here must be equal

to j\^]> there. The critics generally define it by

||g|, and then understand by %R M

'know that they are accordant with right,' obedient to heavenly principle. Ts'ae, much

more happily, goes on to explain by

'that in which the mind reposes,' and then adduces, to illustrate the meaning, the words of Confucius (Ana. II., x.) 'tit Jjjf A

M fl^' '^xamme in w'iat things a man rests. How can he conceal his character!'

'TfrPMMypr KeangShing would strangely make A, here only a particle of introduction. ft ^ &~ft gt

17 them. Yea, in our every word and speech, let us be thinking of officers of complete virtue, to regulate the people whom we have received.

18 "Oh! I, Tan, have received these excellent words from others, and tell them all to you, young son, the king. From this time forth, O accomplished son of Woo, accomplished grandson of Wan, do not err in regard to the litigations and precautionary measures;—let

2* 'the people whom we have received,' «,c, who have been entrusted to us by Heaven, and transmitted to us by our ancestors. git

M #J ^ fcl'

1 in this condition.' ^ —' to come between them;' either between them and their work, or between them and us. Hang Shing joins this clause on to the next, and reads instead of

Jffl, from Wang Ch'ung's p^jjj ^j. He labours hard but unsuccessfully to interpret his text.

17. In translating this par. I have followed Ts'ae, who takes = and '(^"^

W 2: ''^u"nS "le 8Pace of one word or one sentence.' Lin Che-k'e has the same view. Woo Ch'ing would refer • ■ == to the

J£fif =r of Par- ^8. Gan-kwo's comment on the whole par. is strangely laboured and absurd:

18—21. The king is repeatedly and variously warned against erring in the matter of litigations and precautionary measures. There was probably some disposition in the young emperor to interfere with the regular course of these two departments, which made the duke dwell so

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-- or words.'

=y, 'admirable words' or 'good

He refers no doubt to all that he has said in the address. The 'men from whom he received them' were probably the host of ministers and officers, who had commenced to addre»3 the king when he took the words out of their mouth. Lin Che-k'e praises the honesty of the duke of Chow in making this acknowledgment, and contrasts him with some other statesmen who used the ideas of others, taking all the credit of them to themselves. ,

—'the accomplished son, the accomplished grandson.' King Shing no doubt is intended.

-lE Z,'—*"I*W " no en<* °^ t,le

disputes about how is to be taken. Ts'ae

supposes that >t=jj£ which phrase we have in Bk. IX., p. 17. From the conclusion of p. 21 we must conclude that the |jj

are intended. Wang Ts'c'aou makes a good observation on this par.:—' The prec. par. Bays that the sovereign is not to let other men interrupt the proceedings of his officers; here he is admonished not to throw those proceedings into error by interference of his

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19 the proper officers regulate them. From of old to the founder of Shang, and downwards to king Wan of our Chow, in establishing government, when they appointed high officers, pastors, and officers of the laws, they settled them in their positions and unfolded their talents. It was thus that they gave the government into their hands.

20 In the empire never has there been the establishment of government in the employment of artful-torigued men;—with such men, unlessoned in virtue, never can a government be distinguished in the world. From this time forth, in establishing government, make no use of artful-tongued men, but seek for good officers, and get them to use all their powers in aiding the government of our empire.

21 Now, 0 accomplished son of Woo, accomplished grandson of Wan, young son, the king, do not err in the matter of litigations. There are the officers and pastors to attend to them.

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"Have well arranged also your military accoutrements and weapons, so that you may go forth beyond the steps of Yu, and be able to travel over all beneath heaven, even to beyond the seas, everywhere meeting with submission:—so shall you display the bright glory of king Wan, and render more illustrious the great achievements of king Woo.

"Oh! from this time forth, may you and your successors, in establishing the government, seek to employ men of constant


P. 22. This par. suddenly introduces a subject difft. from those hitherto dwelt upon, and seemingly quite out of place in the Book. At the close of his address to prince Shih, however, we found the duke of Chow all at once break into the same warlike mood. There he would have the dynasty extend its sway, till 'from the corners of the sea to the snnrising there should not be one disobedient to the rule of Chow.' Here his enthusiasm rises higher, and he will have the empire extended beyond its limits in the time of Yu. Many of the critics argue that after the dynasty of Hea began to decline, the wild tribes all round the empire encroached upon it, till the 'nine provinces' of Shang hardly embraced half the territory which those of Yu had done. There is no definite testimony, however, to this effect. If it were so, we can well suppose that the duke of Chow was bent on extending the sway of his House, to recover at least all the ground that had been lost from the time of Yu. f ± gf at is

defined by Y^j, 'to have in good order.' The term means 'to interrogate judicially.' Its proper force here is 'to maintain a strict inquiry into.' iind .jr. are used in the diet,

to define each other; both signify 'military weapons.' Gan-kwO is followed by Ts'ae in distinguishing them, as I have done in the trans.ation(^J]fcJ£^). Or j|

\$\\,—'ascend the footsteps of Va.' But this hardly makes sense. The 'Daily Explanation' defines ^^i^j^ 'to go beyond.' For the 'footsteps of Yu,' the limits

of his different progresses, see 'The Tribute of Yu,' Pt. ii., p. 23, and the 'Yih and Tseih,' p. 8.

Hil '8 use^ m tne gense of Jf£> *=■' to cause to be displayed.' Leu Tsoo-heen tries to argue that the duke of Chow is not inciting the king here to warlike expeditions, but only to be prepared for war as the best security for peace. He lays down this maxim very tersely:

Shing defines by 'to be circumspect,' 'to watch against,' so that he brings out the meaning that the king was to have done with war and cultivate the arts of peace, as the means of securing universal submission 1 For this interpretation there is no more ground than for Tsoo-heen's reasoning. Cram glad to find that Woo Ch'ing thinks this par. as much out of place as I do. 'It has no connection,' he says, 'with the text before and after. It may be presumed that a portion of the Book has been lost.']

P. 23. The duke here repeats the burden of his address, extending his wishes from king Ching to his successors. *^ ^r=1^

£ A- Con,p- H & ±> ^9>and

in 'The Counsels of Kaou-yaou, p. 2,

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