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A. ^ 'If

you will discharge your royal duty. If you judge by the face only, and therefrom deem men well schooled in virtue and appoint them, then those three appointments will all be occupied by unrighteous people.' The way of Kee, however, was not to observe this precedent. Those whom he employed were cruel men;—and he had no successors.

III. "After him there was T'ang the Successful, who, rising to the throne, greatly administered the bright ordinances of God. He employed to fill the three high positions those who were equal to those

mentioned in the 'Canon of Shun,' p. 20. He gives for the whole:—=jj£ Jijj" fjjjj

'^-onsu" on t'le f?roun(l of the things you have seen before your face, and which will not admit of doubt; you can then employ those who are greatly accordance with virtue, and will be able to fill all the offices with men of worth. Thereafter you can locate the unrighteous people in the three places assigned to them :—those whose crimes are heinous, farthest among the four wild tribes; less heinous criminals beyond the nine provinces; and those whose offences are lighter still beyond the boundaries of their

several States.' This interpretation of —

is altogether foreign to the scope of the paragraph; but it continued till the Sung dynasty, and even then Soo Tung-po followed it.

p|j is 'to judge merely from the face, or

[fl] ; ^ for T; ; at for a ; and interprets, 'If your counsels are deceived, and you move towards men who are not virtuous, and place them in these offices, then the occupants of these three positions will be able to give no good

example to the people.' 3. git igl,— 'K'eC's virtue,' i.e., his evil way, being in a

bad sense. ^fc,—'did not do the past,'

i.e., did not imitate the example of Yu in employing the worthy. The language is not clear, but it is better to point and construe as I have done, —after Ts'ae. Gan-kwo and Keang Shing have each a different method ; but they take the same

view of the whole paragraph. ff jpr ME
Ch. III. Pp. 4, 5. The Importance Of Tub

OF THE SltANG DYNASTY. *. ah-, T^fij mfty 00

taken, with Ts'ae, as a compound conjunction, =
our' again,'' further.' Kjjf ^ h ffi

outward appearances f| |5f m 3l W'l fill -'ascended, and greatly regulated

^jfe gl|7X»^ k Zs* ffsi I the bright appointment of God.' Rfc,' ascend

TSB' Xi'J-U /> JUL tyfz CPW e(]). scellls t0 be usei, with reft,renee l0 T'ang'a

from being the chief of a second-rate State becoming emperor. Other explanations of the term are given, but it is not worth while to dwell

pretation of and brings out a meaning J on them. = J§? or '/p, 'to regulate,' 'to

something like what I have given, but by hard 1 administer.' Gan-kwfi prefers the meaning of ghifts. He reads before =j£; takes j§J = f^/,' to give ;'—but very inappropriately. The

Keang Shing avoids the old inter


positions; and those who were called possessors of the three grades of ability could display that ability. He then studied them severely and greatly imitated them, making the utmost use of them in their three positions and with their three grades of ability. The people in the cities of Shang were hereby all brought to harmony, and those in the different quarters of the empire were brought greatly under the 5 influence of the virtue thus displayed. Oh ! when the throne of T'ang came to Show, his character was all violence. He preferred men of severity, princes of States who deemed cruelty a virtue, to share

meaning is, that when T'ang was established on the throne, his whole system of govt, was in harmony with the mind of God. His institutions might be regarded as divine ordinances.

is clearly paraphrased in the ' Daily Explana

Me ft®

Still more evident here than in the 2d par. is the blunder of Gan-kwO in taking —- of

'the three places of banishment,' —- It

—'the three—or three classes—of possessors of ability, men among a thousand.' Gan-kwO mid Keang Shing suppose that men are meant who possessed the ' three virtues' mentioned in 'The Great Plan,' p. 17; but it is simpler to

understand that by are intended men who had talents and virtue which would make them eligible to the three high positions. On such T'ang had his notice fixed, and was prepared to call them to office at the proper

time. 0 = 3£ ft % |H ft-#f

Woo Ch'ing may be said to expunge

^fC'jjl^, for he says that they are 'a form of

introduction' (W). Gan-kwO and

Keang Shing interpret the passage thus:— 'T'ang's majesty became a great example to the

Vol. m.

empire because he was able to use the right

— ^j?). They differ, however, in the mean. j t

ing which they give to — ;but their construction of the text is far inferior to that of Lea Tsoo-heen and other critics, which I have

followed. is not the particle, but the verb,

=<{§>' 'to tml,k 'to 8tuo,y;' nil

or 't0 imitate.' Tsoo-heen says that T'ang's way with E Yin, first sitting as a learner at his feet, and then reposing entire confidence in him as his minister, may illustrate the meaning. jj£ a [§] £3,,—by 'the cities of Shang' we are to understand all the territory of the imperial domain. ^jjjji, —' thereby were led to great imitation, and saw the virtue of their sovereign.' The 'Daily Explanation' expands it:— ti PB

the commencement of parr. 5 and 6 in Bk. XV. tit = j^y, 'strong,''violent.' Ts'se explains

H Mh? $k if M Wi%:'he advnncei

to office those who punished capitally' Keang Shing also gives if: for but I must take JflJ as a description of =jj>^ 2: 'men of violent character, like his oit n, who


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with him in the government of the empire; and at the same time, the host of his associates, men who counted idleness a virtue, shared the offices of his court. God then sovereignly punished him, and caused us to possess the great empire, enjoy the favouring decree which Shang had afore received, and govern all the people in their myriad realms.

IV. "Subsequently there were king WSn and king Woo, who knew well the minds of those whom they put in the three positions, and clearly saw the minds of those who had the three grades of ability. Thus they could employ them reverently to serve God,

a(lvanccd(=deemed)punishments as the proper instrument of govt.' Show had pleasure only in those princes of the States who were such.

^P' 'n's coun'r'e8>' seems to be opposed to JPjjj jjefir,'his govt.,' i.e., the flea to the court.

I take 'fit in the sense of 'sovereignty.' Anything with the express sanction of imperial authority is so denominated. ^jj

Al j^,—'entirely to rule the myriad surnames.' Compare in Bk. XIV., p. 6, jfe

not seek for any other meaning to Al (as Ts'ae docs) than the general one of Vg, 'to govern.' M ^,—comp. Pt. III., Bk. III., p. 9. I suppose that is used without any particular reference to the surnames of the people as being so many, or that ^ = || $5 2: R.

Ch. IV. Pp. 6—15. The Same Principle


6. Ts'ae observes that when it is said that Wang and Woo knew the minds and saw the minds of the —■ and -— this is

equivalent to the language of the 2d par.,

$u tfc tft rfn # U W-11 certain*

indicates that those sovereigns sought to obtain
the most thorough knowledge of those whom
they placed or would place in the highest offices
of trust. Tsoo-liccn calls attention to the differ-
ence between and fir —They knew what
was in the highest servants of their govt.; they
saw what the men of ability could prove them-
selves to be, when called to employment.
Jll 'f[^J>—those whom Wan and Woo

thus appointed were the 3^ and —■
Ts'ae, arguing from the language of the Bk.
3r la t'le ^e n,a^es the R to be the
governors of a or five States, and the

to be the Chiefs of a ^>|>| or 210 States. I do not think that we need to seek for such a definite application of the terms. Ch'in Leih says that it was a common practice of antiquity for the princes of States to reside at the imperial court, and there sustain office, while the officers of the court were also cut forth, as princes of

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7 and appointed them as presidents and chiefs of the people. To establish their government, they had the men of office, the officers of law, and the pastors, and these appointments were their three

8 concerns. They had also their guards; their officers of the robes; their equerries; their heads of petty officers; their personal attendants;

9 their various overseers; and their treasurers. They had their governors of larger assigned cities and of the smaller; their men of arts; the overseers whose offices were beyond the court; their grand historiographers; and their chiefs of direction :—all, good men of constant virtue.

States. See the gj| 7. Keang Slung

briefly and comprehensively explains this par.—

■M — A13 ,he Hof par-

l > ^, the A > and $tth0 & i&
8. The long enumeration of officers in
this and some following paragraphs has no
organic connection with the rest of the Book,
the argument of which would be improved by
the omission of it. I have shown in one of the
introductory notes how Wang Pin would dispose
of it. All that we can do is to explain the
various designations in the best way we can.

(read ts'ow) —'equerries.' These belonged to the department of the /jvSj? or masters of the imperial stud. Their rank was that of J\ -J-. See the Chow Le, Books

XXVIII. and XXXII. ^*=yj> ^

'the heads of small officers.' We cannot define the designation more particularly. k —Gan-kw6 understands

this phrase as in the translation,—k

W f4?f $i Z Ts'ae suppo!m;3 thiit

nas tms signification, and that denotes

'charioteers' (-fil-fl). Woo Ch'ing, again would confine the two characters to this latter meaning. Gan-kw5's interpretation seems the preferable. Q |jj ,-=' the hundred superintendents or overseers.' The phrase denotes

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"In the various States there were the minister of Instruction, the minister of War, and the minister of Works ; with the many officers subordinate to them.

"Among the wild tribes of the Wei, the Loo, and the Ching; in the three Po; and in dangerous places: they had wardens.

"King Wan was able to have in himself the minds of those in the three high positions, and so it was that he established those regular officers and superintending pastors, so that they were men of ability

include, according to the language of the Le Ke, Bk. J ^|J, Ft. iv., p. 10, 'all who employ their arts in the govt.,—priests, historiographers, archers, charioteers, doctors, diviners, and the

practisers of the various mechanical arts' (

these Q 5] are distinguished from those in

the prec. par. by the addition of IE , 'outside ministers.' We are to understand officers with special charges, as in the former case, but

located away from the court. —

see on Bk. X., p. 13. We are to understand here not only the 'Grand Historiographer,' but

all the officers in his department. ^j^J

is defined by Ts'ae ^f=J fjj J^, ' the heads of the several classes of offices' He illustrates his meaning by referring to the m ( "= jfaj

■^3"), or 'butcher,' and the ^ or 'cook,' whose offices were both subordinate to that of the jm , or 'master cook,' who was their

/f£l" AS 'Hii 7=? i'~is (lescriPtive

of the officers enumerated, and of the subordinates employed by them.

P. 10. This par. has reference to the various officers in the States of the princes. See 'The Speech at Muh,' p. 2.

P. 11. This par. would seem to go on to speak of the officers,—overseers or governors,— whom Wan and Woo appointed among the wild

tribes, the ^3" at the close belonging to each of the tribes specified, all included under the commencing The —b jg>, however, occasions a difficulty, for their people were the descend

ants of T'ang's original subjects, and could not be classed with the under which term

therefore we can only include the the J^£,

and the ,2^.. The two first of these are mentioned in the 2d par. of Bk. II., referred to above, with other wild tribes, who acted with the forces of king Woo in his overthrow of

Show. The ,2^» are not mentioned there, and

there is much difference of opinion as to how that term should be taken. Gan-kwo adopts

the meaning of Jr, 'the multitudes;' Mingshing approves that of 'rulers,' which is

given to it in the |<j^ and others suppose

it is the name of a wild tribe, like the two preceding terms. The 'three Po' were Mung

(i^p or the 'northern P6,' in the pres. dis. of

Shang-k'ew, dep. of Kwei-tih in Ho-nan; the western Po, in the pres. dis. of Yen-sze, dep. of Ho-nan; and the 'southern F5,' which was only a few le from the northern. Ts'ae says that he

does not understand the meaning supposes however that it may mean 'strong positions' (PJ^~|^) throughout the five domains, where it was deemed proper to locate special officers. K'ang-shing joined it with

' Arts, and supposed that it denoted the three

strongholds, where the overseers of the different Po were placed.

Pp. 12—15. Further exemplification in )Van and Woo of their anxiety to get right men; and of the confidence which they reposed in them when ffot. 12.

—we must explain these words from the

^ff -^J ^ Par- fi- K'"g Wan was

able to know fully the minds of hi* officers,

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