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^ I ^ ^ 1^,

them, and increased their excellence, made choice of them, and gave them the decree of Yin, to rule over your many regions.

20 III. 'Why do I now presume to make these many declarations? I have dealt very leniently as regards the lives of you, the people of

21 these four States. Why do you not show sincere and generous obedience in your many regions? Why do you not aid and cooperate with us the kings of Chow to secure the enjoyment of

lated the clause by—' II (lie takes ^

as singular) fut en etat d'etre mis a la t&te des affaires qui regardent les esprits;' and observes,

in a note, that $L jjjfjj ^ is equivalent to tltc

tff- 'n l'le' ^ot'' P0886890^ pure Virtue,'

p. 3. So far he is correct; but the should
not be sunk in a translation. Its use shows very
clearly, how, while the ancient Chinese could
say of God, whom they intended by 'Heaven,'
that He was a spirit, just as we do, they did not
consider Him as merely one of 'the host of
spirits.' No Chinese critic has ever taken

jjjjjj here as an adjective. They invariably
understand a conjunction between JfJ^J and
I need only give further what ChHn Ta-yew
says on the passage:-"^ ^ M ^

•^"Wi^ti^- If it be still asked why
as the more honourable, does not precede
jflljj, we may reply with Dr. Medhurst, that

i»'br''t have been taken as meaning 'the spirits of heaven;' or (which seems to me more likely, as that usage of ^ jjjjjj is foreign to the Shoo) that the collocation was chosen to avoid the coming together of the closely allied sounds

•fy^,—' Heaven therefore (see in Bk. XVI., p. 21) taught us, and thereby was excellence.' By the ffjj^, 'us,' are intended the ^JT, at the beginning of the par., and I have therefore kept the third person in the translation.

Ch. HI. Tp. 20—23. Tub Kixg. Complains

Of The Reluctance With Which The Rule Op Chow Was Submitted To; Shows The Follt Of It, And Declares That, If Fer8kvf.ukd In, It Should Be Dealt With In Another Style.

20. J^j 'how dare I?' The critic*

make no remark on the use of 'to dare,* 'to presume,' here. It is strange from the lips, of the king in this connection. He might very well speak of himself as 'presuming,' with reference to Heaven; but it sounds oddly as it stands. '|^, -jr- 8ee 0D ^

Yaou Shun-muh says:—' At the commencement of the announcement, the king telU them how he had spared their lives, and starts from that to unfold the reasons why Heaven now bestows its favour and now withdraws, that they might be taught to nip the unquiet and insurrectionary tendencies of their hearts in the bud. Herehe reminds them a second time of the same thing, wishing to show them the path of selfrenovation and improvement, that they might escape the miseries of extreme punishment in which they were going on to involve themselves.'

See the $ffc. 21. $ % ^ $

7^ * tBke tne Z, 'iere '*ke t'ie same character in ^2^, p. 17, as giving em

phasis to the previous verbs. This usage corresponds to that which is not (infrequent with our English it.—'Why do you not sincere it, and liberalize it?' Treated so well by the govt, of Chow, why would they not obey it sincerely and with a largenesB of mind like that which had been shown to them. It is not easy to translate the clause. Medhurst misses the meaning; and when Gaubil says 'Pourquoi ne seriez-vous pas desormais fideles et tranquilles dans votre pays,' the 'tranquilles" by no means brings out

sufficiently the meaning of ij^Jf. ft* Heaven's favouring decree? You now still dwell in your dwellings, and cultivate your fields;—why do you not obey our kings, and


22 consolidate the decree of Heaven? The paths which you tread are continually those of disquietude;—have you in your hearts no love for yourselves? do you refuse so greatly to acquiesce in the ordinance of Heaven? do you triflirigly reject that decree? do you of yourselves pursue unlawful courses, scheming by your alleged

23 reasons for the approval of upright men? I simply instructed and declared to you; I secured in trembling awe and confined the chief criminals:—I have done so twice and for three times.

lot to assi8t an<1 <to aid"

X is best taken &8"=^jj£> 'to preserve,' 'to maintain.' The kings of Chow had received the favouring decree of Heaven; but that decree had to be made firm or sure by the cheerful acquiescence of the people and princes in their

sway. 4 ;g g| |JJ,—comp. the closing par. of the 'Numerous Officers.' ]§ = M, 'to accor<* with,'= 'to obey and have sympathy with.' Eli = Jj|j|, 'to make wide,' -'to strengthen.' 22. The 'Daily Ex

planation' says that here ' the people of Yin are reproved as to the past, and admonished as to the future.' The first clause is to be supposed narrative; but all the others are best taken

interrogatively. J*j ^ M T ©

7*j M 5S ^ §£■ ThU is Bome

what harsh, requiring the inversion of jffa but what can we do? Keang Shing

in the sense of —'I have sought to

guide you repeatedly, but still you are not tranquil.' This construction is more objectionable. Their 'paths of disquietude' were the rebellious movements in which they had repeatedly engaged. ^ <p£ is taken by Gan-kwd and Keang Slung indicative!)-, =

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But if you do not take advantage of the leniency with which I have spared your lives, I will proceed to severe punishments and put you to death. It is not that we, the sovereigns of Chow, hold it virtuous to make you untranquil, but it is you yourselves who accelerate your crimes and sulf'erimjs.'1"

IV. "The king says, 'Oh! ho! I tell you, ye many officers of the various regions, and you, ye many officers of Yin, now have ye been hurrying about, doing service to my overseers for five years. Kit


3^ J/>| ^Z rc'crs to tne cnPt'vt's and prisoners, during that expedition, who however were not put to death • (f g J| (if £ f£ 0

z>wxm im^mm

may retain the signification of '[^ as 'only,'

'simply.' We cannot, however, interpret

IN as we have done in the previous instances of its occurrence, p. 11, and Bk. IX., p. 12. The here perhaps requires that we interpret the phrase differently. Wang Ts'eaou gives for it

%W}®mz- #^5-5-.

—comp. the two last clauses of Bk. X., p. 11. Compare also Bk. XIV., p. 18, f^. ffi ■ A

Ch. IV. Pp. 24—29. TnE Kino Addiif.sses


Yet Keen. Woo Ch'iiig, as I stated in the note on the name of the Book, removes this chapter to the 'Numerous Officers,' with the exception of a part of the 29th par., which he seems to reject altogether. In this measure, he followed the example of the critics Woo and Hoo

(probably ^ and j^j M ^\ The

change of the style of address, from ^> to

^£ f:, certainly gives countenance to it,

though the ^| ~fj ^ in par. 24 may be pleaded in favour of the received arrangement. The point, however, is of little importance.

P. 24. Ying-ta explains ^ ^ -jj

±>mmjjzmfo *»°

here, the numerous officers of the four quarters. The princes from the four quarters of the empire are thus designated.' I would rather take

as = Jj/j- ^ equivalent to 'all

the quarters of the empire.' ^gj

^ff jjjjjl ( = 4^. The Yin term for 'year' is

used, perhaps because it is the old officers of that dyn. who are addressed),—acting as ministers to my overseers for five years.' Keang Shing supposes that the 'overseers' are the three uncles of the king, who had been appointed by his father to oversee Woo-kang, and finds a reference to the past;—' Ye hurried about, doing service to my overseers for five years.' But this interpretation is quite absurd; and moreover the -dj1* is inexplicable on it. It is only

exceeded in absurdity by the view of Gan-kwo, who would interpret:—' Ye run about serving my overseers. If you do so for five years without fault, I will restore you to your original territory' King Ching's'overseers'were the ministers of Chow, under whose charge the officers and people of Yin removed to L8 were placed. The statement that those officers had served them there for 'five years' should put


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25 There are among you the employes, the chiefs, with the numerous directors, small and great:—endeavour to discharge your duties ac

26 cording to the laws. It is from yourselves that the want of harmony arises:—strive to be harmonious. In your families there is a want of concord:—strive to be harmonious. When intelligence rules in your cities, then will ye be proved attentive to your duties.

27 Do not be afraid, I pray you, of the evil ways of the people; and moreover by occupying your offices with a reverent sedateness, you will find it possible to select from your cities individuals on

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28 whom you may calculate. You may thus in this city of Lo long continue, cultivating your fields. Heaven also will favour and compassionate you; and we, the sovereigns of Chow, will greatly help you and confer rewards, selecting you to stand in our royal court. Only be attentive to your duties, and you may rank among our great officers.'"

29 "The king says, 'Oh ! ye numerous officers, if ye cannot exhort one another to pay a sincere regard to my charges, it will further show that you are unable to honour your sovereign, and all the people will also say—"We will not honour him." Thus will you be proved slothful and perverse, greatly disobedient to the charges of your sovereign.

along with par. 2G, and edits it—yp»
■J* [>(J ifiS. Fur ^jjtj he gives the authority
of the > DUt t'lat >* of no importance, as

this character is there explained by . But
the A quotes the passage with and not

r, which Shing arbitrarily assumes to have been the original reading. The meaning which he thus finds is:—'You will be proved attentive to your duties, and your superiors will have no occasion to detest your evil ways.'

pi, seems to ='from this—on the ground of your behaviour in this—city of L6.' The force of fjaf is sufficiently given by our 'may.' On

0' Wang Ts'eaou observes that 'to

cultivate a field (Ill ) is called jjjj^, in the same

way as to catch fish ) is called J^-'

ff&m-R'%& nhn>

'gift you and compassionate you.' ■ft

If—ft V$i f^UI 1ft M'<aM yon and

confer bounties on you.' In jpj the has its hortative force. Ts'ae gives for the

clause-it ^mmmzm

J]|£ ^>—comP- <The Numerous officers,' p. 20. It will there be seen how the officers of Yin desired the favours that are here promised them.

P. 29. If they will not be won by the leniency shown and the favours promised to them, but continue disaffected, and make the people also disaffected, they shall be dealt with summarily and severely. The critics are here concerned to free the duke of Chow from the charge of speaking, or making the king speak, like one of the chiefs and arbiters among the princes, of whom we read so much in Mencius, —first coaxing and then threatening, subduing men merely by their strength. Leu Tsoo-heen goes into the point at length, and says that here we have the judgment and the infliction of Heaven always preceding the judgment and act of human authority. But we should find the same thing in the speeches of those tyrant chiefs. The duke said what seemed most likely to him to accomplish hit

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