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THE BOOKS OF CHOW.

BOOK. XVII. THE CHARGE TO CHUNG OF TS'AE.

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When the duke of Chow was in the place of prime minister, and directed all the officers, the king's uncles spread abroad an evil report, in consequence of which he put to death the prince of Kwan in Shang; confined the prince of Ts'ae in Koh-lin, with an attendance, however, of seven chariots; and reduced the prince of Ho to be a private man, causing his name to be erased from the registers for three years. The son of the prince of Ts'ae being able to display a reverent virtue, the duke of Chow made him a high noble, and when his father died, requested a decree from the king, investing him with the country of Ts'ae.

The Name Of The Book.—At ^fjl

'The Charge to Chung of Ts'ae.' Ts'ae was the name of the small State or district, which formed the appanage of Too, a younger brother of the duke of Chow, on whose history I hare slightly touched in the note on p. 12 of Bk. VI. The name still remains in the dis. of Shang-ts'ac ( |* dep. of Joo-ning, Hu

uui. Too was deprived of this appanage, but

it was subsequently restored to his son, and the Charge preserved in this Book was given to him on the occasion. The name of Too's son was Hoo (He is here called Chung; but that character only denoted his place in the roll of his brothers or cousins. A Chinese scholar has attempted to explain it to me thus.—Too was younger than king Woo, and so, from the standpoint of king Chiug, he is called ^» Jj^,

'(younger) uncle of Ts'ae.' King Ching and Hoo were cousins,—'brothers,' according to Chinese usage of terms, and Hoo, being the

younger of the two, was called -|ljj,

'(second) brother of Ts'ae.'

The Book is only found in the old text, or that of Gan-kwo. There is some difference of opinion as to the place which it should occupy in the list of the Books of Chow. Ts'ae thinks it ought to be placed before 'The Announcement about Lo.' In the 'Little Preface,' as we have it from Ch'ing, it is placed the 96th in the list of Books, immediately before the 'Speech at Pe.' Ming-shing allows that so it is wrongly placed, which indeed is evident, but says that Ch'ing gave the preface as he found it without venturing any alterations, whereas the author or forger of Qan-kwd'i commentary took it upon him to remove the notice to where it now stands. Whether Gan-kwC's commentary be a forgery or not, the Book occurs in it, I apprehend, in the place which it originally occupied. There is no necessity for supposing with Ts'ae that it should be before Book XIII' We do not know in what year Ts'ae Shuh died. Ts'ae Chung's restoration to his father's honours may not have taken place till after the building of LO, and king Ching had taken the government, upon reaching his majority, into his own hands.

Contents. The first par. is of the nature of a preface, giving the details necessary to explain the appointment of Hoo. The seven paragraphs that follow are the king's Charge, directing him how to conduct himself, so that lie might blot out the memory of his father's misdeeds, and win the praise of the emperor.

P. 1. Prefatory delate. Jgj ^ Ji

Q —comp. 'The Instructions of E.,' p. 1. g|: At j^fc = ,-comp. Bk. VI., p. 12. Jj^ J^,—'carried out the law to the utmost,' =' put to death.' (This confirms the interpretation given of a 2: t^jj in Bk.

vi.,P.is.] m^^M-tm-^i

=' to confine.' K'ang-shing defined the term by it wa» tlie namc of a place; but

where it was, we cannot tell. Sze-ma Ts'een, in the ^ \]jr "it 4$ at, says that Time Shuh was allowed an attendance of 'ten chariots and 70 footmen.' In the "jk^

^jj? (7CJ 4^, mention is also made of 70 footmen, but the chariots are seven, as in the text. For 0> El -fc at thc 'Daily Explanation'

jg[ ^ 5g >^ @,—the name of Hoh Shuh

was Ch'oo (Jjg£). ChWs appanage was Hoh, the name of which remains in Hoh Chow, dep. of P'ing-yang (2J^ B), Shan-se. ^ 4ji

Jr, H,—' for three years he had not his teeth,'

t.e., he was struck off the family roll. The names of all the brothers were entered according to their 'teeth' or ages; hence one of the

definitions of ffi in the diet, is by -^j^,

mnm.m±'-m^

see the note on the 'name of the Book.' Ts'een says that 'when the duke of Chow heard of the good character of Hoo, he raised him . to be a noble of Loo' (^j ^ fit

frn m w s # m ±>ihe

opinion of the speaker in the passage of the referred to above was the same (4^ ^ijj

pt, Ijhj -f-). Ts'ae on the contrary thinks that the office of' high noble,' conferred on Hoo, was within the imperial domain, and not in Loo. This view appears to me the more likely; but the text does not enable us to decide the point.

st: gr 'He requested a decree from king

Ching, and again invested Hoo with Time, that he might continue the line of his father.' Gankwo thought that the Ts'ae with which Hoo was invested was not the same which had been the appanage of his father, but another on the east, 'between the Hwae and the Joo,' to which the name of Ts'ae was given, to mark the connection between it and the former. This is not likely, nor is it supported by proper historical evidence.

[Shih King fjj^ of the Ming dynasty)

denies the various statements in this par., saying they are legends founded on a misapprehension of the duke of Chow's language in ' The

Metal-bound Coffer,'-^

J£J a" EE <RmI tI,at t0 8UPP°se t,lat

the duke killed one brother and degraded two others, as he is here said to have done, is injurious to his character, and would establish a precedent of most dangerous nature. Having thus settled it that the statements are not true, he goes on to the conclusion, that this Book is a forgery. But this is egregious trifling. The statements of this par. were staple of Chinese history before the burning of the Shoo. The

passage of the ■j^ adduced above, and the sequel of which contains a part of par. 3, is sufficient to prove this. The duke of Chow is easily vindicated from any charges brought against his character for the deeds which are related here.]

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"The king speaks to this effect, 'My little child, Hoo, you follow the virtue of our ancestors, and have changed from the conduct of your father; you are able to take heed to your ways;—I therefore appoint you to be a prince of the empire in the east. Go to your country. Be reverent!

'In order that you may cover the faults of your father, be loyal, be filial. Urge on your steps in your own way, diligent and never idle, and so you will hand down an example to your descendants.

Pp. 2—8. The Charge. 2. The virtue of Hoo, to which he was entitled For the distinction

the spirit of the land, and gave it to the prince, that he might raise an altar to the spirit of the

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conferred on him. that this should be

to the following effect,' rather than as I have done. I apprehend, however, that the charge was delivered by the duke of Chow in the king's name, in the same way as the charge to the

Viscount of Wei, Bk. VIII. The -^jj |§

^jj ^5 in the last par. leads me to this view, nor need it be rejected though Hoo's appointment may have taken place after the building of L8. ^5 M, {|£ fj must

M.Zi&>$c3cZ fi'-fl9 inthe

translation. J^l l, —Ts'ae was to the east of Mi ami, Ching's capital. [||J JPj

rj^j",—the first definition of in the diet, is
a 2: -J-, 'the country with which
a prince was invested.' The primary meaning
of the term, however, was, no doubt, 'It tumulus
or mound;' and SeC Ke-seuen 2^; 'm
ingeniously accounts for its being used as the
designation of a territory in this way:—

'The emperor, when appointing a prince over a
State, took from the earth of his own altar to

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Follow the constant lessons of your grandfather, king Wan, and be not like your father disobedient to the royal orders.

'Great Heaven has no affections;—it helps only the virtuous. The people's hearts are not constant;—they cherish only the kind. Acts of goodness are different, but they contribute in common to government. Acts of evil are different, but they contribute in common to disorder. Do you be cautious!

'To give heed to the beginning, think of the end :—the end will then be without distress. If you do not think of the end, it will be in distress, and that the greatest.

'Exert yourself to achieve your proper merit. Seek to be in harmony with all your neighbours. Be a fence to the royal House. Live in harmony with your brethren. Tranquillize and help the inferior people.

prcssion—'|'|| ffi in the last Bk. p 28.

In the it, ||, — -\- at there is a quotation from the Shoo, the original of which is probably in this par.—

P. 6. Rules for Uoo in his relations with others.

3jjfj, exert yourself in achieving your proper merit.' What that merit was is not said. 'It embraced,' saye Tscaou Hwangi$^\fjfc I' the bringing forward the able, the intelligentadministration of the government, and the right use of punishments.' J/LJ •=' the prince of the neighbouring States on every side.' J^J

of Chow, when giving charge to the Viscount of Wei, made no mention of Woo-kang. How is it that he here makes mention so repeatedly and distinctly of lloo's father? Hoo's father was his own brother. It was necessary he should speak of him, on the principle explained

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'Follow the course of the Mean, and do not by assuming to be intelligent throw old statutes into confusion. Watch over what you see and hear, and do not for one-sided words deviate from the right rule. Then I, the one man, will praise you/"

"The king says, « Oh! my little child, Hoo, go, and do not idly throw away my charge.'"

iiX ^0'",e J^l (^oes connect tne

clauses with those which precede
'brethren,' are the princes and nobles of the
same surname w ith himself. 7. Rules of a
more internal character, m j—I —Lin Che-
k'e observes that this clause is equivalent to
the <Hj<i at the commencement of the

'Doctrine of the Mean.' We need not, however,
look for any moral or metaphysical doctrine in

the text. t-Jl is here 'the middle,' 'theproper

Mean.' Emphasis is to be laid on the ^f: in the second clause. Wang Ts'e'aou says:— 'Intelligence is a Heavenly virtue; assuming to

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