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to enlighten king Wan, and lead him forward to his high distinction and universal over-rule, till his fame reached the ears of God, and

15 he received the decree of Yin. There were still four of these men who led on king Woo to the possession of that decree with all its emoluments. Afterwards, along with him, in great reverence of the majesty of Heaven, they slew all his enemies; and then these four men made king Woo distinguished all over the empire,

16 till the people universally and greatly proclaimed his virtue. Now, with me Tan, who am but a little child, it is as if I were floating on a great stream; let me from this time cross it along with you, O Shih. Our young sovereign is powerless as if he had not yet

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ascended the throne. You must by no means lay the whole burden on me; and if we draw ourselves up without an effort to supply his deficiencies, no good will flow to the people from our age and experience. We shall not hear the voices of the singing birds, and much less can it be thought that we shall make his virtue equal to Heaven."

The duke said, "Oh! consider well, O prince, these things. We have received the favouring decree of Heaven, to which belongs an unlimited amount of what is desirable, but having great difficulties attached to it. What I announce to you are counsels of a generous largeness. I cannot allow the successor of our kings to go astray."

|e0 *y *b "F*here we must

understand king Ching. The duke had, indeed, resigned the regency, and the govt, was in the emperor's hands. Bat Ching was still young,

and unequal to his high duties. gjj£ 3&

A, H Mr T' Zfc.-Ts'ae thinks there is something wanting before the former of these clauses, and says he does not understand the latter. Gan-kwS took HJJ

is Jfc ^

as

-ik^teifn%z% 'and

you are blaming me for remaining in the govt.,' which agrees with his view that the duke of Shaou was dissatisfied, because the other had not retired upon resigning the regency. The terms will bear the meaning which I have given in the translation; and it appears to me more in harmony with the tenor of the address. As to the meaning of the second clause, the editors of Yung-ching's Shoo give a modified approval to the view of Leu Tsoo-heen,

adduced by Yu E-shoo (ht j9f of the

Yuen dyn.), making the words addressed to the

duke of Shaou

the characters much in the same way, but consider that the duke of Chow is speaking of himself as well as of prince Shih. I can hardly tell how Gan-kwS interprets here, he uses

many words, but I do not understand them. Keang Shing points—=|(| iff. a ^

■jj^j ~J^, =' Do not you by any means charge me to retire. I will exert myself, and exertion is never made without success!'

% Wl A Z fi

J|^,—by ' the singing birds' are meant the male and female phoenix, fabled to appear at court in times of great prosperity. See on the 'Yih and Tseih,' p. 9. In the She King, Pt. Ill., Bk. IL, Ode viii., st. 9, mention is made of the plicenixes flying about and screaming on the hills. The ode is ascribed to the duke of Shaou, and is supposed to celebrate king Ching and the happiness of his times. ~H~ -<f=f jjj;

^•fC,—this is said with reference to the predicates
in p. 7 about what the ministers of Yin did for
their sovereigns. 17. The duke urges Shih
to lag to heart what he has said to him.
}|J!" ft comp. the last Book,

p. 19." £| is taken =;*;. ^ ^ M

Hi H^-comp-Bk- XIL> p-9- By $k

A, 'the after man,' we are to understand king Ching. The A at the beginning of next par. renders this very probable.

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IV. The duke said, "The former king laid bare his heart, and gave full charge to you, constituting you one of the guides of the people, and saying, 'Do you with intelligence and energy prove a helper to the king; do you with sincerity support and carry on this great decree. Think of the virtue of king Wan, and enter greatly into his boundless anxieties.'"

The duke said, "What I tell you, O prince, are my sincere thoughts. 0 Shih, the Grand-protector, if you can but reverently survey with me the decay and great disorders of Yin, and thence consider the dread majesty of Heaven which warns us!

"Am I not to be believed that I must thus speak? I simply say, 'The establishment of our dynasty rests with us two.' Do you agree

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Ch. IV. Pp. 18—23. 18. The duke of Shaou had received a special charge Jrom kinq Woo to be a yuardian of the young king and of the dynasty, jjjjj 'the former man,' is to

he understood of king Woo. On his deathbed he had given the charge, of which a portion is here adduced, to the dukes of Chow and Sliaou.

~J*J t,le 7*J 'lere wou'tl secm to = ji, the adj. pronoun of the third person.

The phrase, however, = j5/f ^ ^ Jtj it

Aj>M- ^^J^^>—this has reference to the appointment of Shih to be the Grandguardian, in which office he was to be a support and pattern for the people. Lin Clie-k'e says:

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help the heir king.' Two, joined in any way, are called a, Shih was to prove as a help-meet

to the king. In M A we have the metaphor of a carriage in which the sovereign

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with me? Then you also will say, 'It rests with us two.' And the favour of Heaven has come to us so largely:—it should be ours to feel as if we could not sustain it. If you can but reverently cultivate your virtue, and bring to light our men of eminence, then when you resign to some successor in a time of established security,

"Oh ! it is by the earnest assistance of us two that we have come to the prosperity of the present day. But we must go on, abjuring all idleness, to complete the work of king Wan, till it has entirely overspread the empire, and from the corners of the sea and the sunrising there shall not be one who is disobedient to our rule."

to be taken interrogatively. The 'Daily Explanation' gives for it:— flj ~=*

—^j!|= JJjJjj. The two men are evidently the duke of Chow himself, and the duke of Shaou.

|f[j FL —as in the translation. Gan-kw5took the two men to be Wttn and Woo, and this idea put him to the greatest straits throughout the par. Even Maou K'e-ling does not venture to defend such as an interpretation. a JJ^p

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or J]^> 't0 be equal to,' 'to sustain.' I do not know what to make of the w: in the last

clause. The speaker does not complete his meaning. He simply says—'In the fact of yielding to successors in a time of great prosperity,' . Critics supply what is wanting

according to their different opinions as to the main object which the duke of Chow had in view in the address. 21. The tu-o dukes

had done much for Chow in the past; it remained for them to complete their mark, a, [J^p

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m), —' we thereby.' The 'we' is we of Chow, = our dynasty. 8 W^ffi 3*

-J-* 'causing it universally

to overspread this people.' j^jj

yield to our transforming influences, and become subjects who may be employed.

[M. de Guignes observes on this paragraph: —' It is sufficiently singular that a philosopher like Chow-kung insures here the spirit of conquest; it was then, therefore, the taste of the Chinese, who sought to extend themselves more and more to the east.' See 'Le Chou-king,' p. 237. The duke's words hardly called for such a remark. He is merely seeking the full establishment of their dynasty,—that Chow should enter into all the possessions of Yin-]

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The duke said, "O prince, am I not speaking in accordance with reason in these many declarations? I am only influenced by anxiety about the decree of Heaven, and about the people."

The duke said, "Oh! 0 prince, you know the ways of the people, how at the beginning they can be all we could desire, but it is the end which is to be thought of. Act in careful accordance with this fact. Go and reverently exercise your government."

interrogatively, like the commencing clai

P. 22. The duke affirms the reasonableness of his remarks, and re-states the grounds of them.

taken clause of

p. 20. This is sufficient against the view of Keang Shing, who reads it iudicatively, and takes Jjfe|['=j|j|^, 80 that the meaning is—'I in my want of wisdom make these many declarations.' 3jl = ^ jjg, 'accordant with reason.' We have met with it before, having

this meaning. f ff| m ffi =f ^

23. The uncertainty of the attachment of the people should make ministers careful to retain their good will. 'wav8 of tne

people;' now all-attachment to a govt., now disaffected and rebellious. _L£ %0"=*

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