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of their forefathers. Now I, Tan, being but as a little child, am not able to correct our king. I would simply conduct him to the glory of his forefathers, and make his youth partaker of that."

He also said, "Heaven is not to be trusted. Our course is simply to seek the prolongation of the virtue of the Tranquillizing king, and Heaven will not find occasion to remove its favouring decree which king Wan received."

II. The duke said, "Prince Shih, I have heard that of ancient time, when T'ang the Successful had received the favouring decree, he had with him E Yin, making his virtue like that of great Heaven.

P. 6. The favour of Heaven being so uncertain,
the way to secure it is by perpetuating tlie virtue of
Icing Woo. We are to understand king Woo by
'The Tranquillizing king,'—see on Bk. VII., p.

8. Ts'ae expands the text very clearly:—
Ch. II. Pp. 7—10. What Benefits Were

ASTY Of Chow. 7. The most distinguished
ministers of Yin, and the emperors under whom they

flourished. |lfj M H 3C'-the 3?

prefixed to all the names ='a man like,' yet not implying any other besides the minister thus

pointed out. —see the first introduc

tory note on 'The Instructions of E.'

trf'iP M. 866 'The ^"S6 t0 Tu5''

Pt. iii., p. 10.

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T'ae-kea, again, had Paou-hang. TSie-mow had E ChUi and Chin Hoo, through whom his virtue was made to affect God; he had also Woo Heen, who regulated the royal House. Tsoo-yih had Woo 8 Heen. Woo-ting had Ivan Pwan. These ministers carried out their principles, and effected their arrangements, preserving and regulating the empire of Yin, so that, while its ceremonies lasted, those sober.

(^f l '/o K 2: ijiil)'and the whole clausQ

as meaning that the govt, of Yin was so good that its sovereigns were on earth the representatives of God above, and occupied the imperial

This is ingenious, but it imposes too great vio-
lence on the language, jjjjpf cannot be taken as

the nominative to and Jjjj
are most naturally taken adverbiallys= ' accord-
ing to the ceremonial usages of Yin,' or as in
the translation. Then and J|JI are
predicates of the emperors of Yin, probably of
those who are specially mentioned in the preced-
ing par., the former chair, describing them as
'deceased' (see 'The Canon of Shun,' p. 28),
and jjjj^ ^ declaring the fact of their being

associated with Heaven in the sacrifices to it. In
the present dyn. all its departed emperors are
so honoured at the great sacrificial services.
Under the Chow dyn. only How-tseih and king
Wan enjoyed the distinction. The rule of the
Yin dyn. seems to have been to associate the five
emperors of whom the duke has been speaking.
[We have perhaps in this custom a reason for
the omission of Foo YuC iu the prec. par. from
the Pwan-kang, Pt. i., 14, we learn that their
ministers shared in the sacrifices to the sove-
reigns of Yin. Each emperor would have one
minister as his assessor, and so Woo-ting could
not have both Kan Pwan and Foo YuC. Though
the latter may have been the greater man of the
two, the sacrificial honour was given to the
other as having been the earlier instructor of
the emperor. The duke, having the emperors

—see the notices, 22 and 23 in the Confucian preface. We may assume that in this passage the duke of Chow had before him the Books of Sluing mentioned in those notices, which are now lost. If we had them, we should find the

expression -J* 'fjj*, as we find

T j|l ^ in 'The Charge to YuC From

the 18th notice in the preface we learn that T'ang had a minister called Chin Hoo. He would be an ancestor probably of the Chin Hon mentioned here in connection with T'ae-mow.


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iii., p. 1. We cannot but be surprised that the duke does not make any mention of Foo YuC. Keang Shing throws out the hint that Kan Pwan and Foo YuC may have been the same man,— which is absurd. Gan-shih says that as Pwan was the earliest instructor of Woo-ting, the wisdom which guided that emperor to get YuC for his minister was owing to him; but this does not account for the omission of YuC in the duke's list. Perhaps something like a reason for it is suggested by the next par. 8. The happy

result of the services of those ministers.

A: -^J $fl>—tms must be spoken of the six great ministers just enumerated.—'In accordance with this,'—i.e., their course of action so described—'they had an arrangement.' The meaning is very obscure. The critics, however, all expand it much as Ts'ac docs:—^ tjjj^

|$/J? Q! Gan-kwd takes jgg ,f||, 'the

ceremonies of Yin,' as =' the govt, of Yin'


reigns though deceased were assessors to Heaven, while it extended over many years. Heaven thus determinately maintained its favouring appointment, and Shang was replenished with men. The various officers, and members of the royal House holding employments, all held fast their virtue, and displayed an anxious solicitude for the empire. The smaller officers, and the chiefs in the How and Teen domains, hurried about on their services. Thus did they all put forth their virtue, and aid their sovereign, so that whatever affairs he, the one man, had in hand, throughout the four quarters of the empire, an entire sincerity was conceded to them as to the indications of the tortoise or the milfoil."

as sacrified to in his mind, had no occasion therefore to mention YuC. This explanation was first suggested by Soo Shih.]

I acquiesce in this view of the text, in preference to that proposed by Gan-kwO. It has its difficulties, however, and one of the principal is that we are obliged to find another subject for

the verb in the concluding clause. The use of M, at the end is peculiar. The 'Daily Explanation ' says it is merely ' an expletive' (g^

^^), which is saying that no account of it

can be given. A usage of it apparently analogous to that here is given in the Diet, with

the definition—-Jjgf 'a demon


P. 9. The same subject. ^ ^ jjjjjj

ffc ur? till j?J I --such is tl,e Punctuation adopted by Ts'ae, and also by Keang Shing Gan-kw6 read on to it, but the meaning which he endeavours to make out for j&j Q jgj: is inadmissible. Ts'ae supports the explanation of which appears in the translation, by referring to Mencius, Book VII,, Pt. II., xii., 1—T £

M'J IS ^2? Jb§' '^ nicn of v'rtuc HIU' ■-iD'''ty

be not trusted, a State will become empty and

void.' The meaning seems to bo that Heaven smiled upon the empire sustained by those great ministers, and there was no lack of smaller men to do their duty in their less important spheres with ability and virtue. S Mi

-}- —it is not possible to say positively what officers are intended by these designations. Woo Ch'ing takes Q as 'the

people of the imperial domain' ( -|

J^l; comp. the use of the phrase in 'The Canon of Yaou,' p. 2); but it must be used of officers or ministers, and not of the people. I suppose it = Q ^g^. Perhaps Keang Shing is correct in taking Q jffj^ as the officers with different surnames from that of the imperial House (jjfcj: ar|d

as cadets of that House in official employment ct: ]fe ^, J^J £

Q. The phrase is correlative 1, and is not to be joined with yj> Gan-kwo does. Al

T—'those who acted as screens (=the priu

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10 The duke said, "Prince Shih, Heaven gives long life to the just and the intelligent;—it was thus that those ministers maintained and regulated the dynasty of Yin. He who at last came to the throne was extinguished by the majesty of Heaven. Think you of the distant future, and we shall have the decree in favour of Chow made sure, and its good government will be brilliantly displayed in our new-founded State."

11 III. The duke said, "Prince Shih, aforetime when God was afflicting Yin, he encouraged new the virtue of the Tranquillizing king, till at last the great favouring decree was concentrated in his

ces) in the How and Teen domains.' ^J^ 'still more;' or simply = 'likewise.'

•jlj Ip: ;jf| jji 'al1 tliese ministers,

about the court and away from it, throughout the empire, displayed and exerted their virtue.

^^mz^mz h>*p

P. 10. Advice to Siiih, grounded on the prec., that he should do for Chow what those ministers had done for Tin. ^ t# ?t*" Tu"'~

Gan-kwfl supposes that 2T£ is spoken of the sovereigns of Yin, As jg 2: jg". It

is better to understand the characters of the ministers who have been spoken of. They are

called 'level,' free of all selfishness, and

'k$fr, 'intelligent,' all-reaching and embracing.

conveys not only the idea of long life, but also of prosperity,—as in the last Book, p. 7. Show is intended by jgg jg$.

—' think of the distant future.' This is better than to take the terms as simply = ' always

think of tins' J^IL^IfefrJt

a «l Z ^' 'it8 efflcient govt wiU be gloriously and brilliantly displayed in our new founded kingdom.' Maou K'e-ling understands Lo to be 'the newly founded country;' but the dynasty is what is meant; compare the passage of the She King, quoted in 'The Great Learning,' comm., ii., 3. [It does not appear from this par. that the duke of Shaou had expressed his wish to withdraw from the public service, but the duke of Chow is evidently urging him to continue at his post to the last.]

Ch. III. Pp. 11—17. It Was By The Aid Of their Able Mini8tkrs That The Kings Wan And Woo Were Raised To Their Grand Distinction And The Sovereignty Of The Empire. The Duke Of Chow Looks To Shih To Cooperate With Him In Maintaining Their

DYNASTY OF Chow. 11. f" *fjj* £[j|J,—

'God was cutting,' i.e., was bringing about the overthrow of the dynasty of Yin. Keang Shing,

after K'ang-shing, takes jj?|J for ^jjjj, a particle of style, the force of which passes into the verbs that follow; but there is no necessity to resort to such it device. Plea Seen observes that ' Heaven encouraged king Wan, and afterwards enocouraged king Woo; hence the language- ffi ;-see the A ct. t^J is 'a term, coutinuative of what has gone before,' (||| 2: In the Le Ke, Bk.

jjjjjj p. 24, we find this par. in the form—

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12 person. _3m£ that king WS.n Avas able to conciliate and unite the portion of the great empire which Ave came to possess, was owing to his having such ministers as his brother of Kih, Hwang Yaou, San E-sSng, T'ae Teen, and Nan-kung Kw5."

13 He repeated this sentiment, "But for the ability of these men to go and come in his affairs, developing his constant lessons, there would have been no benefits descending from king Wan on the

14 people. And it also was from the determinate favour of Heaven, that there were these men of firm virtue, and acting according to their knowledge of the dread majesty of Heaven, to give themselves

fa g % * & If This was, no doubt, the rending current in the Ilan dyn. as from Fuh-shang. 12. King Win

and the ministers who aided him. "J5^ jj^

Isf) JS' '"le emP're>or ''1C Portion of the empire, which we had.' The reference is to tlie two-thirds of tlie empire which acknowledged the authority of Wan. 'jjj^ = Jfff

'perhaps.' Tsow Ching-k'e says that the

terms T^f fpj intimate the difficulty of Win's
undertaking, and the greatness of the assistance
which he derived from his ministers.
J&L—from a passage in the ^ <fi|,
4|^> we learn that tliis was a son of king
Ke, and a younger brother of Win. Kih was
the name of his appanage, in the pres. dis. of
Paou-ke ^|)> dep. of Fung-ts'eang, Suen-
se. [This was called the western Kih. There
were two other districts called Kih under tlie
Chow dynasty,—the eastern Kih, and the north-

en,0 r&- # an^ t$J H* are

surnames; and ^£ ffi. ijffl, and are

Vol. in.

names. So says Gan-kwfl, and there is no reason to call the thing in question, except in the case of the second, whose surname is said by some to have been Of those five ministers we

can hardly be said to know more than the surnames and names. It would be a waste of time to refer to tlie legendary tales that are circulated about them. If we were surprised that there was no mention in p. 7 of Foo Yue, it is no less strange

that the greatest of Wfin's ministers, the ^£

T^Sf, should here be passed over in silence. 13. It is certainly most natural to take jX. 0 'iere as "'traducing another remark, confirmatory of the preceding, by the duke of Chow. I can by no means accede to the view of Gan-kwO, and of Keang Shing and K'e-ling

among the moderns, that ^ Q IVXi j|Jj

is an observation of king Win, who, though lie had those live ministers, still said, 'They are not able (= enough) to go and come in my affairs.' In order to make the rest of the par. harmonize in any way with this construction,

they are obliged to take j!j<t ^jjK = ' exquisite virtue.' 14. This par. corresponds to par.

9. What E Yin and the others did for the emperors of Yin, that did these five ministers for king Wttn,—and all by the determinate favour of Heaven. The 'Daily Explanation'

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