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kings, both small and great, will be changed and disordered. The people blaming you will disobey and rebel in their hearts;—yea, they will curse you with their mouths."

16 VI. The duke of Chow said, "Oh ! those kings of Yin, Chungtsung,Kaou-tsung, and Tsoo-kea, with king Wan of our Chow,—these

17 four men carried their knowledge into practice. If it was told them—'The inferior people murmur against you, and revile you,' then they paid great and reverent attention to their conduct; and with reference to the faults imputed to them they said, 'Our faults are really so.' They acted thus, not simply not daring to cherish

the way thus exhibited ; and I don't think wo can do better with it. Woo Cli'ing, taking ij^

as Ts'ae does, gives for the rest a construction of his own, and makes the meaning— 'If you will not hearken to this and profit by it, then men will persuade you to change and confuse the correct laws of the former kings. Those laws were very favourable to the people; and when they are so changed, the people, small and great, will cherish, some of them, a rebellious resentment in their hearts, while others will

proceed to curse you with their mouths' (fjfc

3ETjiti!r A ~XM\% m

R. - £ ft WJITI^ ^ t& WL T P % KCa,,s

Slung reads jjfc || ^BAft W #

8L IE W HZ ;zr. = 'When the ancient sovereigns were not sage, then men led them away to change,' &c, according to the view of Woo Ch'iug. lie is compelled) however, to doubt

the genuineness of the ;and indeed, if

be genuine here (and there is no evidence to the contrary), the same character in the prec.

par. cannot be assailed. The reading of moreover, and consequent making this chapter terminate without any application to kingChing, takes from its connection with the rest of the Book.

Ch. VI. Pp If!—18. The Duke Presses

ON THE KINO THE DUTY OF LISTENING TO ADVICE BY THE EXAMPLE OF THE GOOD SOVEREIGNS WHOM HE HAS MENTIONED, AND POINTS OUT AGAIN THE EVIL CONSEQUENCES OF A CONTRARY COURSE. 1G. jjjh -J^f,—' trod in the way of their knowledge.' Ts'ae says this is what Mencius calls 'the richest fruit of wisdom, —the knowing, and not putting the knowledge away'C^^^.^ljfrJ^^.^ ^J1;seeIV.,Pt.I.,xxvii.2.). 17.

1M~M. = ~A' 'erent'' 'sreatly-' We

may take as in Bk. XII., or more

generally, as 1 have done in the translation.
Ying-ta makes the clause = ^
'they increasingly cultivated good government.'

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18 anger. If you will not listen to this and profit by it, when men with extravagant language and deceptive tricks say to you, 'The inferior people are murmuring against you and reviling you,' you will believe them. Doing this, you will not be always thinking of your princely duties, and will not cultivate a large and generous heart. You will confusedly punish the crimeless, and put the innocent to death. There will be a general murmuring, which will be concentrated upon your person."

19 VII. The duke of Chow said, "Oh ! you king, who have succeeded to the throne, make a study of these things."

m ffi-T g m m m z m>

'in the case of the faults which were wrongly imputed to them.' 18. This is the application of the prec. two parr., as par. 15 was an application of 14. Keang Shing cannot adopt all here in the first clause, as in p. 15, not having the precedent which he there had. Still he says we ought to read jffi!; but I cannot think so. The duke of Chow would not have put the case that the worthies he celebrated could have behaved themselves so unworthily.

At the transition is abrupt, but

the meaning is plain. T' jfc M

m m & s M n z

, as in the translation. This is much better

than, with Keang Shing, to read as p'tih,

and understand the expression as<=yp j||5

fj| (if [|j i fy, 'they could not have acknowledged the blame, and reproved themselves.' Hill R, —'resentments will be the same,' i.e., people may receive injuries of different kinds, but all will agree in the feeling of injury and resentment.

Ch. VII. P. 19. Concluding exhortation, that the king should think of all that had been said to him, and use the address as a light to guide him to safety and excellence,as a beacon to warn him from what was evil and dangerous.

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1 I. The duke of Chow spake to the following effect, "Prince Shih,

2 Heaven, unpitying, sent down ruin on Yin; Yin has lost its appointment, and the princes of our Chow have received it. I do not dare, however, to say, as if I knew it, 'The foundation will ever truly

The Name Of The Book.—A, 'Prince Sliih.* With those words the Book begins, and they are taken to be its designation. Shih was the name of the duke of Sliaou; see on the title of Book XII. It was to him that the address or announcement here preserved was delivered, so that his name is not an inappropriate designation for it. The Book is found in both the texts.

Contents. Ts'ae says that the duke of Shaou had announced his purpose to retire from office on account of his age, when the duke of Chow persuaded him to remain at his post; and the reasons which he set before him were recorded to form this Book. If this was the design of the duke of Chow, he was a master of the art of veiling his thoughts with a cloud of words. There are expressions which may be taken, indeed, as intimating a wish that the prince Shih should continue at court, but some violence has to be put upon them.

The prefatory notice is to the effect that, when the two dukes were acting as chief ministers to king Cliing, the duke of Chow was

'not pleased' (y^i '|^; see p. 11), and the

duke of Chow made the 'Prince Shih.' This expression—1 not pleased '—has wonderfully vexed the ingenuity of the critics. It is of no use adducing their various explanations of it, for there is nothing in the Book to indicate the existence of such a feeling in Shin's mind. If

he was really entertaining such a feeling from any cause, and had in consequence sought leave to withdraw from public life, the duke of Chow thought it his best plan to make no open reference to those delicate points.

The two principal ideas in the address are— that the favour of Heaven can only be permanently secured for a dynasty by the virtue of its sovereigns) and that that virtue is secured mainly by the counsels and help of virtuous ministers. The ablest sovereigns of Shang are mentioned, and the ministers by whose aid it was, in a great measure, that they became what they were. The cases of Wan and Woo of their own dynasty, similarly aided by able men, are adduced in the same way; and the speaker adverts to the services which they—the two dukes—had already rendered to their House and their sovereign, and insists that they must go on to the end, and accomplish still greater things. It may be that he is all the while combating some suspicion of himself in the mind of prince Shih, and rebuking some purpose which Shih had formed to abandon his post at the helm of the State ; but this is only matter of inference, and does not by any means clearly appear. It will be seen that I have, for convenience' sake, arranged the three and twenty paragraphs in four chapters.

Ch. I. Pp. 1—6. Chow Is For The Present


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abide in prosperity. I Heaven aid sincerity,—]' Nor do I dare to say, as if I knew it, 1 The final end will issue in our misfortunes." Oh ! you have said, O prince, 'It depends on ourselves.' I also do not dare to rest in the favour of God, never forecasting at a distance the terrors of Heaven in the present trine when there is no murmuring or disobedience among the people;—the issue is with men. Should our present successor to his fathers


Chow Is Anxious, And Pkijjce Sum Should


VIRTUE OE THE KING. 1. ^* f}J|},—in the

plainness of ancient manners, it is said, when people were talking together they called each other by their names. Shin, however, is honoured with the title of 'prince,' which might be given to him, as he had been, invested with the principality of Yen-. See on the name of Bk. XII. 2. Chow had superseded Yin in the

possession of the empire, but it could not be known

beforehand how long it would continue..

-ZT ^-8ce Bk- XIV- P- -■ Thc Wc

in the next two clauses has no conjunctive force, but marks the perfect tense, T

tar rg — compare Bk. XII., p. 17. That passage seems to have misled the old interpreters, and still to mislead many of the present day, as to the meaning of the text. They make the speaker to have the fate of the past-awny dynasty of Yin before him, and not that of their existing Chow.—'I do not dare to know and say, "The House of Yin at its beginning might have long accorded with prosperous ways,"' &c. It is plain to me that the speaker has before him the destiny of Chow, which they of the dynasty must fashion for themselves. Whether it would be long or short must depend on their conduct. jffi ft ±f> —' its foundation will for ever be sincerely established in prosperity.' I do not understand, the next clause,—^ X |^ 'if Heaven

assist the sincere.' Whether we suppose the speaker to.havc reference to the past Yin or the present Chow, these words seem equally out of place. To say that either, dynasty might be

sincerely virtuous, and' so be aided by Heaven> and yet not abide in security, is contrary to reason, and to the most strongly cherished principles of Chinese doctrine. Jlcdhurst read the words with the next part of the par.—' And should Heaven aid us in very deed, still I would not dare positively to affirm that our end would be entirely the result of misfortune.' But such a construction is inadmissible.. I have put the clause in. the translation as incomplete, and also within brackets, to intimate that I think it

out of place. ft ft T Ti , —Keang Shing reads ft ^ {^j Ti

and pj^ by.

but he explains by

:pE (=j|fjj;). Another reading, evidently false,

Pp. 3—S. The duty of the ministers of Chou, was to do what they could in the present to secure

the permanence of the dynasty. 8. pJjjL q , $ B. 0' fl£ ^-tI,e simplest way of explaining these words, is by taking J^p -Jl^" yjjj 2,, 'it—the permanence of

the dyn.—depends on us,' and. supposing that the duke refers to a remark to that effect made at some former period by Sliih. Lin Chc-k'e and,others adduce his language in many parts of his Announcement, e.g. pp. 19, 20, which they think the duke has in view. This is very likely. Other methods to try to get a meaning from the passage are harsh and violent. Gankw <5, for instance, took the meaning to be—' Oh! prince, what shall I say?. I will say, "You should approve of my remaining in the govt."' It is strange that Maou K'e-ling should still approve of such a construction. Woo Wring takes jg* 2, m the Mm way, and then makes

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prove greatly unable to reverence Heaven and the people, and so bring to an end their glory, could we in our families be ignorant of it? 4 The favour of Heaven is not easily preserved. Heaven is hard to be depended on. Men lose its favouring appointment because they cannot pursue and carry out the reverence and brilliant virtue

0 H^p —' But it is my duty to do my utmost to preserve the favour of Heaven.'

3fe 311£ A ~the 1f A with which

this part ends corresponds to the fj^p at the beginning, and — a; A flff EL'

jf& ,s a"onc c'auge'an(^ to be rcac'

together,—another instance of CIioo He's long sentences in the Announcements of the Shoo.

Ts'ae explains it by Jf. ffc *l| ^ A ^

U^p. Keang Shing puts a stop at Bi, understanding the duke as giving one reason for his remaining in the govt, that he could not rest in the present favour of Heaven, but must forecast a change in the aspects of Providence. For the same resolution he finds another reason in the words that follow-^ ^ J£ At

>ll' A TI? (so 'ie po'nt»)i ~"' That our people may be kept from murmurs and disaffection depends on the right men being there.' To make the language in any way bear this interpretation he is obliged to suppose that till

is a mistake for Q. Gan-kw5 paused at and made % m" ?Z J&Mlk

it jH an address t0 Shih, —'Why du you not think of the terrors of Heaven, and Bet about affecting and transforming our people, that they may not commit errors and fall into opposition.' Interpretation could hardly be more unlicensed. Nor does he succeed better in what remains of the par. K'e-ling labours in vain to impart some likelihood to his views.

same interpretation must be given of the readinS-^£ BflpJ Jff- "^p adopted by Keang Siting from a passage in the ' Books of the Early Han; '-see the E $C # $it f* T,-- Ts'ae understands 'Heaven' to be meant by r, and 'the people' by "T^,

so that the expression =■ |j£ R. Others understand 'Heaven and Earth' to be intended. ^ jfc jft A ft-jg

« ft m * m it ga- Ie

jfs is to be taken interrogatively, ■»«

pr # ti # ^ * *» ^

holding that the object of the address was to induce the duke of Shaou to abandon his purpose of retirement, takes the question as addressed to him,—' Could you be ignorant of it?' The old interpreters, holding that the speaker is much occupied with vindicating his own remaining in the government, take it in the first person, —' Could I be ignorant.' The best plan seems to be to put it as in the translation. It may thus be applied to either of the dukes; and I believe that the duke of Chow intended it both for himself and his friend. 4, 5. ^£ -p^

T; J§- ^ P|S.-comP-the 'Both P08

sessed Pure Virtue,^). 2 ; et al. Keang Shing, on the authority mentioned above, reads—-jjjj

% % J® II nS' w,,ich may

be rejected on internal grounds. In interpreting the rest of the par. there is much difference of view. Acc. to that followed in the translation, ^ A $j fjg-ht A

ct tfcfl* % f$ fill' 'tl,e reverent virtue and the brilliant virtue of their forefathers;

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