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ways, but admirably and tranquilly presided over the empire of Yin, till in all its States, great and small, there was not a single murmur. It was thus that Kaou-tsung enjoyed the throne for fifty and nine years.

"In the case of Tsoo-keS, he would not unrighteously be emperor, and was at first one of the inferior people. When he came to the throne, he understood the law of the support of the inferior people, and was able to exercise a protecting kindness towards their masses, and did not dare to treat with contempt the widower and widows. Thus it was that Tsoo-kea enjoyed the throne for thirty and three years.

to bring out the meaning of yfe, Woo Ch'ing

g JzJ-fc

'He arose from among the people, and ascended the imperial scat.' But in trying to account

for the -J^, he overlooks the H '■ <^ has here merely a conjunctive force, = ^j^. ~J*J

$ % H> H # f"-** 'The

Charge to Yuf,' Ft. i., p. 1. I have said there that we are not to suppose that the emperor during the years of mourniug maintained a total silence, but only kept from speaking on governmental matters. This is perhaps iudicated by

#.fr 73r Hi.

—I have translated this according to the account which we have in the beginning of 'The Charge to Yue.' K'ang-shiug supposed that the duke is still speaking of Kaou-tsung during the time of mourning; but that is very unlikely. The history is evidently being carried on and forward #j| j|g ffi ' he made the States—the empire—of Yin admirable and tranquil,' i.e., he hushed all jarriugs, and produced great prosperity.

6. 77te ease of Tsoo-k'da. Tsoo-kea was the son of Kaou-tsung. I have mentioned on p. 26!) that Sze-ma Ts'een says that Tsoo-kea was lewd and disorderly. Similar testimony is found in the |gj|j g^. Having respect to these statements, Gau-kwo could not admit that the emperor

spoken of here was the son of Kaou-tsung,

and maintained that we were to find him in T'ae-ktia, the grandson of T'ang. But from Chung-tsung the duke comes on to Kaou-tsung, approaching to the rise of their own dynasty of Chow;—how unnatural the address would be if he were now to go back to the beginning of the times of Yin! Moreover, the son of Kaou-tsung was styled Tsoo-kea, while the grandson of T'ang was called T'ae-kcit. Nor does the confinement of T'ac-kea for a season by E Yin for his misdeeds sufficiently answer the requirements of the text,—^ S|| =£\ ^ jj^

'b A- & 'b A 1fc Gan-kwo;

-m % % MI * &

Mjjj, 'Tae-kea, being king, proved unrighteous.
He had long displayed the conduct of an
unworthy person, and E Yin confined him in
T'ung.' But the meaning thus given toyj>

which has already occurred three times in the
address, and always with the signification of
'the inferior people,' without any implication
of unworthinesss, must be rejected. On every
ground we must conclude that the sovereign
spoken of was not the grandson of T'ang. He
was the son of Kaou-tsung. K'ang- shing has a
story that Woo-ting wanted to disinherit Tsoo-
kea's elder brother in favour of him, and that
Tsoo-kea, thinking such a proceeding would be
unrighteous, withdrew and lived font time among


"The emperors which arose after these all their life-time enjoyed ease. From their birth enjoying ease, they did not understand the painful toil of sowing and reaping, nor hear of the hard labours of the inferior people. They only sought after excessive pleasures, and so not one of them enjoyed the throne for a long period. They continued for ten years, for seven or eight, for five or six, or perhaps only for three or four."

III. The duke of Chow said, "Oh! there likewise were king T'ae and king Ke of our own Chow, who attained to humility and reverential

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shows that he is speaking of the occupancy of the throne. A long life and a long reign, however, would generally go together. It is to be observed that the reigns of the other sovereigns of Yin were not so short as the text says. There were six emperors after Tsoo-kea, of whom one reigned 21 years; a second, 23; and the tyrant Show himself, 28. Between Kaoutsung and Cliung-tsung, again, there were 12 reigns, of which only 2 were under ten years.

Ch. III. Pp.8—11. This Duke Directs The



-jr^ —/-^.—the Jj^ corresponds to the with

which pp. "> and 6 begin. ^£ ^E.' ~H
—see 13k. III., p. 5; and the notes in pp. 2C8, 2U9.

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9 awe. King Wan dressed meanly, and gave himself to the work of

10 trailqnillization, and to that of husbandry. Admirably mild and beautifully humble, he cherished and protected the inferior people, and showed a fostering kindness to the widower and widows. From morning to midday, and from midday to sundown, he did not allow himself time to eat;—thus seeking to secure the happy harmony

11 of the myriads of the people. King Wan did not dare to go to any excess in his excursions or his hunting, and from the various States he received only the correct amount of contribution. He received

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strained. We must take 3i, a meaning

which it sometimes has. Gan-kwS seems to miss the meaning altogether, and construes

absurdly. JR is the sun declining in the

west, g iflM^B^-i

and f) E signify 'leisure.' Ting-til observes that in their conjunction we have an instance of the duplicated expressions 0^ jfj^) of the ancients.

l&E |^ in Pt. III., Bk. III,, p. 1, where has the sense of 'pleasure.' Here, followed by however, the meaning of |j| Jf\ [f-,' incessant movement,' is to be preferred.

On the see Mencius, I., Pt. IL, iv., 5. There were the proper seasons both for tours of inspection and hunting expeditions. Wan made them both at those seasons, and did not protract them beyond the regulated length of time. {JJ =■

PJfc'tohun,' J^Jfff^^iE^fJt,

—Ts'ac, after earlier critics of the Sung dynasty, takes this as = 'fit g _]£ §fr 2:

M /j^ jgjjjj -fy, 'beyond the correct amount of the regular tribute, he made no oppressive exactions;' and he adds that if Wau dealt in

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the appointment of Heaven in the middle of his life, and enjoyed the throne for fifty years."

12 IV. The duke of Chow said, "Oh ! from this time forward, do you who have succeeded to the throne imitate his avoiding of excess in his sights, his ease, his excursions, his hunting; and from the myriads

13 of the people receive only the correct amount of contribution. Do not allow yourself the leisure to say, 'To-day I will indulge in pleasure.' This is not holding out a lesson to the people, nor the way to secure the favour of Heaven. Men will on the contrary

kw8 points j$| g 4 gjf J, E? and understands the duke to have in view all future sovereigns of the House of Chow (||| ^ As

that the j||J that follows is merely a particle.

I prefer, however, the construction of Ts'ae, which appears in the translation. Acc. to it, the words are addressed to king Ching, though there is of course a lesson in them for future

kings as well; J||J is a verb, = 'to imitate,'

and tlie jj£ which follows it refers to king Wan.

=■ our' sight-seeing.' Jj^ takes

here the place of jjijF ^[^, being appropriate to the case of the emperor, whereas the other expression was descriptive of Wan as the 'Chief of the West,' the Head of a portion of the States.

Hang Shing gives for the par.—'f


appears in one of the chapters of 'The Books of Han,' and was perhaps the reading of Full- sliang. 13. j|| must be taken as = the


Z M J# fit 'is uot what the p('oi,1°

should take as their lesson. 3tj"'==

this way with the States which acknowledged his authority as chief of the West, it is easy to see how gentle was his taxation of his own people. Gan-kwo interpreted the clause quite

differently:-^^ g 0T JR & Hfl.

^ VA IE it # # Z<which Yi"g-ta

expounds, 'He considered that it was from him that all the States had to take their pattern, so that his proper business was to regulate himself with a right heart, to minister the treatment to them.' This is hardly intelligible; and Keang Shing would gladly reduce the whole clause to

jj^ 2: 'and reverently attended to

the business of the govt.,' from a passage in the

OH luf' At inf K, wn'cn even Yahtzee "says ought not to be credited in the case;—see

^t'nri'Wkfy ti? ~Wans <receivinS the appointment' here can only be understood of his succeeding to his father as one of the princes of the empire. Gan-kwo observes that Wan died at the age of 97, and as he was 47 when he came to the principality of Chow, the

expression p|=| i|p, 'middle of his life,' must

not be pressed.

Ch. IV. Pp. 12, 13. The Duke Tiroes King Cuing To Make the Maxim or 'No Day for Idleness' The rule or ms Life, And To Eschew THE EXAMPLE Of Show. 12. Gan

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greatly imitate 37ou, and practise evil. Become not like Show, the king of Yin, who went quite astray, and was abandoned to the practice of drunkenness."

V. The duke of Chow said, "Oh! I have heard it said that, in the case of the ancients, their ministers discharged their functions in warning and admonishing them, in protecting and loving them, in teaching and instructing them; and among their people there was hardly one who would impose on them by extravagant language or deceiving tricks. If you will not listen to this and profit by it, your ministers will imitate you, and so the correct laws of the former

2: M Jljpt» 'wlmt Heaven will accord with.' JJ^p = J^:, corresponding to the ~pj above. H#A^KlJ^tt=^A

@H~f ii§ comp- "rhe Visc°unt °l

Wei,' p. 1. It is very evident that may be
spoken of vice as well as of virtue.
Ch. V. Pp. 14, 15. The Duke Urges The


"jlp we are probably to understand the

three sovereigns of Yin celebrated in the second
chapter, and king Wan. >Jj2j /^ ^
p^yf,—we have to understand U B^, 'their
ministers,' as the subject of the verbs ^jy-,
&c. The force of the J|fj,' still,' is thus brought
out:—'The virtue of those ancient sovereigns
was complete. It seemed as if they needed no
assistance; but still their ministers did not cease
to instruct them,'&c. *^^=>|>0' It indicates
the mutual intercourse of sovereigns and minis-
ters, while we must restrict the action of the

verbs to the latter. Jjl 3ftt tjj£, "jrr
—this shows the result throughout the empire,
when those good sovereigns were guided and
supported in such a way by their ministers.
The diet, explains Jrjj| together by =J£,' to

lie,' 1 to deceive.' This is plainly the meaning, but I do not know that IR by itself is ever found with this signification. is defined by

^&MWVA$kWL' chaneinB «»*»«•

and transposing realities, to deceive the sight." In Fuh-shang's text this clause appears to have

wanted the commencing and the

after 15. An application of the state

ments in the prec. par. is here made to king Ching. If he will not listen to them, ~J*j


learn of him.' The 'men' intended are his

ministers. ^flJ^jE Jfe' <l;orrec*

laws.' Ts'ae instances the light punishments and light taxatiou, which were the rule with ancient good sovereigns, and which would be superseded by severe penalties, and heavy exactions.

•ji -p is to be joined with J£ ^f|j.

sfif,—' the people disapproving.' The

disallowing and changing the laws which were favourable to them will awaken their disaffection and displeasure. Hostile feelings will be cherished in their hearts, and turn to curses on

their tongues. gj^ jjjJJ,—these two terms together = our 'to curse.' Ying-ta says that 'to ask the spirits to make miserable is called

and to announce one's thoughts to the spirits by words is called jgJJ' (|^ jjjfl ^

Ts'ae and many others explain the par. in

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