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22 "The king says, 11 declare to you, ye numerous officers of Yin, —now I have not put you to death, and therefore I repeat to you my charge again. I have built this great city here in Lo, considering that there was no other place in which to receive my guests from the four quarters, and also that you, ye numerous officers, might here with zealous activity, perform the part of ministers to us with

23 much obedience. You have still here I may say your grounds, and here you may still rest in your duties and dwellings.

24 If you can reverently obey, Heaven will favour and compassionate you. If you cannot reverently obey, you will not only not have

Pp. 22, 23. The king again repeats his objects in building LH, and impresses on tlie officers of Yin the kindness with which he was treating them.

'to repeat.' They had received one charge on
their first removal; the present address might
be considered a repetition of it.
^ ^ CI ~P Jig.,-possibly the 'great
city' here may be the J ^j^, or imperial city,
in connection with the building of which we
have seen that the duke of Shaou was specially
despatched. Though ' the lower capital,' where
the officers of Yin were located may have been
previously built, at least in part, the design in-
tended by it could not be realized, until the other
was likewise prepared. J71J |^| •fj^

Jljp. The king's 'guests' were the princes com-
ing to court from all the States. 'jj^ jjjj

^tj» ^Jr,—'where ye might serve, hasting and running.' 23. Gan-kwfl took this par. as a promise.—' If you learn obedience to us, and

become loyal subjects, then you will still have here your grounds,' &c. But it is better to take the language as historical, and showing how generously they hadbeen treated. jpf=J[fF^J^> here = our'I may say.' 'business,'

'duties.' jj^ = ,'dwellings,'' settlements.'

Ch. IV. Pp. 24—26. Let The Officers


In L6. If Thkv Rf.fuse To Do So, They Will


Of ^ ^0U 0111 rcvercnce-' We

are not to find in here all that is denoted by

'the virtue of reverence' in Bk. XIII., but a standing in awe and submission to what had

happened to them. J^- —each of

these verbs J^. and has a meaning of its own. We are not to think that they run into each other. As Lin Che-k'e has it, ^ Jj£\

=#'on.y.- mxzwiT-m

compare ^ ^ -^j in p. 21. The your lands, but I will also carry to the utmost Heaven's inflictions on your persons. Now you may here dwell in your villages, and perpetuate your families; you may pursue your occupations and enjoy your years in this Lo; your children also will prosper: —all from your being removed here.'"

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"The king says,—; and again he says, 'Whatsoever I have spoken, is all on account of my anxiety about your residence here.,n

punishment of Heaven there spoken of had only deprived them of their grounds in Yin; this would deprive them of their lives. 25.

the prefixed to pqt, indicates, I think, that

we are not to suppose that LO is intended by B|,

—which, however, is the view of Lin Che-k'e. Ts'ae says that we are to understand the 'villages 'formed by the families around every

four ^Jl, or space of 3,600 mow. Every family, in connection with such a settlement, had its five mow, for houses and private garden,—2J in the field, and 2A in the associate village; see Mencius, L, Pt. I., iii., 4. Taking this view, we must understand that the king is not addressing here the officers of Yin merely, but the body of the people who had been removed from their

old settlements. JEjj will then signify the

homes of the several families belonging to each village, as in p. 23. ^ |j|

—Gan-kwd takes this, as an additional predicate

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about their descendants, and makes

arise, and following your transformation also become good.' It is much better to take the clause as I have done,—a view first proposed by Soo Shin.

P. 26. After the ^£ £jj there must be something wanting. Compare the two last paragraphs of Book XVIII. There is probably something lost also after the Q. We cannot

take [J^p as meaning 'now;' it must be = jjj?,

and would hardly commence a sentence.

^£ is also elliptical. Ts'ae brings out the

meaning thus :-B^ & $ M ff.-tgf

MmZf>Jr%]tn&&- »•»»

Shing makes the clause hortatory:—Zffi jjjj^. This is not so likely.




£n Tj 2. *n m0m vf>& m

I. The duke of Chow said, "Oh! the superior man rests in this, —that he will have no luxurious ease. He first understands the painful toil of sowing and reaping, how it conducts to ease, and thus

The Name Of The Book.—'Avoiding Luxurious Ease.' These words are taken from the first paragraph. They are the keynote to the whole Book, and hence are rightly taken to designate it. Gaubil says the characters mean—' // ne/aut /<as se livrer au plaisir.' Medhurst entitles the Book—' On avoiding luxurious

ease.' and are used interchangeably.

Their primary signification is that of 1 idleness;' compare Mencius, VII., Pt. II., xxiv. 1, and IV., Pt. IL, xxx. 2. But as the character is used in the Shoo, it does not denote a mere passive idleness, but one in which, while the proper duties are neglected, improper lusts and gratifications may be eagerly sought; see the 'Counsels of Yu,' p. 14; et al. Still the idea of the term here is that of 'luxurious or indulgent ease.' ^ff is used as the imperative ^jj*.

The Book is found in both the texts. It comes under the division of or ' Instructions.'

Contests. The prefatory note is simply to the effect that 'the duke of Chow made the Woo Yik;' without a word about the time or occasion of it. The general view, which there is no reason to dispute, is that the duke of Chow addressed it to king Clung, soon after he had resigned the government into his hands. That the minister thought it necessary thus to admonish the young sovereign confirms what I have several times urged, that there was between thus a measure of dissatisfaction on the one

side and of suspicion on the other. There are six pauses in the course of the address, which

is resumed always with a Q ffk

fty, 'The duke of Chow said, "Oh!"' A

division into seven chapters is thus suggested.

In parr. 1—3, the duke leads the king to find a rule for himself in the laborious toils which devolve on the husbandman. In parr. 4—7, he refers to the long reigns of three of the sovereigns of the Yin dynasty, and the short reigns of others, as illustrating how the blessing of Heaven rests on the diligent sovereign. In parr. 6—11, the example of their own kings, T'ae, Ke, and Wan is adduced with the same object. In parr. 12, 13, the duke addresses the king personally, and urges him to follow the example of king Wan, and flee from that of Show. In 14, 15, he stimulates him by reference to ancient precedents to adopt his counsels, and shows the evil effects that will follow if he refuse to do so. In parr. 16—18, he shows him by the examples of the good kings of Yin and of king Wan how he ought to have regard to the opinions of the common people, and gird himself to diligence. The last par. is a single admonition that the king should lay what had been said to heart.

Ch. I. Pp. 1—3. The Great Principle,


•RAcr or Tius Sons or Iuose Who Uavj; Toiled K'ang-shing thought that -5- here was spoken simply of the ruler [f~ g|j

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3 he understands the law of the support of the inferior people. I have observed among the inferior people, that where the parents have diligently laboured in sowing and reaping, their sons often do not understand this painful toil, and abandon themselves to ease, and to village slang, and become quite disorderly. Or where they do not do so, they throw contempt on their parents, saying, 'Those old people have heard nothing and know nothing.'"

4 II. The duke of Ch ow said, "Oh ! I have heard that aforetime the emperor of Yin, Chung-tsung, was grave, humble, reverential, and

■^f- /&)> w't',0,lt any implication of

the virtuous character which is commonly denoted by the expression. He must be wrong. The designation is to be taken of 'the man of virtue,' with an application of it implied to such a man in authority. I take fijf as a verb » \\-. The usage is akin to that in Bk.

Xiii., P. 16,-3: $$.ftff\. ft fit

( — ^jfc is then under the govt, of M. Thus, after Leu Tsoo-hilen, gives for the par.—

# M M M ffi #r> which brii^

out the meaning very well. Ch'ing and Gankwo both put a comma at M, —which is very harsh. The former says:—-j— Jj^

ft ^ |&. 2. It is as well to take -4— as the subject of the two Ag here. The meaning would be substantially the same if we supposed the language directly addressed to king Ching, when Ag would =- ' when you first understand.' The only difficulty is with the ~J*j jfe. The characters simply show that case and plenty are a result of the toils of husbandry. Gan-kwo attributed a sort of hortatory force to tkcill, and inter


ytftlZTSMXk^, 'sowing and reaping are the toilsome business of the husbandman. This must first be known, and then plans for case may be laid.' Soo Shih objected to this, that the object of the duke of Chow was to get the king to put away the thought of ease, and it was not likely he would begin to suggest to him the idea of 'planning for ease.' The criticism is subtle, but correct. 'What the inferior people depend on ' is their hard toil in the fields. That is the law of their support. Ease comes from it as a matter of course. Ease finds them; they do not seek it. 3.

4f 4* A'-comParo *ff # % KBk

XII., p. 11. /^,—as in the last par., >=

in the translation. is ' a proverb,' 1 a

saying.' Gan-kwo understands by it 'coarse language,' taking it=^P ;—see Ana. XI., xvi., 4. Hang Shing reads— "Jftj ft, ~pj

Wc f|5£ M, 'thoy bccome id,,!> and

indulge in pleasure, behave rudely, and are lawless.' I prefer the received text and inter

pretation. ^ £ A ~ 7& ^

as I have translated it; or it may mean

—' our predecessors.'

Ch. II. Pp. 4—7. The AnvANTAGF.s Of


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fearful. He measured himself with reference to the appointment of Heaven, and cherished a reverent apprehension in governing the people, not daring to indulge in useless ease. It was thus that Chung-tsung enjoyed the throne for seventy and five years.

"If we come to the time of Kaou-tsung, he toiled at first away from the court, and was among the inferior people. When he came to the throne, it may be said that, while he was in the mourning shed, for three years he did not speak. Afterwards he was still inclined not to speak; but when he did speak, his words were full of harmonious wisdom. He did not dare to indulge in useless and easy

Of The Yin Dynasty. i. The case of Chung

here and the following parr. =' in the case of.' m £j2 was the sacrificial title of the emperor described. See the note on T'aemow, p. 220. jfjg and are said to express the king's reverence as shown externally, while Rand describe his inward feeling of it.

% <m il J^-by % -aH Ts'M many

others understand 'Heavenly princi

ples,' so that the meaning of the clause is, 'He measured (= defined the rules of life for) himself in accordance with heavenly principles.' But this is needless refining. The meaning rather is that Kaou-tsung felt that 'the appointment of Heaven,' which placed him upon the throne, brought with it certain duties and responsibilities, on his discharge of which depended his retaining Heaven's favour; he therefore measured himself to know whether his course was what it ought to be. Woo Ch'ing brings this meaning out very

MnmiR> & ^ m & % % tfr 1 have

said on p. 220 that we might doubt the length of Chung-tsung's reign, if it were not thus guaranteed by the duke of Chow. Two brothers are said to have preceded him on the throne;— first Yung-ke, who reigned 12 years, and before him Scaou-kea, who reigned 17 years. If Chungtsung were born in the same year that their father died, B.C. 1664, he must have been 30 when he succeeded to the empire.

5. The case of Kaou-tsung. See Book. VIII., of the last Part. Jt M ^F'~ the test should evidently be read with the first clause, but it is difficult to explain it, or to account for it. •tjfr T £^>, yj> —comp. 'The Charge to Yue,' Pt. iii.,

p. 1. The old interpreters took =

'long.' It is better to take it as = ' at first,' i.e.,

while his father was alive

'with.' The text must be supplemented:— ^Jffi| ./J'vAI^Jitlfl- It is perplexing to find used as a proposition, and not simply a conjunction. fe. j£ §P'

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