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8 illustrious, and duly attended to the sacrifices. And thus it was that while Heaven exerted a great establishing influence, preserving and regulating the house of Yin, its sovereigns on their part were humbly careful not to lose the favour of God, and strove to manifest a good

9 doing corresponding to that of Heaven. But in these times, their successor showed himself greatly ignorant of the ways of Heaven, and much less could it be expected of him that he would be regardful of the earnest labours of his fathers for the country. Greatly abandoned to dissolute idleness, he paid no regard to the bright principles

10 of Heaven, nor the awfulness of the people. On this account God no longer protected him, but sent down the great ruin which we have

11 witnessed. Heaven was not with him because he did not seek to illus

P.Bk.x.,p.9, jftMj&m.^ ftt*

1 & ZT ^ 'Nl jlffi.-' were anxious about the sacrifices,' i.e., diligently attended to them. The account of T'ang in the 'T'ae-kea,' Ft. i., 2, gives a good illustration

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12 trate his virtue. Indeed, with regard to the overthrow of all States, great and small, throughout the four quarters of the empire, in every case there are reasons to be alleged for their punishment.'"

13 "The king speaks to this effect:—'Ye numerous officers of Yin, the case now is this, that the sovereigns of our Chow, from their

14 great goodness were charged with the work of God. There was the charge to them, "Cut off Yin." They proceeded to perform it, and an

15 nounced the correcting work to God. In our affairs we have followed no double aims:—ye of the royal house of Yin must follow us.

better to take it as in the translation.—

(iii $C ^F" 12' Kenera' proposition

is here laid down embracing the case of Show. Comp. Bk. X., p. 3.

Pp. 13—15. The sovereigns of Chow in overthrowing Yin had merely performed the will of God, 13. jjfj] ^J£,—' the sovereigns

of Chow' were kings Win and Woo.

7§t> wc mu8t take bot1' 2l and

3a as adverbs joined to the Terb The kings undertook the work, and they did so with a great and almost more than human efficiency. Le-ts'eangsays:—J^j\ ^ j^ji _7p£,



gL^Bk.m .p.e. i*.

ff', —we may suppose this announcement to have been made, either while the operations against Show were in progress, as rela ted in Bk. Ill., pp. 8—8, or after they were completed, as in the same Bk., p. 3. 15. The translation of this par. is after Ts'ae, who succeeds better with it than any other of the critics. He says:

'As Chow had not been double to God, dare Yin be double to Chow?* -fj^J E ~\~, p. 1. Lin Che-k'e goes round about the passage in a strange way:—-J*

Ti mutism

M ffi) "tfc' '*n tne business of cutting off Yin, we were acting in obedience to Heaven and in accordance with men. One movement accomplished the work. We did not need to go twice to the capital of Yin. But you would not discern to whom the favour of Heaven had fallen. After your overthrow you rebelled, and caused us a second time to put our forces in motion. It was you, belonging to the House of the kings of Sung, who called us to go to your capital of Yin.' As far-fetched is the interpretation of Keang Shing, who takes Jj$| =

'enemies.'-^ ft ^ J|| % ~% >f$ 16 17


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III. 'May I not say that you were very lawless? I did not want to remove you. The thing came from your own city. When I consider also how Heaven has drawn near to Yin with so great tribulations, it must be that there was there what was not right."'

"The king says, 'Ho! I declare to you, ye numerous officers, it is simply on account of these things that I have removed and settled you in the west;—it was not that I, the one man, considered it a part of my virtue to make you untranquil. The thing was from

so as it may at first appear, Gnn-kwO understanding the |j| ^jfc iff jf* of the last par. to have reference to Show. Hang Shing takes a view of the par. quite as wide of the mark, making jj-= 'to put to death,' and interpreting:-^ # ^ ^ ^ £ ta, £

Ch. III. Pp. 16—23. They Had Obliged


was the lawless and continued disaffection of Yin
which had necessitated their removal. 16.

it Q, —tne emP'lat'c force of

the H is brought out in English by using the

negative interrogation. iff <= iff it ,

'lawless,' 'unregulated.' The reference is to the rebellion of Woo-kang and his people, with the king's uncles who had been set over them.

$h,-- J|[j, 'to move,' 'to excite;' in this case =' to remove.' ~pj

^,-comp. gt, gj ^ fj£ in the 'Instructions of E,' p. 2. 17. Here, as in p. 11, I have translated according to the view of

Ts'ae, whose exposition of the whole is—-^p* sjy,

tin ...

iE' W m M ft£ "til- G<u,-kwo expounds it ^ ^ % ^ f> gg ^

IE tr jffij 'J also thought of Heaven; and having reference to the great crimes of Yin, inflicted the punishment of death, because Show would not correct himself and think of the laws.' This is absurd enough, but not so much

P. 18. The hinq reiterates his assertion that in removing them to Li6 he was merely obeying the will of Heaven. There was no reason why they should

murmur against him. —see on Bk. VII., p.

i- ii t# -tfMiz #t- ■ °n "ww**

these things,'the facts, mentioned in the twoprec.

parr. J^Ej ill? 'have transferred

your dwelling and uestedyou,' i.e., have removed and settled you here in the west. Lo lay south and west from Show's old capital, though it was to the east of Haou, Woo's capital. Keang Shing

strangely argues for the meaning of rjjjj as

being |f- 'to give rest to,' so that the

meaning is—'I have changed the place of your dwelling in order to give you rest' j^fr the decree of Heaven; do not resist me; I dare not have any further


19 change for you. Do not murmur against me. Ye know that your fathers of the Yin dynasty had their archives and narratives showing

20 how Yin superseded the appointment of Hea. Ye now indeed say further, "The officers of Hea were chosen and promoted to the imperial court, or had their places among the mass of officers." I, the one man, listen only to the virtuous and employ them; and it was with this view that I presumed te seek you out in your heavenly city of Shang. I thereby follow the ancient example, and have pity on you. Your present non-employment is no fault of mine; it is by the decree of Heaven."'

sion is here difficult. Keang Siring

gives for the whole-^ M jet £
*|4 Jf* Mi 2^C> 'was no^ Decause mv disposi-
tion is restless.' H$ = ^- $E

H^C >*P f$i ^§L~1 httve tr*n8lated tnis
after Ts'ae, and Gan-kwfl took substantially the

same meaning <SSL -fa, a ^

fit Tlie editors of Yung'

ching's Shoo say this interpretation is suitable enough ; but they also mention with approbation another, proposed by Lin Cheat :—'The thing was from the decree of Heaven. That was not to be resisted, and I did not dare to make any delay in obeying it. Do not murmur against me, as if the transference of you here proceeded from me.' It is difficult to decide between the two. On the whole, I think the first is preferable.

Pp. 19. 20. Yin's overthrow of Hea sufficiently justijied Chow's overthrow of Yin; and if the officers of Yin were not now treated so well as those of' Hea had been, they had only themselves to blame.

'the prior—early—ages of Yin,' jffi J^L,—Koo Seih-ch'ow says that by jffi we are

to understand the engraved tablets kept in the depositories, and by JltL, the same circulated

through the empire Jf^f Q W, ff

20. f,

jjfc = 'to bring forward;' = 'to

make choice of,' 'to promote.' By we are

evidently to understand J^, 'the of

ficers of the Hea dynasty.' The officers of Yin urge that they were not treated as those of Hea had been. ^ —all agree that tho

capital of the Yin dynasty and country about it are here intended. But why is it called 'the heavenly city?' K'ang-shing says, • Because it had been originally established by Heaven.' Leu Tsoo-heen and others say, 'Because there the emperors of Yin—the sons of Heaven—had dwelt.' Wang Suh says:—'The king means to say, "Shang, which is now my heavenly city."' I think it may be spoken ironically—'your heavenly city.' Keang Shing takes the language

from f ■ to l^jij to be spoken of the

appointment of the Viscount of Wei.—' I also had regard to and employed the virtuous, and I therefore ventured to seek out the descendant of your kings in the city," &c. This is amusingly ingenious, but few will be found to adopt the

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The king says, 'Ye numerous officers, formerly, when I came from Yen, I greatly mitigated the penalty in favour of the lives of the people of your four countries. At the same time I made evident the punishment appointed by Heaven, and removed you to this distant abode, that you might be near the ministers who had served in our honoured capital, and learn their much obedience.'"

view. The king is evidently speaking of what he had done to those whom he was addressing.

#if &*.#1«r?ffB- ^e

meaning is that the king hoped their removal to LS would lead them to virtue and loyalty, so that it was really an act of kindness to them. While they were vicious and disaffected, it would be contrary to the will of Heaven to confer dignities and offices on them.

P. 21. The officers and people of Yin had really been dealt with very leniently. This par. refers to the time three or four years back, when the rebellion of Woo-kang, supported by the king's uncles, had been disposed of. The wild tribe of the Yen—a district corresponding to the pres. dis. of K'e'uh-fow, dep. of Yen-chow, Shan-tung —had joined with the insurgents. We hear of them again in Bk. XVIII., as in arms a second time against the new dynasty. The crushing of the Yen had been the last act in the suppression of the rebellion. When that was accomplished, the duke of Chow—for he was the agent, though the thing is here ascribed to the king, after the manner of' The Great Announcement' —had time to deal with the people of Yin. Our natural conclusion from this par. is certainly that many of the people of Yin were then removed

toiA ft R13 H R ftH$

is here used in the sense of j^^, 'to diminish,'

'to mitigate.' Their lives were all forfeited; but the king spared their lives, and only banished them. We have not met with this usage of the character before; but it is now quite common

in legal language. Gan-kwd took Jjl as equivalent to Ying-ttt says:—Jjl J/^

i&Rtft H "rhe p-p'6

consider their sovereign to be tlieir life, and hence the sovereign is designated " the life of the

people."' The meaning then is—'I made an end of the rulers of your four kingdoms, thereby executing on them the punishment appointed by Heaven.' But this is very far-fetched, and unwarranted. Nor is the view given by Keang Shing more likely.—' I sent down lessons and commands for you, the people of the four kingdoms, and carried clearly out the punishment appointed by Heaven upon their rulers.' By the 'four kingdoms' we are to understand the 'imperial domain of Yin,' which had been portioned out to Woo-kfing, and three of the king'8 uncles;—see the note on Bk. VI., p. 12.

. Both and 5^ are denned by j^jj 'far,' •distant.' Jfc *|£ £ ^ ^ ft

—is here taken as = ^jjji ^J,' the honoured Chow,' a name given to Haou, the old capital of Chow, in distinction from the new capital of

iSj at *j8- was m tne duke's mind, in prospect of the new capital, that the old trusted ministers of Chow should remove to it, when the influence of their character and principles would affect beneficially the adherents of the old dynasty brought there into contact with them. The translation is after the 'Daily Explanation:'-^ |g jf| }g jfe fo, ffi

little to choose between this and the following ingenious exposition by Choo He:—J^j[

^> ^> 'that ye might near

us, serve us, and be ministers to us, honouring and imitating the rich and full obedience of our Chow.'

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