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I undertake the charge, and will protect the people whom your grandfather Wan received by decree, and whom your glorious and meritorious father Woo also so received. I will enlarge the reverence which I cherish for you.

"But, my son, come frequently and inspect this settlement. Pay great honour to old statutes, and to the good and wise men of Yin. Good government here will make you indeed the new chief of the empire, and an example of royal respectfulness to all your 24


22. ^1 "HR ~f* ^>—tliis has reference evidently to the -fjjj of par. 18.

Naturally and legitimately we understand of coming to a place; and that place can be no other than Ld. The old interpreters holding that the duke only agrees to remain in public life, without any reference to his undertaking the govt, of the new city, say that his returning might have been called a-j^- or 'going away,' so

his continuing may be called a -jj^ or 'coming' (see the gloss of Ying-t4 in foe.). This is very forced. ffi 3| jj£ J-this re

sponds to the king's ||jj£ ^ ^ jj£ jgl in p. 20. Woo Ch'ing correctly observes that we are to understand -jjjj J5jl after jj^

being omitted in the text for the sake of brevity (-^jf ^=2^- Gan-kwo and

Keang Shing take it as="^~, with which I cannot make sense. They also take jfe and all the other verbs as in the infinitive mood under the govt, of -jjjy. But it is much better to

suppose that in the duke speaks in his own person. To me the Jj^£ in the last clause necessitates this construction. jjj/^ Jj^ —

'I will enlarge my reverence.' iffg is to be taken according to the account of it by Mencius, IV., Bk. I, i., 13, ^ |H ^ & f If £ The duke would do his duty; lie will not allow the king to be remiss in performing kit. Wang Ts'eaou says ingeniously:—^£ jfjQ


23. ^•^jp-^^g'^,—I must translate this in the imperative, according to the view which has been taken of the last. The paraphrase in the 'Complete Digest' is:—^£ ^jjlj|s

g§ jaw

JJjU ]/X "/jpf 'alt''Ough your majesty is returning, you ought to come and examine and see this city of LO, to govern it.' Though the duke gives up the hope which he had cherished, that the king would take up his residence in the new city, he endeavours to make the best of his disappointment, and hopes that the advantages to be derived from L6 will in part at least be secured by frequent and regular visits to it

from the king. JflL = JfiL Jpr, 'statutes,' i.e., we may suppose, the rules and principles of govt, approved or established by Wan and Woo. ( = 1^ J$*,) ' the good able

people (= men) of Yin, are, we may again suppose, men belonging to old official families of Yin, who had kept themselves from the degrading vices which had occasioned the downfall of the dynasty. Both Jj^L and PR are

governed by 'j^T, and a conjunction is understood between its two objects. This is forcing a meaning out of the text, but the meaning thus ubtaiucd is more likely than any other which

JRLfc£ If o| X,0,

Tj m $k A m ?i3£ n &

successors of Chow." "From this time," said the duke, "by the government administered in this central spot, all parts of the empire will be conducted to repose, and this will be the completion of your merit, 0 king.

"I, Tan, with the numerous officers and managers of affairs, will consolidate the achievements of our predecessors, in response to the hopes of the people. I will afford an example of sincerity to future ministers of Chow, seeking to render complete the pattern intended for the enlightenment of you, my son, and thus to carry fully out the virtue of your grandfather Wan."

has been put upon it. Comp. the view of Ganand that of Kcang Shing:—'Ml At

M ¥ f& ki ^ K IL

W j] fr JBfc^mp. the ft ^BJ^ofpar.2.

—Ts'ae expands this by A ^ J£J[ It

Ti # ffn $t I- 'as the sovereign shows respectfulness towards your ministers, and by such respectfulness leads the way for future kings.' Gan-kwd's view is the same:—

fi)X "ftfe Ar ^*nK Shing brings out nearly the same meaning by another construction of the characters -ft ± jf] ffr> J#

t The 0 is PerPIe*in«- T1*

simplest way is to suppose as the nominative to it. I understand P^p as in the 'Complete Digest'jfjj With pjl

^compare the g Jj|t -J- pjl, and g O^p

Pjj ^ in the last Book, p. 14. 24. The

duke here speaks fully and bravely of what he himself will do. We have had instances before ot his superiority to the mock humility with which Chinese statesmen generally veil appreciation of themselves and their services.

"jp ^5 see on the Con. Ana., I., i..

for the meaning of -^p. ^£ -^p is 'the many

gentlemen;' and from the tip which follows, we conclude that the gentlemen intended the officers of the superior classes,—as the critics


—' in answer to the multitudes.' The meaning must be as in the translation.

-^q,—'faithfulness,' 'loyalty.' The

expression is correlate to the ^] j^jjf ~& of the last par. j and they throw light on each other. As the king would show to future kings an example of respectfulness in dealing with his ministers, so the duke would show to future ministers an example of loyal devotedness in serving his sovereign. JJ^ jffl ^f- ^f)J,

^Zr = J^t 'to complete.' Ts'ae takes BI

-jr as = the of par. 1, so that the

meaning of the clause is—' I will render complete the pattern afforded by you, my illustrious son.' The editors of Yung-ching's Show observe that everywhere else he takes jJJJ or= M, 'to enlighten,' and that there is no reason to depart from that signification here; so that the meaning of the whole is, as in the translation.

B. = 'to complete,' ' to carry fully out.' Everything necessary to consolidate the dynasty might be considered as carrying out— completing—the virtue of king Wan, its proper founder.


ii,T M 0 m & %

25 VI. A forwards, the duke of Chow took occasion to say, " The king has sent messengers to admonish the people of Yin, and with a soothing charge to me, along with two flagons of the black millet herb-flavoured spirit, saying, 'Here is a pure sacrificial gift, which with my hands to my face and my head to the ground I offer for you to enjoy its excel

26 lence.' I dare not keep this, and offer it in sacrifice to king Wan and

27 king Woo." In doing so, he prayed, "Let him be obedient to and

* jjf,—j^^l is a species of black millet, used

in the distillation of spirits. ^ is a species

of fragrant grass employed to flavour the spirits. The two characters are used here as a name of

the spirit which was made from them. M is

the name of a cup or bowl of medium size, in which such spirit was usually kept. A larger

vessel used for that purpose was called and

a smaller, l^g. j the size of the |Jj was between

the others. Q M -f* —this is supposed to be the message of the king which accompanied the offering, M = 'pure;'

jjjjj}=^£, 'to revere,' 'reverent.' The 'Daily

Explanation' gives for this clause:—jjfc ^jj


Ts'ae says that here has the same meaning

as the phrase in Bk. XXII., p. 26, where

the character is explained by 'to tu^'

vance the cup;' making the meaning to be—' I do not dare to drink this spirit.' But it will be seen on that passage, that if we must so define '/& there, we cannot admit the signification in this text. And why should there be any difficulty in understanding here as I have done. There is an instance of the same usage, quite in point, in the Ana., X., viii., 8. The duke was 30 far from using for himself the king's gift, that he could not even allow it to remain by him, but presented it at once in a sacrifice to Wiln and Woo. 27. This par. is to be taken as a prayer for the king, offered when the duke sacrificed to Wan aud Woo with the spirit which

Ch. VI. Pp. 25—28. The Conduct Of The


I cannot say that I am satisfied with the meaning of these parr, as it appears in the translation; but no interpretation of them has been proposed which can be fully acquiesced in by a cautious student. I have mainly followed the view of them given by Ts'ae, who himself followed Soo Shih. The action of them is referred to some time subsequent to that in which the previous parr, were spoken. The king is supposed to have returned to Haou, and thence he sends messages and gifts, doing honour to the duke as if he had been a departed spirit, and were continuing in heaven the guardianship of the dynasty which he had so efficiently discharged during his life. This was improper, and may be deemed improbable; but if we remember how the boy had given ear to the rumours that the duke had designs upon the throne, and consider that even now he was not really following his advice, and fixing his residence at L6, we may believe that the young emperor had more awe of the powerful minister than love for him, and that he wished to propitiate him by such an extraordinary offering.

Jfi,' The king sent messengers with admonitory

lessons for the people of Yin, and being impressed with the merits of the duke, at the same time to soothe his mind, by the gift of an extraordinary mark of his regard.' Q


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observant of your course. Let him meet with no evil or sickness. Let him satisfy his descendants for myriads of years with your virtue. Let the people of Yin enjoy protracted prosperity." He also said to 28 the messengers, "The king has sent you to Yin, which has received his charges well ordered for myriads of years; but let the people ever have to observe the virtue cherished by my son."


had been sent to himself. Jil —

"Iii, to accori' w'lV 'accordantly;' for comp. the ^§ ~pj j£ of p.

Thecl.u*>-|i Jfi M&3t

Z M %^§kZ ffij Ti

^(seethe ittO-g£)

"W ill @ >$C'—'et *"ra not k""g on

= 'to meet with;' but with more of an active signification) himself any sickness'

$ ^ IfcT ft is in t,,c 3d tonc'

'to be full,' 'satiated.' We must suppose that the king is prayed for in his descendants for

ten thousand years;—as Ts'ae has it, -jp

—Ts'ae takes g | ^^ R ^g^-, 'protracted longevity;' and the 'Daily Explanation' gives for the passage,-J§g $i $ 2: "f

the poor remnant of Y in long enjoy the happiness of prosperity and plenty.' 28. We are to suppose that the duke now addresses the messengers who had come from the king, and sends the counsel here contained to Haou, to the effect that though he would do hisduty to carry out the admonitions which had been sent to the people of Yin, yet the government of them could only be effected by the personal virtue of the king.

I am well aware, in thus interpreting these four paragraphs, that serious objections may be taken to the way in which the whole is supplemented, and many of the clauses explained. All that can be said is that the interpretation seems to me more likely than any other that has been proposed. It will suffice if I subjoin here that proposed by Gan-kwd. He first reads

fF M & ft ift ^ (putting a stop at city along with t; ^ ^ ^ Jf(j, ?] IP ^£ fig. interpreting—' "The method by which I will complete the enlightenment of

you. my son, is to complete the virtue of your grandfather Wftn." This he says with reference to the ceremonies which he would establish. "The reason why you must dwell here in the middle of the land, is that Wan and Woo have sent you to come and carefully teach the people of Yin, recognising their charge, and giving them repose "' ffi j£ ^ ^, J*j

He then begins a new par. with -r, and on f

i^t 31 ifc -^P- says:—'The duke of Chow had been regent for seven years; and having produced a happy tranquillity throughout the empire, he took two bowls of black millet wine, and with purity and the utmost reverence had presented it to Wan and Woo that they might enjoy it, and announced to them the happy state of the empire. Having done this, he had resigned the government, but king Ching had induced him to remain as his chief minister. He therefore recounts those things here (Jjjjj j^j^

Z>#^$Ol$tZ^ On from

j£5E he says :—'Theduke says, "Seeing this happy tranquillity of the empire, I made a pure announcement to Wan and Woo not delaying over it'" ^ j| ^ T ^ 2p,


is then taken as addressed to the king, and oxpounded :—" Do you, in administering the govt., observe the regular constitutions, and carry them fully into execution, with an orderly discrimination. Allow none to follow courses which would be productive of calamity and distress. So will the empire for myriads of years be satiated with your virtue, and the dynasty of Yin will for ever become that of Chow"


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VII. On the day Mow-shin, the king in the new city performed the annual winter sacrifice, offering a red bull to king Wan, and the same to king Woo. He then commanded a declaration to be prepared, which was done by Yih in the form of a prayer, and it simply announced the remaining behind of the duke of Chow. The kings

Xkmn^mMMy 0»the 28th par. he says:—'" When the king causes the people of Yin, high and low, to have such orderly relations with one another, then will be seen the course of govt, for myriads of years, and the people will for ever look to our descendants and turn to their virtue." Thus he stimulates the king to complete the work begun

by Win and Woo' (J 111 l£ K' _L T

It would be easy to fill pages, with smaller variations of view that have been proposed on this difficult passage j but the student will probably think that it has been dwelt upon at sufficient length. I will, however, here subjoin the version of Gaubil, and a note which he gives

on the character jjjjjj. His version is:—'Vous

avez envoye un expres pour faire instruire les peuples de Yin, et vous lui avez ordonne' de me demander en quel e'tat c'toit ma sante; outre cela vous m'avez envoytf en present deux vases reruplis du vin Ku-tchang, et vous avez ainsi parli: il faut avoir le coeur pur et respectueux. Je me prosterne a terre, et je me sers de ces deux heureux vases pour marquer mon respect.

'Je n'oserois boire de ce vin; mais je m'en suis dtfja servi pour honorer avec respect Venvang. et Vou-vaug.

'Je souhaite que le Roi soit exact a imiter ses ancetres, qu'il vive long term, sans facheux accident, que jusqu*a dix mille ans il ait des iruitateurs de sa vertu, que les nouveaux sujets de la dynastie Yin jouissent d'une longue et heureusc suite d'anndes.

'Je souhaite que jusqu'a dix mille ans vous gouverniez hereusement les peuples de Yin. Dans tout ce qui les regarde, faites eusorte qu'ils so plaisent a suivre vos exemples.'

I need not speak of the character of this version. His note is to the following effect:—

'The characters TfQ l^j express a wine made from black millet or Bi, sad as odoriferous

herb called Ig. Acc. to the thought of king

Chlng, this required in him who used it a heart pure and full of respect. It was set apart therefore for the ceremonies performed to Heaven, or spirits, or to ancestors. It was employed perhaps in all the three ceremonies. Now the character which expresses the respect to be

shown in the use of this wine is MI, which is composed of three other characters:—7f\>

meaning to show to; jJEj, the west; and -f-*t

country. Could the ancient Chinese have had in view, in the use of this character, the country of the west from which they had come forth? Do we have in it, applied to these ceremonies, the vestiges of some ancient ceremony, in which they regarded the west, when they honoured Heaven, the Spirits, or their first ancestors? The Chinese characters are composed of several other characters, and the whole has regard to the thing expressed by the composite character; the several characters are the simple ideas which make the composite one. The analysis which

I make here of the character jjjj^j is but a conjecture. I only give it as such, and I do not care to engage to find proofs of it in the ancient monuments and traditions of China. I know that several Europeans have abused the analysis of Chinese characters; but the Chinese themselves make sometimes such analyses.'

Gaubil wasat home when he brought his knowledge of mathematical and astronomical science to bear on the illustration of Chinese chronology; but this conjecture about the meaning of the

term jjjj^f cannot be called happy. 7J^ sug«

gests the idea of some religious meaning, as belonging to the whole character; but the other

half of it—5jS—is entirely phonetic, and suggests

merely its name or sound. It enters in the same way into more than 80 other characters. The character is used in the 'Canon of Shun,' p. 6, where I do not know that the idea of the objects sacrificed to being the fathers of the nation" who had their seats in the west ever occurred to any one.

Ch. VII. Pp. 29—31. Historical Notices



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