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indicated. Again I divined concerning the east of the Ch'en water, and the ground near the Lo was likewise indicated. I now send a messenger with a map, and to present the divinations."

II. The king bowed his face to his hands and his head to the ground, saying, "The duke has not dared but to acknowledge reverently the favour of Heaven, and has surveyed the locality to find where our Chow may respond to that favour. Having settled the locality, he has sent his messenger to come and show me the divinations,

understand from the text that the regent adopted the Guardian's divination. But then he had himself divined about the site near the Le water, nor have we reason to suppose that the duke of Shaou had divined for the site of 'the lower capital.' There is a perplexity here which the scantiness of our information does not enable us to unravel. ff (perhaps

the character should be ffi) ^f* J# Bil 2£

2: Jjjl 'a plan or map of the country about the LO.'

Ch. II. P. 4. The King's Reply To The Message. it ,—see on the

'T'ac-kea,' Pt. ii., pp. 3 and 4. jfcf ^

tfc M E $:>-bv % Z #:we are to

understand X "fjjj, 'the favouring

decree of Heaven,' calling the House of Chow to the sovereignty of the empire ; then H

Ali, as in the translation. The passage is obscure, but this seems to be the meaning.

# 2fc ^ ={=-K'ang-shing

thought that by the repetition of it was indicated that two messengers were sent by the duke ; but there is no necessity to understand the terms so. JTJ^ = 7J>, 'to show to.'

^ This is better than to take it

and the duke would seem to have thought that it might be sufficient to remove the disaffected people of Yin to it, instead of transporting them so far as Lo. The text appears to say that he had divined about this site, after reaching LO; but I think it must have been a previous measure, and intended merely to satisfy the people of Yin. The duke himself could never have seriously contemplated settling the capital of the dynasty there. whensoever and wheresoever he divined about this place, we must understand that the result was unfavourable.

ft 75 3i V# ^-for the KSen and

Ch'en rivers, see the 'Tribute of Yu.' Pt. i,, p.
S5. The east of the Keen and west of the
Ch'en was the site fixed for the imperial city

(^p Jjfjg); and the east of the Ch 'en was that

of 'the lower capital1 ( J\ :§j$)> to which the people of Yin were removed. But both sites were near the LO, and the divination was favourable in each case. To understand the

phrase we must refer to the method

of divining by the tortoise shell, described on page 33f>. If the ink, smeared on the back of the shell, was dried up—eaten, licked up—by the fire, the trial was favourable; if it was not so dried up, the result was considered to be unfavourable. Keang Shing, following K'ang

thing, gives another meaning of which

I hardly understand. K'ang-shing's words are:

-ft M z, m H ^ #fr z % Jg JJ& ffl ffl *****

last Book nothing is said about the duke of Chow's divining about the sites. This the duke of Shaou had done previous to the arrival of the other. Many say that we are only to

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favourable and always auspicious. Let us two sustain the responsibilities in common. The duke has reverently acknowledged the favour of Heaven, making provision for me for myriads and tens of myriads of years. With my face to my hands and my head to the ground, I receive his instructive words."

III. The duke of Chow said, "Let the king at first employ the ceremonies of Yin, and sacrifice in the new city, doing everything in

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•^V A: "j§^> from which I get no meaning apt in the place. Ma Yung explained the term by Jg|*, 'to bear,' 'to sustain,' which is preferable to the other. Hea Seen says:—

king wishes along with the duke to sustain the duties arising from the auspicious divinations.'

2: -f^,—the meaning of this is that as Heaven had shown its favour to the House of Chow in calling it to the sovereignty, so the duke by all his care in founding the new capital had fixed upon a central seat where that sovereignty could be maintained for

ever. Before =|f we must understand

iit S$f' or 80nle wor(ls of similar import. I do not think we are to suppose that the king made a second prostration.

Ch. III. Pp.5—13. Advices by The Hike


We must suppose that these advices were given in Haou. The duke had returned there some time after receiving the king's reply to the message which he sent. It is most likely that he had left L6 immediately after the duke of Sliaou had made what is called his announcement, and set forth before him the various offerings which were presented by the princes, to be used, it is said, at the sacrifices which would be offered,—we may suppose on the solemn

P. 5. The sacrifice* whicli the king should offer in the first place. ffi jjj§,

both Gan-kwo and K'ang-shing take this clause as in the translation, understanding by J^J

'the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty.' K'angsliing says that the ceremonies for the services of the present dynasty had not yet been settled, or if settled, had not yet been made publicly known. That would be done next year, which would be the first of the king's independent reign. In the meantime he should employ the ceremonies of Yin. Ying-ta, on the other hand, in his gloss on Gan-kwo's commentary, says that the ceremonies had been settled, but from their general agreement with those of the previous dynasty, they are still called here Jjjj This remark is very unsatisfactory. We cannot tell why the duke gave this particular advice, but I do not see that the phrase can be rendered otherwise than I have done. Ts'ae, indeed, after Wang Gan-shih and Lin Che-k'e, proposes

to take in the sense of so that the

meaning would be—' Let the king employ the fullest ceremonies.' To justify such a meaning of the term, they refer to an expression in Kungyang's commentary on the Ch'un Ts'ew, under

the 2d year of duke Wan (jj^/^ '_ dfe), where

it is said-^ 4£ Jfij £ i but jtt

there means 'great,' and not 'full.' The reference is to the 'great sacrifices,' called and

jjj^jj (see Ana., Ill., x.). As Maou K'e-ling

observes, we may speak of fjj£ but not of

ftik BE. ^',e text's s''cnt on tne sacr'flcc or sacrifices, which the duke wished the king to offer as his first act in the new city. Gan-shih


& 4 # # ill 3E w %,

^ 0>7C o s.T x,o

an orderly way, but without any display. I will marshal all the officers to attend your majesty from Chow, merely saying that probably there will be business to be done.

"Let the king instantly give orders, saying, 'Let those distinguished by merit be recorded; the most meritorious shall be the first in the sacrifices.' Let him also command, saying, 'You in whose behalf

assistance with sincere ear

this order is given must give me

supposed it was that mentioned in par. 29;— which is not likely. I should rather suppose it was a series of sacrifices like those offered by Suin on his undertakingtheduties of government for Yaou; see the 'Canon of Shun,' p. 6. The occasion was a grand one,—the inauguration of I„<5 as the capital, and of Ching's becoming of age and taking the government in his own hands.

* to arrange orderly;' —'without or

nament.' Simplicity was a characteristic of the ceremonies of Yin as compared with those of Chow;—see Con. Ana., Ill., xiv. Gran-kwfi

took ^ff A differently, and Ts'ae agrees with him. The letter's exposition of the whole par.

ffij Z h, <Let the kins begin byem

ploying the fullest ceremonies in his sacrifices at Lo, offering in order to all the spirits to which he ought to sacrifice. There may be some to which in right he ought to sacrifice that are not contained in the sacrificial canons; let him likewise sacrifice to them, having arranged them in their proper order.'

P. 6. lit what way the duke would instruct the

officers to attend the king to LS. Tpt^ j^l -r

= Q 1§f > meaning probably nothing

more than what appears in the translation, though some of the critics (see the

dwell on the M if it included all moral adjustment. ^ -J- ^|,—this can only mean—'follow the king from Chow to 1.6;' as the 'Daily Explanation' has it—

this is, not so indefinite as Gan-kwo has it,—


Jeff ^ 'tr It 'probably there

will be some business of good government.' Indeed, he appears to have thought it a remark of the duke to himself, ='I may consider the govt, will now go on well.' From the usage

of the phrase -^J B, it would be understood

that he intimated that sacrifices were to be offered.

P. 7. How the king should stimulate the officers to loual exertions by promising them a place in the sacrificial canon according to their merit. Compare 'The Pwan-kang,' Pt. i, p. Hi, —

^£ J-jjf lit, and the note where it is said that under the Chow dynasty there was a ' Re- corder of Merits,' who entered the names of meritorious ministers among the imperial kindred when alive, and regulated the arrangement of their spirit tablets at the sacrifices in the ancestral temple, when they were dead. It is to this custom, which the dyn. of Chow took

from Yin, that the duke refers gjJ jjfj

translation. Kcang Shing, after Gan-kwfl, makes iii a verb—'Record the meritorious and honour them.' How they should be honoured is shown in the next clause, so that the general meaning is not affected by the way in

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8 nestness.' Freely display the record of merits, for it is you who must yourself in everything train the officers. My young son, can

9 you indulge partiality? If you do so, the consequences hereafter will be like a fire, which, a spark at first, blazes up, and by-and-by cannot be extinguished.

10 "Let your observance of the constant rules of right and your soothing measures be like mine. Take only the officers that are in Chow to go to the new city; and make them there join their old associates. With intelligent vigour establish your merit, with a generous largeness richly completing the public manners:—so shall you obtain an endless fame."

rogatively, =||£ =^ if", pf A? $i) it lit


'from this forward.' (■= g£)

~2^,—'do not be like fire;' &c. It is difficult in translating to keep to the style of the text. |j$> |$,—the |j£ ^ defines this by R $fc='by degrees.'

Ts'ae says:-^ ^ ^ |£, % pf

P. 10. How the king should make the duke his

model. m%W-£M1%& 'his ( = your) following the constant path.'

4^ 'use the officers of Chow that now

exist, not mixing with them other men of mercenary views, to proceed to the new city.' The meaning is that the king at first should only surround himself with the men whom the duke had tried and proved. f£ 0, g|1 ^ fj=?.—'IVuc put a comma at ^J, and iutcrprtt

-jjjj, ~2£~jr^i—this is evidently to be addressed by the king to the officers, = E rafe

(see the |J Gan-kw5 strangely

takes it as addressed to the king.—^£

Pp. 8, 9. Publicity should be given to the record oj merits, and entire impartiality maintained in it. 8. ^ j|| ^} -Gan-kwo makes this =' Observe the services of all the officers, and record the meritorious, omitting none.' It is better to take JJJ^ = as in p.

*• $m=m$ zmwi- TM

record should be displayed where all could see it. The evidences afforded by it of the king's impartiality would powerfully influence the officers to the cultivation of a public spirit. This is the import of the second clause.

9. JJQ = 'to be partial;' comp. Ana.,

IL sir. ||& -^p J£ M must be taken inter

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The duke said, "Yes, young as you are, be it yours to complete the work of your predecessors. Cultivate the spirit of reverence, and you will know who among the princes sincerely present their offerings to you, and who do not. In those offerings there are many observances. If the observances are not equal to the articles, it must be said there is no offering. When there is no service of the will in the offerings of the princes, all the people will then say, 'We need not be troubled about our offerings,' and affairs will be disturbed by errors and usurpations.

'cause all the officers to know the views of the sovereign.' But this is too great a supplement to the text, nor is there any necessity for it.

|tEj!j and IN may very well be joined together. The duke tells the king to take the officers now in Chow to L5, and there make them join their companions, i.e., labour in their old departments at their old duties. Lin Che

k'e has \t-&Z I") SaiHt # Ipf. It is difficult to say whether we should understand EjfJ it ?j=J |]jL A

f$L 'fp ' as ,'cscr'Pt've of tne king's measures, or of the conduct of the officers. I have taken it with the former reference. fjjr

—comp. the 'T'ac-kca,' Pt. i., p 7. I did not accept the meaning of ' praise' there, but we may as well admit it here, where the words are addressed to the king, and he is not himself the speaker.

Pp. 11—13. The counsels here are of a wider import, and relate to how the king should deal with the princes of the empire, and attach the masses of the people to himself. The duke also plainly intimates his own purpose to retire from public life. The Jfe* Q in p. 11 might seem to intimate that they were delivered at a different time and place from those which preceded; but

it is better to leave that point as incapable of
any very definite settlement. 11. The

greatness of the work devolving on the king.
p. indicates that the duke felt constrained to
go on with what he had to say. ^jjf? j|jflC =»

?C 5£ J¥t* 'finish the work of Wa° and Woo.' i.e., secure the establishment of the dynasty of Chow. 12. The importance of

sincerity in the offerings and in all expressions of loyalty of the princes; and how the king might know whether they were sincere or not. Ts'ae puts a stop at so that jjjr H is equivalent to the duke of Shaou's repeated admonition that the king should cultivate the virtue of reverence. It is supposed that Citing, reverent himself and sincere, would, as if intuitively, know whether the princes were sincere or not in their expressions of loyalty.

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VOL. 111.

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