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22 "It is for him who is in the position of king to overtop all with his virtue. In this case the people will imitate him throughout the whole empire, and the king will become more illustrious.

23 "Let the king awd his ministers labour with a common anxiety, saying, 'We have received the decree of Heaven, and it shall be great as the long-continued years of Ilea,—it shall not fail of the long-continued years of Yin.' I wish the king through the inferior people to receive the long-abiding decree of Heaven."

24 III. The duke of Shaou then did obeisance with his head to his hands and bowed to the ground, and said, "I, a small minister, presume with the king's heretofore hostile people, with all his officers, and his loyal friendly people, to maintain and receive his majesty's dread

22. ft '['^ "^jf I of it here than as a conjunction = ' and.' The
.g kinVhis position is | <Daily Explanation,' after defining it by m,
is obliged in the paraphrase to substitute
for it. to ^§{^='we are determined that
it shall not fail of.' At the duke of Shaou
speaks again in his own person. The 'people,'
ruled over as he desired, would wish the rule to
be perpetual, and the wish of the people would
be the wish of Heaven.

Ch. III, Pt. 24. We must understand a

jfc* before ^1 ^ ^ ~||". The Guardian here winds up his address. He will do his duty with the people under his charge. It remains for the king to secure the permanence of the dynasty. In the meantime he presents the offerings of the princes, to aid at the sacrifices to be offered, on the inauguration of the new capital. E jj^,—these are the people of Yin that had been removed to Lf>, and could still not be spoken of as other than disaffected and hostile. £| —compare the same phrase in Bk. X., p. 7. It is used hcr<!

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Gan-kwO and Ts'ac define 3^ by m, but it is difficult to find a place fur any other meaning

command and brilliant virtue. That the king should finally obtain the decree all complete, and that he should become illustrious,—this I dare not to labour about. I only respectfully bring these offerings to present to his Majesty, to assist in his prayers to Heaven for its THE BOOKS OF CHOW.

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[In the third month when the moon began to wane, the duke of Chow commenced the foundations and proceeded to build the new city at Lo of the eastern States. The people from every quarter assembled in great harmony. From the How, Teen, Nan, Ts'ae, and Wei domains the various officers stimulated this harmony of the people, and introduced them to the business there was for Chow. The duke of Chow encouraged them all to diligence, and made a great announcement about the execution of the works.)

I. The duke of Chow bowed his head to his hands and then to the ground, saying, "Herewith I report the execution of my commission

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Announcement about L67 The prefatory note (see page 10) says :—1 The duke of Shaou having surveyed the localities, the duke of Chow went to build this capital, called Ching Chow, and sent a messenger to announce the divinations. With reference to this, the Announcement About Lo was made.' As will be seen from the next note, however, the action of the Book goes many months beyond the report about the survey and divinations; but it all has reference, more or less, to the city of Lrt. It may well be said to be about L6. The use of the term 'Announcement' has its difficulties, and must be taken more vaguely than in the account of the Announcements of the Shoo which I have given on page 177. The Book is found in both texts.

Contests. Ts'ae says:—'The arrangements for the building of Lo having been made, the duke of Chow sent A messenger to inform the king of the result of his divinations. The historian recorded this as the announcement about L5, and at the same time recorded a dialogue between the king and his minister, and how the king charged the duke to remain at L6 and conduct the government of it.' He goes on to

say more particularly:—' Parr. 1—3 contain the duke's message about his divinations; and par. 4 gives the king's reply. Parr. 5—13 are occupied with instructions from the duke to the king on the measures which he should pursue on taking up his residence at L6. In parr. 14 —21, the king charges the duke to remain at Lo, and undertake its government. In parr. 22—24, the duke responds, accepting the charge, and dwells on the duties which the king and himself would have to discharge, l'arr. 25—28 relate the action of the duke on a certain message and gift from the king, intended for his special honour. In purr. 29—31, the historian | relates to sacrifices offered in Lf> by the king, and the proclamation which he issued, and adds how long the duke continued in his government; —showing how the duke hegan the city and completed it, and how king Ching, after offering the sacrifices and inaugurating the government, returned to Haou, and did not after all make his capital at Lo.'

The Seven divisions thus indicated, present themselves to any careful student of the Book. Maou K'e-ling, differing widely from Ts'ae in his view of the general tcnour, and of particular

passages and terms, gives the same, only including parr. 22—28 in one. Many critics make more to do than is necessary about the want of historical order in the Book, and suppose that portions have been lost, and other portions transposed. I have already given my opinion that the first paragraph in 'The Announcement to the Prince of K'ang' should be the first par. here. As to other portions being lost, the Book may be explained without resorting to so violent a supposition. It is not by any means so plain as it might be, but I am inclined to think that it is as plain as it ever was.

The first paragraph from the Announcement to the Prince of K'tiMij. For the reasons why this par. should be edited here and not as a

portion of Bk. IX., see page 383. —• A

^fe f$L~ae* on Bk- ni> w-1 and 4. This would be the 16th day of the month. In the last Book, pp. 4—fl, we saw that on the 12th day of the 3d month, the duke of Chow arrived nt LO; on the 14th and 15th, he sacrificed to Heaven and Earth, and to the spirit of the land, while on the 21st he was ready with specifications of all the works which were to be executed. It would appear from this par. that on the 16th he made a commencement with the foundations

of some of the works. jj£}r ^£ gq^

T JfC @ ^'—thf> <r>ally Explanation' gives for tlus-fl: ff^&f^I


~j\ Z $H ',ie ni!ule the ne,v eroat

city on the east of Ching Chow, in the territory of the city of LO, and there was the building both of the imperial city and of the lower capital.' This may be understood by referring to the note on p. 2 of the last Book; but the text does not so clearly indicate that the building of the two

cities is spoken of. The jfa jj^ went also by the name of I\ igjy ' the lower capital.'

^ H % & *t,,e

of the domains of Chow on p. 149. The five of them which constituted, with the imperial domain, the ' Middle Kingdom' are here enumerated in their proper order, though why the ^(J

should be introduced between and I cannot explain. ]^ I $|Js£ ~

^| cc = 'all the officers,' including,

probably, from the princes downwards;

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! tion' takes this as = 'The duke of Chow himself and all with him laboured diligently.' Oun-kwo explains it as in the translation. I


as meaning that the duke

now announced in a general way the works which were to be executed, preparatory to the specifications which were issued five days after

Ch. I. Pp. 1—8. The Duke's Message To


Result Of ms Divinations. 1. There is

a controversy which it is not easy to settle on

the meaning of in this par., and the view to

be taken of the whole Book depends very much

upon it. Gan-kwo took as = j|g 'to

restore the government.' He explains the whole

par. thus & ^ ff ^ $r, ^ %


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t 'The duke of Chow, in the most ceremonious way and with the utmost reverence, said, "I return the government of the intelligent sovereign to you, my son." By his son he meant king Ching, who was now 20, and full grown. It was requisite that the duke should return the govt, to him, and withdraw into retirement in his old age.' This interpretation, which is still held by many, was not doubted till the Sung dynasty, when the critic Wang (t Wang Uan-shih) was the first to suggest

that should be taken as meaning ' to report," 'to announce the fulfilment of a commission,' referring to the phrase a , which is common in Mencius, and to the use of a'one by him, Bk. I., Pt. I., vii, 10,-^} ^ fit

tr. The duke, he contended, had never been anything but regent; he could not speak of himself as restoring the govt. This view was adopted by Ts'ae, and became current through his commentary.

Maou K'e-ling refers to the 1st words of Pt. IV., Bk. V1..-P fr £ $ # Jg w, as decisive in favour of the older view; but the use of the ilk there after makes the passages by no means parallel, nor was the position of the duke of Chow to king Ching the same as that of E Yin to T'ae-kca. It must be allowed

at the same time that Mencius' a E

is different from the simple -^p of the text.

On the whole, I must incline to the view adopted by Ts'ae. In the answer of the king to the duke's message there is not a word about his accepting the restoration or resignation of the govt. It was understood between them, and throughout the empire, that the time was come for the king to undertake the duties of the administration himself, and we shall see hereafter in this Book that the duke expresses his purpose to go into retirement, now that the building of Lo wab in a state of forwardness; but the most natural interpretation of the text is as in the translation.

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2 to my son, my intelligent prince. The king appeared as if he would not presume to determine the founding and the fixing of our appointment by Heaven, whereupon I followed the 6rVanrf-Guardian, and made a great survey of this eastern region, with a view to found the place where he might become the intelligent sovereign of the people.

3 On the day Yih-maou, in the morning, I came to the city of Lo. I first divined concerning the country about the Le water on the north of the Ho. I then divined concerning the east of the Keen water and the west of the Ch'en water, when the ground near the Lo was

The duke's bowing and putting Ms head to the ground was intended for the king, but performed in the presence of the messenger, who was to carry the report to court. '1 lie duke was now in LO, and the king was probably at Hoou. The duke calls the king his 'son,' expressing his affection for him, and he calls him his 'intelligent prince,' giving him honour.

P. 2. The view taken of the former par. affects the meaning which is given to thisGan-kwo took ^P^^^i 'formerly;' ^ ^

J* -jjjj, 1 Heaven's favouring decree when first it charged our House of Chow to tranquillize and settle the empire;' and ~pj

ti, 'I therefore continued the ways of Wan and Woo to tranquillize the empire.' Keang Shing, again, taking in the same

way, keeps the natural interpretation of fig as

-hr, but by -jjjj he understands king

Wan, 'the first commissioned,' and by ^jj? -qjj, king Woo 'settler or completer of the commission.' In his view of he agrees with

Gan-kwS, and says that the in ^ ■=> =J£, 'to plan.' The advocates of the other interpretation of a understand by -g- -jjjj, 'the laying the foundations of the appoint

ment to the empire,' and by -J^,' the securing permanently that appointment'—results which were both to bo realized be making Lo

the capital of the empire.—Then by <^j£ is intended the duke of Shaou, the ' Grand-guardian'

J|Jj, as in the translation, the j£ having,

as often, the signification of ^Jj. 'to expect,''to aim at.' In this way the par. has a unity and consistency in itself, which we do not find in the other interpretations. I cannot but understand it thus, and doing so I cannot but take

the previous as Ts'ac does.

p- 3- f 31 P^'-** the Book, p. 4. LO is called as being intended to be the capital, where the emperor should reside. See in the diet.—A Jj/j*

0 JjR fijj}. It is needlessly embarrassing the interpretation to make, with Gan-kwo and K-.ng-.hing, #f a- fg- Z

h }W5?yfc~1 lmve becn ^"s'y

inclined to translate this in the past complete tense,—'I had previously divined,' &c. The Le water was a name given to the united stream

of the Wei (ijfjg ^J") and the K'e fpf), on its reaching a place which was afterwards called Lc-yang {^L B), m the north-east of the pres. dis. of Sean <h'P- of Wei-hwuy.

This was not far from the old capital of Show,

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