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11 "Examining the men of antiquity, there was the founder of the Hea dynasty. Heaven guided his mind, allowed his descendants to succeed him, and protected them. He acquainted himself with Heaven, and was obedient.—But in process of time the decree in his favour fell to the ground. So also when we examine the case of Yin. Heaven guided its founder, so that he corrected the errors of Slicing, and it protected his descendants. He also acquainted himself with Heaven, and was obedient.—But now the decree in favour of him has fallen to

12 the ground. Our king has now come to the throne in his j'outh :— let him not slight the aged and experienced, for it may be said of them that they have studied the virtuous conduct of our ancient worthies, and still more, that they have matured their plans in the light of Heaven.

13 "Oh! although the king is young, yet is he the eldest son of Heaven. Let him but effect a great harmony with the people, and

Ying-ta gives for the clause:—it ^jc |!|{ ^

J§, 'the holder of Hea,' we are to understand xu7as the founder of the Hea dynasty. So by

^ is T'an8"meant- it fe-="&

Jl^, ' the ancients.' To the afterwards responds. ^ jjjfc -^r

as in the translation. In the case of T'ang, it was not necessary to take notice of the transmission of the throne to his descendants. The hereditary principle had long been established. 0 C-jjgfl) f§ %

# % 3fc Ji % J!' he looked

up and examined the mind of Heaven, reverently obedient and not opposing it.' The first

-d^- Q^p must be understood as in the transla

tion. 12. MM.U^'-M-fy

imperative. —see Bk. IX., p. 5. The Q

may be taken as in the translation (and it is better taken so), or we may understand it, with

Kcar.g Shing, as-=^g^ 'he—our young

king—ought to say.' On the ^

it is said that they could thus give precedents and authorities in every case they were consulted on, and on the =]j£ Q that

in their advice there would thus be nothing contrary to what was right.

Pp. 18—18. The importance of the king's position, and duties to which he must address himself, especially now on his personally undertaking the that will be the blessing of the present time. Let not the king presume to be remiss in this, but continually regard and stand in awe of the perilousness of the people.

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"Let the king come here as the vicegerent of God, and undertake himself the duties of government in the centre of the land. Tan said, 'Now that this great city has been built, from henceforth he may be the mate of great Heaven; from henceforth he may reverently sacrifice to the upper and lower spirits; from henceforth he may in this central spot administer successful government.' Thus shall the king enjoy the favouring regard of Heaven all complete, and the government of the people will now be prosperous.

responsibilities of the govt. The whole is enforced by a second reference to the previous dynasties.

13. jQ -^jr j^,—see on par. 9. Jit >fc

strongly hortative. g^ = ^tl> 'harmony,'1 to be harmonious.' We had the char, before in 'The Counsels of Yu,' p. 21, where the meaning was different. The 'Daily Explanation' thus

paraphrase- J ifr ^ g| fjfc ft[

Rmznkifrnn Bar

—'let the king not postpone'—what? His effecting a great harmony with the people. And that was to be accomplished by means of 'the virtue of reverence.' Gan-kwd put a comma at Jff. «"d interpreted-^

not leave in the background capable officers, but make employment of them a primary consideration.' This is far-fetched; and so is his

explanation of SH, the erroneousness of which

is pointed out in the diet. The character =

Er, 'precipitous,''perilous.' 14. -jj^

'W 'to continue God.' We often find it said

of emperors, and especially of the founders of

dynasties that they ||| ^ Jjt 'carried

on the work of Heaven, and set up the perfect model.' There underlies such language the view that Heaven delegates its sway to the Powers ordained by it. Compare, for the general sentiment, Bk. I., Pt. i., p. 7; and for the use of

|3, Bk. VII., p. 3. g m^±fy = labour himself in the midst of the land. The 'himself must have reference to the young king, now undertaking the responsibilities of govt. JJ|x"=^^ ^Pi 't0 labour.' LO is said to be 'in the middle of the land' from its central position. It must have been, in the time of Chow, about the central spot of the empire, and was therefore well fitted to be the seat of administration. The commentators speak of it as not only in the middle of the land, but as 'in the centre of heaven and earth,' and they undertake to show how this was determined by means of a dial! See the whole geodesy of the duke of Chow, in the Chow Le, Bk. IX., pp. 26—31.

Lin Clie-k'e takes these two clauses as historical, and considers them to be decisive on the point of the king's being at this time in L8. It seems to me much more natural to read them

in the imperative moot]. JiiJ Q p|j

—the duke of Shaou supports his advice by using the similar language of the duke of Chow, whom he names El , in accordance with the rule that 'ministers should be called by their

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"Let the king first bring under his influence the managers of affairs of Yin, associating them with the managers of affairs of our dynasty of Chow. This will regulate their perverted natures, and they will make daily advancement.

"Let the King make reverence the resting-place of his mind. He may not but maintain the virtue of reverence.

"We should by all means survey the dynasties of Hea and Yin. I do not presume to know and say, 'The dynasty of Hea was to enjoy the favouring decree of Heaven for so many years,' nor do I fan Tvnt o

names in the presence of the emperor.' 'ill f l see on Pt. IV., Bk. V., Pt. iii., p. 3.

j& M T _h «h»p«« _t

JJi$ ^fift m tne 'Announcement of T'ang,' p. 3. On pjT X Wang Ts'eaou says that it

denotes that 'from the centre the king would diffuse his rule throughout the four quarters of

theempire'(g ^1 jffi %'/& j$ ^ Here the words of Tan seem to terminate. at ,—' the completed appointment.' The will of Heaven in favour of the House of Chow would now be put beyond doubt and beyond the risk of being assailed.

Pp. 15, 16. The king would have in the first place to attach to his House the disaffected officers of the previous dynasty; but let him bear in mind that he must always set the example of the virtue of reverence in himself. 15.

M is here a transitive verb. The 'Daily Explanation' defines it by 'to transform.'

■=^, 'to be near to.' ^ = ^fj, 'to

assist,' to co-operate with. This extension of confidence to the officers of Yin would be the way to win their confidence and attachment, and the associating them with the friends of the present dynasty would lead them to change

their views. lit % J£ Ts'ae gives for this—

in the translation. Lin Che-k'e contends that by 'J^ we should not understand the perverted nature, but the yood nature, which was still in the officers of Yin, and had only to be properly

directed. His words are:—'fij'j ^(j,

m%.zm&^vxmzm

Arte BM^t-tfc- Th*dif

fercncc of view is more in words than in reality.

16. After all, the primum mobile of govt, must be the personal character and example of

the king. If^##f~Ilm $k%Mi&Zfft- The Misused like jj-^ in the Alt jj^ of 'The Great Learning.'

Pp. 17, 18. The lessons to be. learned from the two previous dynasties; and the emphasis which they should have now at the commencement of the present dynasty, and of the king's personal entrance on his responsibilities. 17. Compare p. 11.

The and Ft here, however, are

to be extended to all the sovereigns of the two dynasties. Moreover, what was said above had reference more especially to the establishment of those dynasties by the blessing of Heaven; here the subject is their fall, for want of 'the

presume to know and say, 'It could not continue longer.' The fact was simply that, for want of the virtue of reverence, the decree in its favour prematurely fell to the ground. Similarly, I do not presume to know and say, 'The dynasty of Yin was to enjoy the favouring decree of Heaven for so many years,' nor do I presume to say, 'It could not continue longer.' The fact simply was that, for want of the virtue of reverence, the decree in its favour pre

18 maturely fell to the ground. The king has now inherited the decree,—the same decree, I consider, which belonged to those two dynasties. Let him seek to inherit the virtues of their meritorious sovereigns;—especially at this commencement o/his duties.

19 "Oh! it is as on the birth of a son, when all depends on the training of his early life, through which he may secure his wisdom in the future, as if it were decreed to him. Now Heaven may

virtue of reverence' in their rulers. The 'Daily Explanation' says that the first zfjfc is to be understood of the king, and the others of the duke of Shaou himself. It is much better to take the character always in the plural.

"ft, "no is more ,na" "aft' wn>cn n10*'

of the paraphrases give for it. It indicates not only that Rea received the favouring decree of Heaven, but that it was under that decree. The guardian will not venture to say that Heaven had only decreed so many years to its rule.

18. M -jjj^,—the ))it is to be understood of jfc> 'Heaven.' The next clause is in apposition with this,'!"^ bcing^HJ^. Gan-kw6 takes it differently, and explains down to where

he ends the paragraph thus:—, It, looks the a before ^ <|£. ^ 3%,

ffWi'ikd'Zlijtn 3f" l hi" mU8t th8

meaning, but the language is very elliptical

Pp. 19—23. The great issues depending on the king's now, on his assuming the government, taking the right course; and the Guardian's anxiety that hy his virtunus reverence and gentle sway he should by the foundations of permanent prosperity.

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have decreed wisdom to our king; it may have decreed good fortune or bad; it may have decreed a long course of years:—we only know that now is with him the commencement of his duties.

"Dwelling in the new city, let the king now sedulously cultivate the virtue of reverence. When he is all-devoted to this virtue, he may pray to Heaven for a long-abiding decree in his favour.

"In the position of king, let him not, because of the excesses of the people in violation of the laws, presume also to rule by the violent infliction of death. When the people are regulated gently, the merit of government is seen.

must understand not the infancy, but the early
years, when the child becomes the proper subject
of education. Then such a foundation of good-
ness may be laid, that the youth shall 'himself
hand down an appointment of wisdom.' He
shall appear to be, shall really be, wise through
this training, as much as if Heaven had pre-
viously decreed him to be so. -fjjj Jffi 4jp

^^i^l^ After this we
must understand ^ B" J|| M, 'all
these things we cannot know beforehand.'
20. The Guardian evidently supposes that the
king will make the new city which was founded
the Beat of his government. The meaning of
-^•j 'now,' for seems to suit the connection
here better than that of or The it

in E Jifc J^J gives to the second

part of the par. a slightly hortative force. Chin Tih-sew observes upon the sentiment, 'The favour of Heaven is entirely just, and is not to be obtained by praying for it. The text tells the king to pray, because to be all-devoted to the practice of virtue is prayer without praying,

jjjjf 2: jfijf )• Compare with this the words of Confucius about himself, Ana., VIE, xxxiv. 21. From ^ to gj» ^

is one sentence, and a good instance of the long sentences of the Shoo. Gan-kw5 and Keang Shing, indeed, break it up into two, and understand the first part as meaning—' Let not the king go to excess in employing the people, beyond the regular periods when he may call them out in the public service.' By doing so, he would, as Mencius phrases it, rob the people of their time, and take them away from their necessary labours in agriculture (see Mencius, page 11). But the introduction of such a topic seems foreign to the style of the Announcement. It involves, moreover, taking the jj^jf which follow as *=^jTj\ /Jj/J j^jr, which is very harsh. The subject of avoiding punishments in the administration in govt, was a favourite one with king Ching and his ministers. See many passages in Bks. IX., and X. ^ ^ ^J, —' when the people accord there is merit. They must be ruled,' 'in harmony with their feelings, and the true laws of their nature.' Ts'ae observes that the people may be compared to the water of a stream when it is overflowing and spreading abroad ; it is acting contrary to its nature. But if you dam it up, you only make the evil worse. Lead it into its proper course, and you accom

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