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"He says moreover, 'As in the management of a field, when the soil has all been laboriously turned up, they must proceed by orderly arrangement to make its boundaries and water-courses; as in building a house, after all the toil on its walls, they have to plaster and thatch it; as in working with the wood of the tsze, when the toil of the coarser and finer operations has been performed, they have to apply the paint of red and other colours'": .

11. "Now let your Majesty say, 'The former kings diligently employed their illustrious virtue, and produced such attachment by their cherishing of the princes, that from all the States they brought offerings, and with brotherly affection they came from all quarters, and likewise showed their virtue illustrious.' Do you, 0 sovereign,

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characters denotes the rough fashioning of the work, and the second the fine finish given to it

B # & *5 B Sh- #1

is a name given to the various colours used in painting articles of furniture. /^

J^j). Wang Kung-yay observes that

^J-, and JjJH arc all verbs, and that we are to

understand them—, -^J- and

as in the case of pj^fj, 5^ above. It would seem that we should construe so, but it is difficult to determine the independent meaning of ^5. See the ^£ ^» J^,

in ioc.

Ch. 5—8. These four paragraphs are evidently addressed not 10 a subject, but to the sovereign. (ian-kwft takes no notice of the difference in style between them and the preceding ones, and Ying-ta snys expressly that the king goes on in them to complete his charges to Fung. This view now finds no advocates. The speaker was evidently some loyal minister of Chow. Keang Shing thinks that we have here the response of Fung to the various lessons which he had received. Ming-sliing says that, having douc with Fung, the duke of Chow now

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use their statutes to attach the princes, and all the States will largely come with offerings.

6 "Great Heaven having given this Middle kingdom with its people

7 and territories to the former kings, do you, our present sovereign, employ your virtue, effecting a gentle harmony among the deluded people, leading and urging them on;—so aho will you please the former kings, who received the appointment from Heaven.

turns to king Shing, and speaks some words of warning to him. We need not trouble ourselves with speculation on so uncertain and unimportant a matter.

P. 5. How Win and Woo ruled the princes by the influence of their virtue, and future sovereigns must imitate their example. ~F,—these 'former kings' can only be Wan and Woo. What is said of the effects of their sway is much exaggerated. Had it been as the speaker says, there would not have been the troubles which disturbed the reign of king

Cliing. , *^ ^ for this Gan-kwo

gives—tit jj£ ^ j]p 'cherished the distant and made them near.' The meaning seems to be that by their kindly cherishing of the princes of States, Wan and Woo gained them and made them a strength and defence to their

Tt- (i# $t A tit £ fjfo The la8t

of Confucius' 'nine standard rules' for the govt, of the empire,—1 the king's cherishing the princes of the States' JP- is traced to this expression.

^j^,—by Gan-kwfl understood the

princes who were of the imperial House, the uncles and brothers, &c, of the sovereign, in contradistinction from the princes of other surnames. Keang Shing adopts the same view, and extends it to princes related to the imperial House by affinity. It seems to me preferable to take Jfjj J^-J as in the translation, like the

in the quotation from the She King, Mencius, L, Pt. I, B, 3. Jgf at J& j£y=jj£|*. We are to understand by the term

king Ching, as the successor of Wan and Woo.

A- ^, 'to employ.' Another meaning of the term—'to imitate,'—would suit equally well. JflL, 'statutes,' has reference to the ruling by virtue, whose influence has just been described. A, 'to collect,'= to bring around, to attach.

Pp. 6, 7. How the sovereign must attach the people by a mild rule. These parr, are held to be the origin of Confucius' sixth standard rule of government,—'to treat the mass of the people kindly as children' JFfcF 6. The

whole of this is one sentence, and Choo He calls attention to it as an instance of the long sentences of the Shoo. tj} compare pj7

'Tribute of Yu,' Pt. ii., p. 15. 7. It is taken as = -^>-, 'now.' In the pjjsj- ^jj^ there is an ingenious note by Ch'in Leih, contending that its proper meaning in such cases as this, at the commencement of clauses, is 'therefore,' or j^f, 'and,' 'thereupon,' and not-d^.

*n « Tic f£ 36 ft

'the deluded people;' meaning the people of the imperial domain of Yin chiefly, but also of other parts of the empire, who were reluctant to acknowledge the authority of the dynasty of Chow, —'8° before;' —'come after.' The meaning is that Ching should beset the people 'before and behind ' with his virtue and kindness, so leading and urging them on.

WI % I §1 ivt>-this imPlics that

Wan and Woo could take cognizance of the character and doings of their successor.

&m M f % m ^

"Yes! make these things your study. I can but express my desire that for myriads of years your descendants may be ever the protectors of this people."

P. 8. A loyal prayer for the permanency and prosperity of the dynasty. ^ ^ fnl>the |&£ here is different from that in par. 8. Ts'ae conjectures that it was from the occurrence of the characters jj^ ^ in that par. and

this, that the compiler of this Book, not observing the differences of meaning and connection in the two passages, was led to edit the first and last portions as belonging to the same document.

THE BOOKS OF CHOW.

BOOK XII. THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE DUKE OF SHAOU.

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I. In the second month, on the day Yih-we, six days after the full moon, the king early in the morning proceeded from Chow, and

TnB Name Of The Book.—'The Announcement of the duke of Shaou.' Shaou was the name of a place within the imperial domain, corresponding to the present district of

Hwan-k'euh jjjj), in the small dep. of

Keang (jj*^ ), Slian-se. It was the appanage

of Shih (ffe)> one of the "best of the men who lent their aid to the establishment of the dynasty of Chow. He appears here as the 'Greatguardian' 0^^?) of king Ching; and we have met with him before in 'The Hounds of Leu,' and 'The Metal-bound CofTer.' He was one of

• the three dukes,' (— ^^)> or highest officers

of the dynasty, and is frequently styled a ^V,

the 'duke of Shaou.' He appears here in connection with one of the most important enterprizes of the duke of Chow, the building of the

city of Ldh as a new and central

capital of the empire. King Woo had conceived the idea of such a city, but it was not carried fully into effect till the reign of his son;—see on the second paragraph below. In Lob the duke of Shaou composed the 'Announcement' which forms the subject-matter of this Book, and sent it by the hands of the duke of Chow to the young emperor. It might, perhaps, with more than equal propriety, have been styled

'The Instructions of the duke of Shaou' (.Z2

fib

According to Sze-ma Ts'een, Shih belonged to the imperial House of Chow, and consequently had the surname Ke (^J§). The historian, Hwang-p'oo Meih, says he was a son of king Win by a concubine jJ-J \ff

—on what authority I cannot tell. King Woo appointed him to the principality of'The Northern Yen' (^j(i^^)> corresponding to the pres. dep. of Shnn-t'een (j|[f| Chih-le, which

was held by his descendants fully nine hundred years. He remained himself, however, at the imperial court. We find him often styled the

'Chief of Shaou' <f£j); and Ts'een says

that all the country west of Shen was under him, as all east of it was under the duke of Chow. See the j£ is, H "+* N air

V* tit tit M tit" Hugthun,ou*

title was K'ang (J^), and hence he is sometimes referred to as a Jfjjj£ fjjjf. As to

the date of the Announcement, see on par. 1. It is found in both texts.

Contests. The first seven paragraphs are introductory to the body of the Book, which is composed of the Announcement of Shih. They contain various information about the surveying and planning and building of Loh. We may consider them as forming a first or preliminary chapter. Parr. 8—22, contain the Announce

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came to Fung. Thence the Grand-guardian went before the duke of Chow to inspect the localities, and in the third month, on the day Mow-shin, the third day after the first appearance of the new moon on Ping-woo, came in the morning to Lo. He consulted the tortoise about the localities, and having obtained favourable indications, he

ment, which, however, commences properly with par. 9. The 'Complete Digest' says it may be divided into three parts. In the first, parr. 9 —12, Shih sets forth the uncertainty of the favour of Heaven, and urges the young king to cultivate 'the virtue of reverence' in order to secure its permanence, concluding with a recommendation to him not to neglect his aged and experienced advisers. The second, parr. 13—18, speaks of the importance and difficulty of the imperial duties, and enforces the same virtue of reverence by reference to the rise and fall of the previous dynasties. In the last part, parr. 19—23, Shih insists on the importance of the king, at this early period of his reign, and on his personal undertaking of the duties of govt., at once setting about the reverence which was required to attach the people to himself and his House, and insure the lasting favour of Heaven. In the last par. the duke of Shaou gives expression to his personal feelings for the king, in the peculiar situation in which he was placed at Ld. The burden of the announcement all turns on ' the virtue of reverence.' Let the king only feel how much depends on his | reverently attending to his duties, and govern for the people and not for himself:—let him do this, and all will be well. The people will love and support the dynasty of Chow, and Heaven will smile upon and sustain it.

Ch. I. Pp. 1—7. Proceedings Op The

KINO, THE DUKE OF SHADOW, AND THE DUKE OF CHOW, IN CONNECTION WITH THE BUILDING OF

cording to this statement, the day Yih-we must have been the 21st of the second month, and, as Gaubil observes, we may, from the data here supplied, determine the year to which the Announcement of Shaou should be referred. It

was, he says correctly, the year B.C. 1,098. 7 t

Me being the 21st day of the second month,

71 3^* must have been the 1st, and the 1st day of that year of Chow must have been Pingwoo (pj -^p)> the 43d day of the cycle. But that was the day of the new moon preceding the winter solstice, from which under this dynasty they calculated the year, in B.C. 1.098, or 1,097 (not reckoning A.d.). This result is not accordant with the current chronology ot king Ching's reign, nor with the date assigned to it from the

'Bamboo Books.' The building of Lo is assigned to his 7th year, which was, on the received system, B.C. 1,109 (or 1,108), and acc. to the Bamboo Books B.C. 1038. It is enough to call attention to this point here, without going into further discussion about it. Ch'ing

K'ang-shiug proposed to change '. Jf^ into , in which case the year would have be

gun with c, the 11th cycle day; and he

assigned the building of Lo, after Fuh-shang, to Ching's 5th year instead of the 7th. Even if we were to follow him in these points, we should be equally unable to reconcile the note of time given in the text with the arrangements of the

chronologers. jj£ -j^f ^? —comp.

Bk. M., p. 1. The temple of king Win was in Fung, and we may suppose had been left standing when Woo transferred the capital to Hnou. Now when such an important thing as the establishing of a new capital, which should rank with Haou, if it did not supersede it, was in progress, it was proper that the king should solemnly announce it in the temples of his father and grandfather. That he might do so to the spirit of king Wan, he went from Chow or Haou to Fung. 2. To Shih the Grand-guardian, and to the duke of Chow, was assigned the duty of making all the arrangements for carrying out the plans of king Woo about establishing a new capital at L5. In fact, Woo had himself taken some measures towards the accomplishment of his views. We

are told in the under the year B.c 708.

(jjg *. that 'he removed the nine

tripods or vases to the city of Lo' E

Ni, M % JO, r# Th08e TMse» might be considered a sort of regalia of the empire. Originally cast by Yu, they had passed from the Hea dynasty to Shang, and were now the property of the House of Chow. See a detailed account of them in their ft, under the year

B.c. 605 ( jig ^ Sze-ma Ts'een

also gives, in his ' Records of the Chow dynasty,' and probably from some of the lost Books of the Shoo, a conversation between the duke of Chow and Woo, in which the latter says, 'On the south I look to San-t'oo [there is still the mountain of San-t'oo, to the south-west of the district

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