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15 'As to the ministers and officers of Yin, who have been led to it, and been addicted to drink, it is not necessary to put them to death;

16 —let them be taught for a time. If they keep these kssom, I will give them bright distinction. If you disregard my lessons, then I, the one man, will show you no pity. As you cannot cleanse your way, you shall be classed with those who are to be put to death.'"

17 "The king says, '0 Fung, give constant heed to my admonitions. If you do not manage right your officers, the people will continue lost in drink.'"

force of the language. First, the coming together in companies to drink is supposed to carry with it the design of their assembling, as being not merely to drink, but, under the cloak of that, to plot against the govt. Second, the

_M. in H ^£ >3 taken to indicate uncertainty. The king would examine for himself into their guilt, and according as he found they had treasonable designs would put them to death. If they really only met to drink, he would inflict on them some lighter penalty. I have allowed the second remark by using the 'may' in the translation. The former remark may also be correct. If it be not so, we cannot account for the diiference of spirit between this

and the two next paragraphs. 15.

Mi Keang s,,ii,g '"y tliat tf£in

T '8 superfluous. We hardly know what to do with it. 1G. ^J^BJ^^ = ]^

Z "''

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in the translation. This is forcing a meaning out of the words. The most that can be said for it is, that it is more likely than any other construction which has been proposed. K'angsliing took Jj^ as=^^, which Keang Sliing

adopts. He has :-^ # ^ ^ ffl

^m^mz^^mm^

j^, —jrT "XT'—the king here turns to the officers of Yin who should persist obstinately in their drunkenness and other evil ways, and addresses them directly. ^Jj J*j ,

-*&mikm&ztf'- m

P. 17. Concluding admonition to Funp. Jfjj

= it is not imperative. fp^='/p> '10 rule.' Fung was specially to direct his efforts to discountenance drunkenness in the officers,— the higher classes. If he could not succeed with them, his efforts with the lower classes would be vain.

THE BOOKS OF CHOW.

BOOK XI. THE TIMBER OF THE TSZE TREE.

I. "The king says, '0 Fung, to have a good understanding with the multitudes of his people, and his ministers on the one hand, and with the great families on the other; and again to have the same with all the subjects under his charge and with the sovereign :—is the part of the prince of a State.

The Name Of The Book jfcjr, 'The

Timber of the Tsze tree.' Though it does not affect our understanding of the Book, I am sorry that I cannot give the proper botanical name of the Tsze. It is described as allied to the Ts'ew (ht), which has -the leaves of a cypress and the trunk of a fir' (>j>^ ti,

Jt}'). It was esteemed as the most valuable for

making articles of furniture, and for the carver's art. The phrase,—1 the timber, or materials, of the Tsze,' occurs in par. 4, and was thence assumed to designate the Book, intimating apparently that the administrator of government ought to give himself to his duties skilfully and thoroughly, as the cabinet-maker deals with his materials. The cultivation of a field and the building of a house are spoken of in the same paragraph; and either of these things might have been used as the name instead of the phrase which it pleased the fancy of the compiler to adopt. The Book is found in both the texts.

Contents. The Book is sadly wanting in unity. The 1st par. is directly addressed to Fung, and we may suppose that the three which follow were so also, He is admonished of his duty to promote a good understanding between the various classes in his State, and between them all and the sovereign; and that, in order to this, his rule must be gentle, eschewing the use

of punishments. The interpretation, however, is anything but certain. The remainingparagraphs arcpf a difft. character. They are not the charges of the emperor, insisting with a prince upon his duties, but the admonitions of a minister loyally and affectionately cautioning his sovereign, and praying for the prosperity of his reign. They would be appropriate as addressed to king Ching by the duke of Chow, or the duke of Shaou. We might also suppose them the response of Fung; but the text gives no intimation of a new speaker being introduced. The whole Book is very unsatisfactory, and it is a trans,lator's greatest comfort that it is short.

Ch. £ Pp. 1—I. How the prince of a State is a connecting link between all the classes of his people, and between his people and the emperor.

at = j^, 'to reach to,' 'to effect an

intercommunication.' By A we are to understand what Mencius, IV., Bk. I., vi., calls jEJ |g, 'the great Houses,' saying that 'the administration of govt, is not difficult, but lies in not offending the great Families, for whom they affect will be affected by all the State.' It is observed in the 'Complete Digest,' that the force of the is to show how the conduct of

the ruler draws forth the approval of all parties, so that there is an uninterrupted flow of their good feeling towards him, and we are not to take it as intimating that the ruler brings the higher and lower classes into intimacy and good

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1 If you regularly in giving out your orders say, "My instructors whom I am to follow, my minister of Instruction, my minister of War, and my minister of Works; my Heads of departments, and all ye, my officers, I will on no account with oppressions put men to

death;" . Let the prince also set the example of respecting

and encouraging the people, and these will proceed to respect and encourage them. Let him go on in dealing with those who have been traitors and villains, murderers and harbourers of criminals,

feeling with one another'^51 ^*

|jpj). The first gig is descriptive of the ministers and officers of the State, and those not filling the highest offices, which would for the most part be occupied by the Heads or scions

of the great families. The second jjjjfa jjjf is

descriptive of all the people of the State, the official classes and the unofficial, as being equally

the subjects of the sovereign (3E^ or ^P61"011Such is the view of the par. that appears to be given by Ts'ae. Lin Che-k'e took the same,

only understanding the jj| of bringing the

various classes mentioned into good and harmonious relation with one another. Gan-kwo's

view was different. He paraphrases:—=f ^g*

a j^jf jfjj". Of this I can make little or nothing. Ch'ing K'ang-shing had still another view which deserves to be noticed only for its singularity. He seems to have read the last clause- M £ j§ £ g #; and then by T he understood ^ r|^, 'the descendants of the emperors of the two previous dynasties;' and by the princes of the

various States within Fung's jurisdiction, as

Adopting this strange view, Keang Shing says-j# £ ^ ^ A ^' M

mtTzmwumzm %^ mmn^zn.:

F. 2. The prince of a State must inculcate on his ministers, and exemplify himself, leniency in dealing with criminals. Tips, honestly acknowledges that the most of this par. is unintelligible to him, and he does not attempt any paraphrase of it. In the translation, I have followed the 'Daily Explanation.' The meaning given is more likely than any other which it has l>een attempted to put upon the text;—this is the

most that can be said for it. ^j- ^5

—All is taken in the sense of J"/£ or ly^- 'to give forth orders.' This meaning of the term is given in the Diet, ("ijjjj). aU(l supported by examples from the jjr^j =jE-.

Mi Brfi -ffi Sifj # Z m> 'instruct

ors whom I am to make my model:'—comp. the same phrase in Ft. IV., Bk. XI., p. 2; et aL The three ministers immediately mentioned are the instructors intended. = J£ 'j^J 'the Heads of the various official departments;' and that is,

'the whole body of officers.' The Q which follows is superfluous, and the sentence is left incomplete. The 'Daily Explanation' supplements it by—'and you all ought to cherish the same regard for the lives of the people' (fj^ Jjjj^ J^

Wfl^# The older in

terpreters, followed by Keang Shing and many others, connect $f ^ ^ j$ 0 ft ^ ^f[j w'tn tbc Prec- Par-' <^T'n8 suhstantially this meaning,—' Do you accord (^Jj ~ with this regular rule for your duty, and

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to exercise pardon, and these, when they observe the prince's conduct, will likewise pardon those who have assaulted others 3 and injured their property. When sovereigns appointed inspectors, they did so in order to the government of the people, and said to them, "Do not give way to violence or oppression ; and go on to show reverence for the weak, and find connexions for destitute women. Your protection of the people must proceed in this way to cherish

(jM^^p then say to yourself, "I have this law which I am to observe."' Then commences with them a new par., and 'it) &c,

form the subject of the second Q. On this

construction the two Q are accounted for; but

to Puj f |^ |S§ Ain the moutl,s of

all the officers is inadmissible. sjy* gt ^

the 3d tone, is taken in the sense of 'to comfort,' 'to encourage.' The 'respecting' the people (we must nnderstand ^0(1 or ft ^jj^

under the govt, of ^j^) 's t0 be taken with reference to the ruler's eschewing the use of punishments rather than run the risk of putting any to death unjustly, 'with oppressions'

It—M''tl,en'' * there»p"n- is.=£k

'to go.' The subject of this verb is the ministers and officers above. Gan-kwS supposes the

to be the subject of as well as of the

previous verbs:—' It is also the way of a ruler to take the initiative in respecting and encouraging the people; do you therefore, in going to rule this people, be careful to respect and encourage them.' Hang Shing takes as =

'to assist,' and connects the clause with the preceding, thus:—'The ministers will say, "We will be cautious with you of putting men to death unjustly." Then they will help their prince to reverence and encourage the people as the thing of greatest importance.'

Bit ft M. tbe first of thcse

clauses—^fc, -7-- —is descriptive of the ruler; and the second—qt; ^j^, -jyy ~jrTi—of his ministers. The former of the two

is in the way, indeed, of this construction.

The character introducing, immediately above, the subject of the ministers as distinguished from the ruler, and doing the same here in the

second instance, we might have expected

ifj* instead of ft. This is a serious difficulty ; but the view upon the whole harmonizes with the general scope of the paragraph, and

enables us to explain the 3^f\ til, j^" to which both Gan-kwO and Keang Shing do great violence. |ft|^|Al

%m %Z^- Ts'ae explains^

A by § % l $f <tnoge through whom offenders have passed,' meaning individuals who have connived at crime, and more or less aided

and abetted it. ^Jj^ are individuals

guilty of lighter offences than those mentioned above, whose cases should be summarily dealt with by his ministers and officers, without their being appealed to the ruler himself. We cannot suppose that this charge to Fung to pardr n offenders—even murderers, was to be taken without qualification. He could only be required to note and act upon all mitigating circumstances in his punishment of crime.

P. 3. The object of the emperors in delegating authority to princes and officers is the kindly and

benevolent rule of the people. T J§&.|n£>—'

Ts'ae say that has reference, to the 'three Inspectors' appointed by king Woo to oversee Wooking in his govt., and that the same title is given to Fung, as being appointed to a portion of the

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them." And when the sovereigns gave their injunctions to the princes of States, and their managers of affairs, Avhat was the charge? It was that they should lead the people to the enjoyment of plenty and peace. Such was the way of the kings from of old. An inspector is to eschew the use of punishments.'

game territory. It is very strange that he did not perceive that this view was inconsistent with his other view, that the speaker in this and the two preceding Hooks was king Woo and not the duke of Chow. Woo could not have spoken thus of what he had done himself. It is better,

however, to take as a general title, applicable to all princes—the <0||,'f|?J,-^ and 3*.—Such a use of it is found in the Chow Le, Bk. II., p. 94 ( ^ U -j£ ^\-Tj Jj£

y£. Thewhole^/A^^l^^

0.ilE^^^^,-wemust understand all this a3 the imperial charge to the princes invested with inspection and rule. The indeed, occasions some dif

ficulty, which is best got over by understanding it of those princes and their ministers and people. This is the solution adopted by Lin Chek'e from Wang Gan-shih ^ |j| ^ gf

kwo took the subject of Q to be the 'inspectors.'—Appointed for such a purpose, they ought to teach their people saying, 'Do not among yourselves,' &c. This is plainly inadmissible.

Jtj£,—'respect the few,' those who have few to help them. (cJixih)

fix §§< rfn tfftMg Z< 'in tlie case of w°

men reduced to straits and solitary, you ought to bring it about that they shall have those to whom they may turn, and find connexions for them.' This is forcing a meaning out of the H^; but I do not see what better can be done while the text stands as it does. We must interpret one clause by the analogy of another, and 5jjr being a verb in J|£, must be one here. The diet., with reference to this

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