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their royal virtues, and revered their chief ministers, so that their managers of affairs respectfully discharged their helping duties, and dared not to allow themselves in idleness and pleasure;—how much 10 less would they dare to indulge in drinking! Moreover, in the exterior domains, the princes of the States of the How, Teen, Nan and Wei, with their chiefs; and in the interior domain, all the various officers, the directors of the several departments, the inferior officers and employes, and the Heads of great Houses, with the men of honoured name living in retirement, all eschewed indulgence in spirits. Not only did they not dare to indulge in them, but they had not leisure, being occupied with helping to complete their king's virtue and make it more distinguished, and helping the directors of affairs reverently to attend to the service of the sovereign.

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of the tyrant Show, himself the 27th emperor of the dynasty. We may admit with Menchis, II., Pt. I., i., 8, that between T'ang and Wooting, the 20th of the line, there were six or seven good sovereigns;—the statement in the text is

a grand exaggeration. jfe ^£ -j^ jffi =

jjffc ^ 'in their helping had reverence.' The is best understood

by reference to Mcncius, IV., i. 13,—|^

"jpjj, 'to value,' = ' to indulge in.' 10.

if M< ft J$'-by the ft JHwe nre to

understand, of course, the or 'imperial

domain.' It would appear that an arrangement of the 'domains,' akin to that which obtained under the Chow dynasty, had come, during the dynasty of Yin to supersede the older one introduced by Yu ;—seethe figure on page 14!>. By "isfj, we arc to understand

the princes of those domains; and by
the presidents of those princes (

J^,—'all the officers belonging to the various
departments.' ftf ^-flfc |f £ ^§
what are elsewhere called the |J- 'the Heads
of the various departments.' tjjf,—

Ijjt = ^£ ^, 'officers of the second ^ree.' f£ = ft £ JR

2|J. 'petty officers who had to run

about discharging tlieir duties.' \

'gp, 'honoured officers.' Woo Ch'ing decribes them ^^^^^^^,^t

This is probably correct, and I have translated —' Heads of great Houses.' I take Q

f|j together, and understand ^jjj ^ by

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'I have heard it said likewise, that in these times the last successor of those kings was addicted to drink, so that no charges came from him brightly before the people, and he was reverently and unchangingly bent on doing and cherishing what provoked resentment. Greatly abandoned to extraordinary lewdness and dissipation, for pleasure's sake he ruined all his majesty. The people were all sorely grieved and wounded in heart, but he gave himself wildly up to spirits, not thinking of ceasing, but continuing his excess, till his mind was frenzied, and he had no fear of death. His crimes accumulated in the city of Shang, and though the extinction of the dynasty

"gf Officers of distinguished name, whohad I ^ T; ^ jfc lj£ ffi a ^

retired because of age from the public service, | At. fcu* -fr +K a, Am. -V Sr ~y A

areintended. |fjt J* T ffi~»fl g' Jf * <- *|,^ »

.t~"L'1*' Jl 4k us 1 Woo Ch'ing construes difftly, but it

$C /V ^4 ^ © ffij Ififc ifiS' seems to me with more constraint of the text:

The jjfj extends also to the next clause, so that — Q <gft ^ 2: {jj ,$f£ ^ ^

#fA-^3fc# h£fcIRffib2*R ft ^ ^ ^

w [jfjj yfi Other explanations of I A, 'When he issued his commands, he showed

been proposed, but it does not

this clause har
seem worth while to discuss them.

above.

ft

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ft * f - H 'If 51 Bi fl£

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of Yin ?#as imminent, this gave him no concern, and he wrought not that any sacrifices of fragrant virtue might ascend to heaven. The rank odour of the people's resentments, and the drunkenness of his herds of creatures, went, loudly up on high, so that Heaven sent down ruin on Yin and showed no love for Yin,—because of such excesses. There is not any cruel oppression of Heaven; people themselves accelerate their guilt, and its punishment."'

"The king says, '0 Fung, I have no pleasure in making you this long announcement ; but the ancients have said, "Let not men look only into water; let them look into the glass of other people."

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difficulty have been tried. In the translation, I take as = 'men,' ' people' generally.

12. Hour the House of Chow should see its duty in the history of Yin. The meaning of

H k? lit j§> ffris probal,,y whnt

appears in the translation. Ts'ae and Keang Suing bring it out by taking 'vainly,'

i.e., merely for the sake of talking. The 'Daily Explanation' puts it-^- ^ ^ ^

* A ^ W'2T 2T.

—in illustration of this saying, Hang Shing quotes, aptly enough, a fragment of the lost Book of Shang which was called 'The Punitive Ex| peditions of T'ang' $£)--^r 0. A

Is to be understood interrogatively. Gau-kwa
took ^|£ = |jl^ ^r-, in which he is correctly
followed by Ts'ae, whose expansion of the whole
is very lucidIt A" Ti j# jgg lit

[J^p 9. This is much better than, with Keang
Shing, to take ife = all, ' to follow,' 'to accord

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o A- ffo^

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Now that Yin has lost its appointment, ought we not to look much to it as our glass, and learn how to secure the repose of our time?

'I say to you,—Strenuously warn the worthy ministers of Yin, and the princes in the How, the Teen, the Nan, and Wei domains; and still more, your friends, the great Recorder and the Recorder of the interior, and all your worthy ministers, the Heads of great Houses; and still more, those whom you serve—with whom you calmly converse, and who carry out your measures; and still more, those

with,'and fj^p •= referring to the good ways Those six constitutions were the

of the sovereigns of Yin before Show. His , various departments of the administration,—of words are:— ifk tt* of ~X\ ~P-Ht I rule' olinstructioni of ceremonies, of prescripts, '"v-v , j i jirf ^j' I ol punishments, and of business; the regula

jffi. -^J- Sp.t gt, |S4 Jj^J- tions and statutes embraced all connected with

P. 13. Fung is required to take home to himself the lessons about temperance, and to enjoin them on

the princes and officers in his jurisdiction. -f^"

wi s % m-$i-m %

,,U8,y-' )J0CE-^E These were

good ministers of the former dynasty, who were still retained in their former offices under Fung.

As -jjfc or ' Head of the princes,' his authority extended also over the princes of the portions of the domains that were under his jurisdiction. He should strenuously warn them,—on the subject, of course, of abstaining from internperance. f: A fa j£ £.-the

duties of the ^ t£l and jjj A, with other officers of the same department, are described in the Chow Le, Bk. XXVI., ^ ^ f £|,

tit —E -j—. They were very honourable and extensive, and such as brought them into frequent contact and consultation with the A Sp? or prime minister ('grand administrateur general.' Biot). It is said in general that the ^£ had the management of what Biot

calls ' the six constitutions the eight

regulations (it ), and the eight statutes

the working of those departments. The j^J ^[J again had the management of 1 the eight powers or prerogatives' of the emperor ('jjjf n ^ ct These duties branched off

into a great variety of minor functions. The A

kept all the records which were to be appealed to in connection with them, so that we may consider them as having been confidential secretaries and advisers of the prime minister. Biot

calls the 'le grand annaliste,' and

A, Tannaliste de l'intericur.' I prefer to

call them 'recorders,' as being a more general term. The various princes had their 'grand Recorder,' but the 'Recorder of the interior' belonged, it is maintained, only to the imperial court; and the individual mentioned in the text is supposed, therefore, to have been the old minister of the court of Shang, now superseded under the new dynasty and living in Wei. However this may be, it is said that the two Recorders were ' friends' of Fung. As men of research and ability and general good character, he would so cherish them.

suppose these, in distinction from the J^|^ IE above, to be those appointed under the existing dynasty. Or, acc. to the view of Woo Ch'ing, we may suppose that they were good men, Heads of influential families, who were not in office, and are called , in the same way as =f II * fHB.iSk X X » *

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who are, as it were, your mates,—your minister of War, who deals with the rebellious, your minister of Agriculture, who is like a protector to the j)eople, and your minister of Works, who settles the boundaries; and above all, do you sternly keep yourself from drink.

'If you are told that there are companies who drink together, do not fail to apprehend them all, and send them here to Chow, where 1 may put them to death.

every individual in the empire is supposed to be a of the sovereign. ^

JjjJ ^j^,—the translation here follows the view of Ts'ae. He supports his explanation of jS by 'to serve,' from the passage of Mencius, V., Pt. II., vii., 4, where Tsze-sze is introduced M saying, £ A ~M Jf B' 4*

eients have said, "The scholar (or virtuous officer) should be served;"—how should they have merely said, "He should be wade a friend of ?"' This view of ^p. being adopted,

& ffi M <1 & 'ministers who sit (by their prince) and discourse to him about principles,' and 7^ = ;i|E fff) \\Z. |£' <mm'8ters w'10 r'se an<l Perform the business (of their prince).' jjjj is 'to

serve in hours of ease;' J||[ 'to serve in active business." I have hesitated between this view, and that given by Woo Ch'ing:— pjQ

who serve you,—your great officers;' jjjj

""^t H»l ffi ^ti> 'thoBe wl,"9e offlces

were comparatively easv, and allowed of leisure;'

offices were more bustling and troublesome.' Gan-kw5 took a difft. view which is quite inadmissible. He says:—i|p Jjjjj

^ M.' JJ* * /« mnkinS FunP himself, in the discharge of his duties, the subject. This cannot be right. K'ang-shing had still another view, in which he is followed by Keang Siting, acc. to which the whole = ' the employe's, —those who are near to you iu festivals and

leisure, and those who are near at audiences and sacrifices' (ft £ ^, |$ J$ J- fa

Ms Tllis diversit* of

opinion serves to show how uncertain the meaning is. j^fp 'the controller of boundaries,^ fjj (tj^, 'the minister of War.' This

meaning is determined by the 1st ode in the 4th Book of the She King, Part ii., where it is

said-,nfr (-itf) 20 -f -1 £ /ft ^

This being determined, it follows that —. jj] 'the minister of Instruction ;' and ^X^"= jr^ "ie m'msttT °f Works.' These were the 1 three high nobles' ( —" fjfy), belonging to the court of one of the princes. They were the highest in authority, and might be considered as their prince's 'mates' (J8|f^

gC). jf|(rcad,»8»)«.j£.

ME Jh "drT T,ie mi,lister of In

structiou is called ^/^, 'the harmonious

preserver.' The promotion of agriculture, which supplies the staff of life, being within his province, he is thus denominated. The minister

of Works is culled yjj? JjJ^,' the settler of rules,' i.e., the decider of all questions about the settlements and tenements of the people. Keang Siting would take J[J?ji in the sense of ^J", which

docs not seem at all applicable here. |>jj|J

Pp. 14—16. By what rules obedience to the king's injunctions against the use of spirits were to

be enforced. 14 .fft >f]\ ffi--ffi=*!fc> 'to fail.' The punishment here threatened is so far beyond the crime, that the critics fall upon various devices to explain it, or to mitigate the

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