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are its justice manifested in the punishment of men's guilt. Men first wrest spirits from tlieir proper use to feed tlieir own lusts, and there is a natural issue of evil consequences. Then Heaven, seeing men obstinate in their wicked course, righteously accelerates their overthrow

and ruia. Ts'ae sayB:—yjSj jjj^ -jj^,

ffc'fkTtf ^ M- Ts'ae'il wiU seen'

takes ^J^^^as simply =^l^. So, Gnn-kwo and

others. This avoids the necessity of supposing any special references to events in the history

of the House of Chow; but the is spe

cial. We cannot take it here otherwise than in the prec. par. The translation I have given involves such references, tho' we cannot say what events they were which the speaker had in his mind. Indeed, we might translate in the future ten6e, instead of the present complete as I have done j and in the last portion of the par.,

/J> -jg -yj-,—the speaker passes from his own people to speak of the subject with relation to all States great and small.

fj< VpJ -t^,—'intemperance is tlieir conduct, intemperance is their guilt,'

[Choo He gives a view of the meaning of

1^ In?and 5^ P^r in which 1 am not

able to concur, but it is worthy to be preserved, and made current beyond the sphere of China.

He says:—' Nan-heen ijj^ tjTj-; a critic of

the Sung dynasty, contemporary with Choo He), in his treatise upon this Book, has brought out

the meaning of the two phrases J^r -jj^j,

55 f^t* muc'1 better l^an any °* l'lc eritics in the many centuries before him ; and here I transcribe the whole of his remarks:—'-Strong drink is a tiling intended to be used in offering sacrifices and in entertaining guests:—such employment of it is what Heaven has prescribed. But men by their abuse of such drink come to lose their virtue and destroy their persons:— such employment of it is what Heaven has annexed its terrors to. The Buddhists, hating the use of things where Heaven sends down its terrors, put away as well the use of them which Heaven has prescribed. It is not so with us of the Learned (!>., the Orthodox) school:—we only put away the use of things to which Heaven has annexed its terrors, and the use of them of which it approves remains as n matter of course.

'"For instance, in the use of meats and drinks, there is such a tiling as wildly abusing and destroying the creatures of Heaven. The Buddhists, disliking this, confine themselves to a vegetable diet, while we only abjure the w ild abuse and destruction. In the use of clothes, again, there is such a thing as w astef ul extravagance. The Buddhists, disliking this, will have no clothes but those of a dark and sad colour, w hile we only condemn the extravagance. They, further, through dislike of criminal connection between the sexes, would abolish the relation between husband and wife, w-hile we only denounce the criminal connection.

"The Buddhists, disliking the exee^es to uhwh the mitt desires of men tmd, would put away, along with them, the actions which are in accordance with the justice pf Heavenly principles, while we, the orthodox, put away Q»eml desires of men, and what arc called Heavenly principles arc the wort brightly seen Suppose the case of a stream of water.—The Buddhists, through dislike of its being foul with mud, proceed to dam it up with earth. They do not consider that when the earth has dammed up the stream, the supply of water will all be cut off. It is not so with us, the orthodox. We seek only to cleanse away the mud and sand, so that the pure clear water may be available for use. This is the difference between

the Buddhists and the Learned school."'

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Apart from the interpretation of the disputed phrases in the text, the contrast here drawn between Buddhism and Chinese orthodoxy is interesting. It will, perhaps, suggest to the reader the words of the apostle Paul, about 'forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving.' It may remind him also of the controversies in the West about the subjects of vegetarianism, and total abstinence from all spirituous, liquors.]

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'King Wan admonished and instructed the young and all who were charged with office and in employment, that they should not ordinarily use spirits. Throughout all his States, he required that they should be drunk only on occasion of sacrifices, and then that virtue should preside so that there might be no drunkenness. He said, "Let my people teach their young men that they are to love only the productions of the ground, for so will their hearts be good. Let the youth also hearken diligently to the constant lessons of their fathers. Let them look at virtuous actions whether great or small in the same light."

If IE, therefore, with Tate, as = P^ ^

they should not be always (ordinarily) at wine.' JkfejffL-Kfttelk )\l\L Z. 0$' 'tne'r drinking should only be at times of sacrificing: Compare ^jfjJ ^£

in par. 2. The text is a relaxation or extension of the rule in regard to the use of spirits, which would flow from the former state

meat. $&J$ $EgM#»here-||f' 'to regulate,' 'to keep in order.' We do not find this meaning of the character in the dictionary. 6. 'j^ |—f,—we must suppose A

as the subject of Q. Some think differently.

Woo Ch'ing, for instance, says that here king
Woo delivers to K'»ng-shuh the words which
he should go and announce to the people of
Mei, = ' When you now proceed to your State,

you ought to say,' &c. (-^ ffy 2: 'j'ff:
*j=^ =j, Q )- But this is inadmissible, jfjf
■=■ g, 'to instruct and lead,' 'to train.'

Wi AS - #•' K°°d-' 1Vae

says:—'When they toil at their sowing and reaping, and labour on their fields, desiring nothing beyond, then what they keep in their minds will be correct, and their goodness will grow from day to day.'

Willi's idea was that if the young were trained to industrious habits, they would not be likely

Pp. 4, 5. Further instructions of king Bro on the use of spirits, showing his anxiety especially that the young should he kept from the habit of drinking them, and trained to virtuous industry. In par. 2 we have the opinion of Willi that spirits were intended to be used only at sacrifices, their strong and fragrant odour being acceptable to

the spirits worshipped g

iSi;—see the Q in loc); here it would appear that he also permitted the use of them by the worshippers after the sacrifices, only re quiring that they should not go to excess.

Ap- ^ TO, is the appellation

of young people.' Ts'ae observes that inch are more readily swayed by impulses and led away by strong drink, and therefore king Wan addressed himself specially to them. But does this paragraph speak of the young only? Keang Shing thinks so, and explains | p J|J.

as descriptive of yj> -e :—'the young who have their superiors and their duties.' His language is:— j£, R fy, /J\ -j^

m&\% ±'M)i*.ftuT£^

^jj^" It would simplify this par, if we

could consider it all occupied with the duty of the young, but Shing's explanation of xj=J" JC,

xf^j lp£ is too forced, and contrary moreover to the analogy of other passages in the Book ;— see particularly j£ in par. 7. I must take

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£ Jejs # # * % m m #

Ht JBBE o ii ^ Ji « S ± 01 JK Jfl

'I7*? people of the land of Mei, if you can employ your limbs, largely cultivating your millet, and hastening about in the service of your fathers and elders; and if with your carts and oxen you traffic to a distance, that you may thereby filially minister to your parents:—then, when your parents are happy, you may set forth your spirits clear and strong, and use them.

'Hearken constantly to my instructions, all ye high officers, ye assistants, and all ye noble chiefs:—when you have largely done

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to fall a prey to intemperance. The fact sung
by our children in the words,

'Satan finds some mischief still
For idle hands to do,'

was held in substance by him. Ij|§J JJr^

= 1 to give a ready ear to.' A

—jits w "tfef 'Lct t,icm not ioo,c on

watchfulness in the use of spirits as a small virtue. The young should look in the same way on what are called great virtues and small virtues, equally observing them.' Gan-kwO takes the clause difl'tly, but not so well. Keang Siting takes it as declarative that the young of king Wall's States became equally observant of great virtues and small;—but neither can I agree with him.

Pp. 6, 7. The duke of Chow, in the name of kiny Chini/, addresses the people and officers of Met directly, and warns them against using spirits ex ceptiny in certain specified cases. P. (i is addressed to the people. They might drink spirits after having toiled for their parents and done all their duty for them. Both this par. and the next must be taken as addressed directly by the speaker to the people of Mei. Woo Ch'ing and others try to put them into the mouth of Fung,

following the Q of the last par.; but such

a construction is forced on the text.

g? M, —'colll,ect your arms and legs ;' i.e., employ your limbs, one after the other; let none of them be idle.

= "^C; H=' leLr^y> or diligently,

cultivate.' and ^| are two species of millet, put by synecdoche for 'the five kinds of grain;'—intimating perhaps that millet was cultivated more than the others in Mei.

gent,' ' urgent.' JJj£ = i|J ; JJJJ ^ = 'doing

the business of traffic' The whole = ' if you are diligent in leading about your carts and oxen, pursuing to a distance the business of

traffic Jl^#@.-g=S

'to be happy and complacent.' This is better

than to take the term, with Gan-kwo and others,

in the sense of 5t£, 'to approve,' as if the

meaning were—'when your parents approve of

your conduct g M jfi

$b (slen) and JjlJ|t are both verbs, intimating operations to be performed upon the spirits, to make them fit for use, the effect of the former being to make them clear; of the latter, to make

them strong. The jrj = ti fit the'then' of the translation. Gaubil cannot be said to translate the clause at all. Medhurst has for it: —1 then you may bathe and enjoy your abundance, and after that make use of wine.' The meaning of the whole par. is—that spirits might be used at family feasts. The 'Daily Explanation ' expresses this clearly enough in its paraphrase of this clause:— It) fl: j^l] ffc

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your duty in ministering to your aged and serving your sovereign, you may eat and drink freely and to satiety. And to speak of greater things:—when you can maintain a constant watchful examination of yourselves, and your conduct is in accordance with correct virtue, then may you minister the offerings of sacrifice, and at the same time indulge yourselves in festivity. In such case you will indeed be ministers doing right service to your king, and Heaven likewise will approve your great virtue, so that you shall never be forgotten in the royal House.'"

mi&&nz%immmi&

is addressed to the ministers and officers of
Mei. I suppose the ff J^, if and ff

'iti $f t0 correspond to the fi¥ -f*,
A? ]£, and $p ^ of par. 2. The t rip
are here styled fif -fj^J ^* -^r" by way of
compliment. ^ A Jg g£ |g,

—Gan-kwo supposed that this was addressed
to Fung himself, and explains it by—Wj-

$t M. J# $ fl Ming-shing may well set this view aside as 'wide of the mark,' but it is not easy to arrive at the true meaning. The ^J" is really unmanageable, and The honestly confesses that he does not understand it. He explains by i^js and 5|=j by

elk, which is a more likely interpretation than any other that I have seen. The translation is after the paraphrase in the Q:

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II. "The king says, 'O Fung, in our western regions, the princes of States, the managers of affairs, and the youths, who in former days assisted our ancestor, were able to obey the lessons of king Wan, and indulge in no excess of spirits ; and so it is that I have now received the appointment which belonged to Yin.'"

"The king says, 'O Fung, I have heard it said that formerly the first wise sovereign of Yin manifested a reverential awe of the bright principles of Heaven, and of the lower people, steadfast in his virtue, and holding fast his wisdom. From him, T'ang the Successful, down to the emperor Yih, the sovereigns all completed

of Chow had risen by obedience to the lessons c.f king Wan. ffi g§ -J^ ^ yj> -^•,—the

0f|; CB. mak° this passage very perplexing.

jjj^ is taken as ^-jjlfj}, 'to assist,' and ^B.^"

^fc, 'gone by,' 'of the time past.' The two characters are best joined as descriptive of the parties immediately enumerated,—as in the translation. Uan-kwii and Lin Che-k'c suppose

that ^ ^f- is the nominative to which then governs ffr *c-f§ ^£ T a;

ffi ±. H f il B Li 5-5-

This is very unnatural. 'fjSJ = ftf at, ns

in the last par. The peculiarity of its use here is that it is all historical. 9, 10. The example of various virtue,and'especially of temperance, afforded in the prosperous times of the Yin dynasty. t£ P41 ff£ 0 -Ying-tt gives for this--|£

UK /JN B^'=<wal'tetl 'n l'le 'ear of Heaven and of the people.' Compare the 'T'ae-kca,'

ptiu.)P.i. g^taE^cM^1'^

7»—Al, as it now stands, = |jjg> 'throughout.' Some would place it after m which position it would <='all.' Silt was the father

Shoo, whose age the editors say they have been unable to ascertain). J£ ||f. IE ,— Woo Ch'ing takes this as = ^" J£ ^ l|£

p , with reference to par. 4 ; but the context makes it more natural to take the phrase as =' ministers doing right service.'

E flH£-Jfi. 'to accord with'

equivalent to 'to approve.' The critics all call attention to the various relaxations of Wan's original rule, that spirits should be used only for sacrifices. They say that we have in them an instance of prohibition by permission

I*)- So° Tung -po says:—' Spirits are what men will not do without. To prohibit them and secure a total abstinence from them is beyond the power even of the sages. Here, therefore, we have warnings on the evils of drunkenness in the abuse of them, and the joy that is found in the virtuous use of them is set forth;—such is the way in which the sages lay

their prohibitions upon men' (see the ^f|ifj£)'
Ch. II. Pp. 8—17. The King, Addressing

FUNG DIRECTLY, SHOWS HIM THE CONSEQUENCES
OF TEMPERANCE AND INTEMPERANCE RESPECT-
IVELY, IN THE FORTUNES OF THEIR OWN HolISE,
AND OF THE DYNASTY OF Yrs ; AND REQUIRES
HIM TO ILLUSTRATE, INCULCATE. AND ENFORCE

uis Lessons IN Mki. 8. JIow the fortunes

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