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dukedom of Sun;: was from Woo and not from Ching, and was before the revolt which ended in the death of Woo-kilng and not after it. But the editors of Yung-ching's Shoo have given good reasons why the authority of Sze-ma Ts'een, and the preface to the Shoo, should be preferred in this matter to that of the jffi =jjJ. If the merits of the men had been the sole ground for Woo's arrangements, he would have at once appointed either of the viscounts of Wei or Ke to continue the sacrifices to T'ang and the other sovereigns of his line, but there were, we can easily conceive, reasons of state, which determined him to make trial, in the first place, of Woo-kfing, as being the son of Show.

The Book is only found in the text of Gankw6.

Contexts. The duke of Chow, as regent of the empire, and in the name of king Ching, tells the viscount that in accordance with the statutes of antiquity, and because of his own worth, he is selected to continue the line of the sovereigns, his ancestors. The virtues of T'ang and of the viscount arc then celebrated, and lie is charged to go and be prosperous, taking care so to conduct his administration that the new dynasty of Chow might never have occasion to be weary of him. The Book is very short, consisting only of five paragraphs.

P. 1. The grounds on which the viscount tf Wei tens called to be the representative of the l-iin/s oj hi* line, with some of his duties and privileges*

EE yfa 0' tiJ5>~see on 41,0 'ast Book, P. i. ^ 7c 1- ~% lr

^ -^r", or , 'eldest son.' 'The

king of Yin' is Te-yih ('rjj* 2^)> the father both of K'e and Show. How K'e, though older than Show, did not succeed to the throne, has been explained on page 274. Some critics, supposing that -j^ is equivalent to f: , ='heir-apparent,' and cannot be otherwise applied, have contended on that ground against the authenticity of this Book, but to my mind

there is no force in the objection. The Jq -t" is simply 'the eldest son ;'—he may be the heirapparent, but not necessarily. That idea does not form a part of the significance of the phrase.

on the 'Canon of Yaou,' p. 1; £L Ok 2j| ^

mzz^m&m

# jnE Z 'M a meaus that the

virtuous of the ancient sage sovereigns were

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•^Jjj The text is very concise, and it takes many characters to bring forth its meaning; but the explanation is, no doubt, correct. To the ancient statutes, which prescribed the honouring and sacrificing to the founders of former dynasties, we have a reference in the Le Ke, Bk.

$1$ 44' *>tl p" 12, wnere il is 8a'^'

Tffr.ftZ%mM^&>

B: Ti 3@ H ft, 'The emperor preserves representative descendants of two dynasties, still honouring the worth of their founders. This honouring of ancient worth does not go beyond two dynasties.' In what the honouring was displayed, is partly indicated in the

remainder of the paragraph. jp£ t

T, —the empire gathered under one rule is

called 'j^*. Here the sovereigns of Shang

are conceived of as all gathered npor collected in the person of K'e, who should henceforth, in himself and his descendants in the dukedom of Sung, stand forth as their representative.

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jjip' 'l'lc canons a"d ceremonies,' the institutions of Shang which had distinguished it from other dynasties; and by we are to

understand ffljj, 'the literary monuments and other precious relics of the dynasty,'—carriages, flags, dresses, &c. The descendants of K'e held the dukedom of Sung till nearly the end of the Chow dynasty, but by the time of Confucius many of the ceremonies and relics which it was their business to preserve were lost. The sage bewailed this, and said,'lam able to describe the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, but Sung cannot sufficiently attest my words. It cannot do so because of the insufficiency of its records and wise men' (Con. Ana., III, ix.). See the introductory note on the 'Braise-songs of Shang,' in the third Part of the She King.

the representatives of the two previous dynasties were distinguished above the other princes of the empire by being denominated 'guests' of the emperor of the dynasty then existing, as meeting him more on a footing of equality. See the She-king, Part. HI., the 'Praise-songs of Chow," Bk, HI., Song ii., $| H 5^,

See also in the ^ <|)|, fj| — -j

On this part Ts'ae gives some observations of Leu Tsoo-heen, which deserve a place in any commentary:—t ^£

^ # $ I f§? ftt f-. # .H. &

VOL. 111.

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2 'Oh! your ancestor, T'ang the Successful, was reverent and sage, vast and deep in his virtue. The favour and help of Great Heaven lighted upon him, and he received the great appointment, to soothe the people by his gentleness, and to remove their wicked oppressions. His achievements affected all his age, and his virtue was

3 transmitted to his posterity. And you are the one who pursue and cultivate his plans;—this praise belongs to you of old. Reverently and carefully you discharge your filial duties; gravely and respectfully you behave to spirits and to men. I admire your virtue, and pronounce it great, and not to be forgotten. God will always

itt /fP/^i—comp. in 'The Instruction* JMUT BROTH B#.'that

time,' his own age. ^gf,—' his posterity.'

Clioo He observes that properly denotes the

bottom of the skirt of a garment (!^» <<V

A), —the superfluity of it, and from this is applied to express a man's posterity.

P. 3. The worthiness of A*c, which made him

Jf£ pjj 'The minds of the ancient kings

were just, generous, and enlarged, not like those of the sovereigns of future times, who on the extinction of a kingdom would extirpate all the members of its royal House, fearing that the preservation of them might be injurious to their own posterity. King Ching not only appoints the viscount of Wei duke of Sung, but goes on to soothe and cherish him, wishing him forever and ever to share in the prosperity of the

empire.—Admirably was the just and enlarged & t0 he stltcle(j ln reno>er the hm.our due to T'ang. spirit displayed in this.' An objection has 1

been taken to the genuineness of the Bk. on the ground of the phrase UlL Jjjj^ ^J^, it being supposed that the empire would not be denominated ||[| merely; but the objection is as

futile as that taken from the use of jrj ~jp"> which has been already pointed out. Compare the language of the last Bk., p. i, and of 'The Metal-bound Cotter,' p. 18.

P. 2. The virtue of Tlang, the founder of the Shxmg dynasty, which made him worthy to be

honoured. 5^SF = Jt£ °r ?^k' 'reverenV •••■i gravely and reverently attending to all his

duties. M^#ffcJf^J8Rffo

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enjoy your offerings; the people will be reverently harmonious under your sway. I raise you, therefore, to the rank of High Duke, to rule this eastern part of our great land.

4 'Be reverent. Go and diffuse abroad your instructions; be carefully observant of your robes and various other symbols of your appointment; follow and observe the proper statutes!—so as to prove a bulwark to theroyal House. Enlarge ^0/amert/yourmeritoriousancestor; be a law to your people!—so as for ever to preserve your dignity. So also shall you be a help to me the one man ; future ages will enjoy the benefit of your virtue; all the States will take you for a pattern!— and thus you will make our dynasty of Chow never weary of you.

5 Oh! go, and be prosperous. Do not>disregard my charge."

the great solstitial sacrifice to God. It is with reference to this that it is said God would always, or at the appointed season of sacrifice, accept his offerings. m, = F)? j^, -there

fore,' according to the frequent usage of m in

the Shoo. fi- M jfC g,-fJ-='/&. 'to rule.' Sung, the pres. dep. of Kwei tih in Ho-nan, lay east from Fung and Haou, the capitals of Wan and Woo, which were in the pres. dep. of Se-gan, Shen-se.

[In the ^ flf, we hft^

an address to the famous Kwan Chung, evidently modelled on the text of this par. and the {next:

Pp. 4, 5. Charges, Cautions, and Encouragements addressed to K'e. 4. 7jf JJffc'ttJ}' as a High duke, K'e had the robes and cap. the

carriage, flag, Ac, appropriate to his rank, and which were the accompaniments of his investiture:—see the Le-ke, Bk. ^j|J Pt. ii., p. 7. He is charged to be carefully—cautiously —observant of them, not transgressing the proper statutes. He must not indulge the ambitious thoughts which had brought ruin on Weakling.

screen and defend.' ^& is more common in this sense. J*j s£j R, —Gan-kw5

'with laws regulate your people.' But this does not give all the emphasis of the text. The 'Daily Explanation ' has better:—TJjjJ jsJ*J

ff, < to assist.' 6. f±^'rt#'Gan-kwfl and all the critics after him make

f<£ fk=%% gt ii ilk, 'makenr

government prosperous and good.' I do not see the necessity for this.

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THE BOOKS OF SHANG.

BOOK. IX. THE ANNOUNCEMENT TO THE PRINCE OF K'ANG.

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[In the third month, when the moon began to wane, the duke of Chow commenced the foundations and proceeded to build the new great city at Lo of the eastern States. The people from every quarter assembled in great harmony. From the How, Teen, Nan, Ts'ae, and Wei domains, the various officers stimulated this harmony of the people, and introduced them to the business there was for Chow. The duke of Chow encouraged all to diligence, and made a great announcement about the performance of the works.]

The Name Of The Boom-

f£ 'Th0

Announcement to the prince of K'ang.' Of the ten sons of king Willi, the ninth was called Fung

(^hj-), generally spoken of as K'ang Shuh ( ^jj). According to the analogy of the titles of the other brothers,—Kwan Shah, Ts'ae Shuh, &c, we must conclude that K'ang was the name of Fung's appanage, somewhere within the imperial domain. Ma Yung and Wang Suh expressly affirm this. The only ancient scholar who expressed a different opinion was K'angthing, who thought that K'ang was the honorary

posthumous title of Fung (Jj]£ J| ^ ||). Be this as it may, the Hook 19 the Charge

addressed to K'ang, or to'the prince of K'ang, on his appointment to the principality of Wei

M til the c,,ief of which

was Chaou-ko, which had been the capital of Show. Wei extended westward from the pres. sub. dep. of K'ae (jjjj N), dep. of Taming in Chile, to the borders of the pres. depp. of Wei-hwuy and Ilwae-k'ing, in Uo-nan.

That the Book should be called an 'Announcement,' and not B ' Charge' (like the preceding), has occasioned various doubts about it,—and with reason. The title is no doubt taken from the occurrence of the word announcement in the last clause of what stands as the first para

graph {Jtj $b A g£ y£M; but it will be

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