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will he be willing to reap the grain! In such a case will the father, who had himself been so reverently attentive to his objects, be willing to say, "I have an heir who will not abandon the patrimony ?"—How dare I, therefore, but use all my powers to give a happy settlement to the great charge entrusted to the Tranquillizing king?

'If a father have those among his friends who attack his child, will the elders of his people encourage the attack, and not come to the rescue?'

these revolted ^ fjf £ £ ff, f(|J

Zfe S J'$g £fci flE)- 0f tlle harasll'P8 con" nected with the expedition I have spoken, and I daily think of them.' The view which I have followed seems to me much preferable to either of these. ^#ft^.|t5fc/j£&> —is 'a father deceased.' We must take it be here, king Woo being intended, while Ching is the son on whom it devolves to carry out and finish his father's undertakings. JJ^~ —'has settled the plan,' i.e., has laid out the foundation, and defined all the dimensions,—the length, breadth and height. For /y* Woo

Ch'ing says • to build up on the founda

tion." The meaning evidently is to proceed with the building, according to the plan. 'fpf = ji^, 'to cover;' here, = ' to construct the roof.' [Immediately after K'ang-shing rqpd

c^f; which thus occurred with him twice

in the paragraph l ,—l

El 'turning over the earth and removing

the grass is called It denotes the first

steps taken to bring waste land or virgin soil into cultivation. Sjfc —

Are we to take jjr^* Jj^ in the singular, referring

to the and ^£ in the preceding clauses, or in the plural, like the same phrase in p. 7? Gau-kwo and Ts'ae take it in the singular.

Ts'ae says—'The spirit of king Woo in heaven would not be willing to say that he had a son and successor who would not let his inheritance fall to the ground.' The paraphrase in the 'Daily Explanation' takes the phrase in the plural, =»^k£ §^

^jlr, 'the old and reverent elders of the family.' This is the view also of Woo Ch'ing, who has:—If" ft ijjjjj Jj^ 'the assistants of his father.' I must understand the phrase in the singular. tit —F -y^ ~Z^i

~M Vfl - ^ H #•'in my vTM*-' u

is a strange and unsatisfactory expression; but all the critics explain it thus.

Q. 12. The Icing reproaches the princes and officers who would let the revolt take its course. A short paragraph, and all but unintelligible. The I view which Gnn-kwO gives may be seen in the

=ji jjjfjV I cannot make it out, even with the help of Ying-ta. Ts'ae says that he does not understand what is meant by the phrase

He takes it, however, after Soo Tung-po

as= A §L ffe or K H> a8 in th0

translation. 'By ft, "j^V 'le says, 'is intendj ed king Woo; by Woo-kflng and his confederates, the king's uncles ; by ^p,' the people;

j and by R the princes of the States, and I the officers.' I would only differ from him in

taking not of the people, but of king Ching

himself.

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V. "The king says, 'Oh! Take heart, ye princes of the various States, and ye managers of my affairs. The enlightening of the country was from the wise, even from the ten men who obeyed and knew the decree of God, and the sincere assistance given by Heaven. At that time none of you presumed to change the royal appointments. And now, when Heaven is sending down calamity on the State of Chow, and the authors of these great distresses appear as if the inmates of a house were mutually to attack one another, you are without any knowledge that the decree of Heaven is not to be

changed!

Ch. V. Pp. 13—15. The king Contrasts

TUB PBESENT CONDUCT OF THE PRINCES AND
OFFICERS WITH THE PAST, AND TRIES TO STIMU-
LATE THEM TO CARRY OUT THE WISH OF HEAVEN.
He THEN STATES HIS OWN DETERMINATION, AND
CONCLUDES BY VINDICATING HIS FOLLOWING THE

Oracles Of divination. 13. Ts'ae Ch'in,
in interpreting this star struck out a new path
for himself, in which I have followed him. The
par. mentions 'ten men who obeyed and knew
the mind of God.' Were they the 'ten men of
worth, mentioned in par. 5, who came forward
to support king Ching against the revolt of
Yin? All the old interpreters say so, and Woo
Ch'ing and Keang Shing, still hold to that
view. This is to be said for it, that in the com-
pass of a short Book, we can hardly expect two
references to 'ten men,' of the same purport,
and yet that they should be difft. men. I would
willingly accept Gan-kw6's view, if it did not
make all attempts to explain the context not
only troublesome but to my mind vain. Ts'ae
decided that the ten men here were not the ten
men of par. 5, but king Woo's 'virtuous men,'
his 'ten ministers capable of govt.,' celebrated
in 'The Great Speech' He contends that the
predicates of the ' ten men' here are too great
for the ten men of the people who came forward
to encourage king Ching, and tries to fortify
his view by referring to the duke of Chow's
language in Bk. XVI., p. 14, where he is speak-
ing of king Win's able ministers, as he speaks
of the ten men here. The editors of Yung-
cbiiig's Shoo accept his view, but with some

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14

15

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'I ever think and say, Heaven in destroying Yin is doing husbandman's work;—how dare I but complete the business of my fields! Heaven will thereby show its favour to the former Tranquillizer.

'How should I be all for the oracle of divination, and presume not to follow your advice? I am following the Tranquillizer, whose purpose embraced all the limits of the land. How much more must I proceed, when the divinations are all favourable! It is on these accounts that I make this expedition in force to the east. There is no mistake about the decree of Heaven. The indications of the divinations are all to the same effect.'"

are to understand the king's uncles, confederate with Woo-kang. For |$j£ <pp ffi Ts'ac

gives A yftf $t and the 'Daily Ex-
planation' has j$ ffi jfr fjfc is

taken by Woo Ch'ing of if ffi ^
and he supposes the meaning of the whole to be
that the rebel-uncles were endeavouring to force
others of their brothers in their neighbour-
hoods to join them in the revolt. The meaning
I have given is preferable, though the ^jjjj

is difficult to manage. Gan-kwfl says that when
the king's uncles took arms against him, it was
truly like the inmates of one house fighting
with each other. If king Woo had been com-
missioned to destroy Show for his wickedness,
much more must it be Heaven's will that this
revolt should be suppressed ; and yet the princes
and officers were telling the king not to proceed
with the expedition.

Wang Ts'eaou traces the course of thought in the par. on Ts'ac's view very clearly:—

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The answer to this is given in the next clause. It was not merely a question between the oracles and the contrary opinions of many of the princes and officers. There was the example of king Woo and his ministers; and there was the duty of Clung to accomplish the work which his father had begun. These were potent considerations to go into the scale. They would determine in favour of the expedition, even if the oracles were not so decided. As the oracles were so entirely in favour of it, however, there could be—there ought at least to be—no hesitation in going forward. ^ jj£ A ^ ffi jjgl

This is Gan-kw6's explanation of the words, and I have not met with any other so satisfactory. His only error is in referring jj£ to king

Win, instead of king Woo. ^ Ti

^,-comp. ^ ^ in the 'Announcement of T'ang,' p. 5.

[We have thus got to the end of 'The Great Announcement,' the style of which is at least as rugged and difficult as that of 'The Pwan-kang.' Notwithstanding the uncertainty which attaches to the interpretation of particular passages, however, I cannot but believe that the translation gives, with tolerable correctness, the general meaning of the Book. In the year B.c. 7, when

Mang, the duke of Han was

acting as regent of the empire, and designed to usurp the throne, he published an announcement modelled upon that of the duke of Chow. He incorporated the text of the Show with his own statements in a very remarkable way. Keang Shing and some others undertake to correct the text of the Shoo from Mang's Announcement, which ought not, however, to be appealed to for that purpose. It answers very well to show the general view which Mang and the scholars about him took of our Book. Mang's Announcement is preserved in the Jj^ ~-fjt

THE BOOKS OF SHANG.

BOOK. VH1 THE CHARGE TO THE VISCOUNT OF WEI.

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1 "The king speaks to the following effect:—" Ho I eldest son of the king of Yin, in accordance with the statutes of antiquity, that the honouring of the virtuous belongs to their descendants who resemble them in worth, do you continue the line of the kings your ancestors, cultivating their ceremonies and taking care of their various relics. Be a guest also in our royal house, enjoying the prosperity of our kingdom, for ever and ever without end.

The Name Of The Book.—^ -^jj,

'The charge to the Viscount of Wei,' -jp, —see on the name of the 11th Book of the preceding Part, —8ee on the name of the 8th Book of the same part.

The prefatory note says:—'KingChinghaving made an end of tho appointment in favour of the House of Yin, and put Woo-kang to death, he appointed K'e, the Viscount of Wei, to take the place of the descendants of Yin. Descriptive of this there was made 'The charge to the Viscount of Wei.' This no doubt states correctly the time and occasion when the 'Charge' was made. We saw on 'The viscount of Wei,' how K-e was advised by his friends to withdraw from the court of Show and save himself from the destruction which was impending over the tyrant and his House; we saw also the account given by Szc-uia Ts'e«n of the guise in which

K'e presented himself with the sacrificial vessels of his family before king Woo. Some points in that account may be called in question, but there can be no doubt that K'e was honourably received and treated. When it is said that Woo restored him to his former office, I understand that he confirmed him in his appanage of Wei, so that he continued to be ' the Viscount of Wei,* up to the date of this Charge, when he was appointed to be the duke of Sung(^J^^^), there

to continue the sacrifices to T'ang, his ancestor and the founder of the dynasty of Shang.

In the first of the concluding notes to the 'Completion of the War,' I have quoted a passage from the Bk. of the Le Ke, in which it is said that king Woo, after his victory over Show, 'when he had descended from his chariot, sent the representative of the House of Yin to Sung.' From this statement, some have contended that KVs investiture with the

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