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He then took the business on himself, and made three altars of earth, on the same cleared space; and having made another altar on the south, facing the north, he there took his own position. The convex symbols were put on their altars and he himself held his mace, while he addressed the kings Tue, Ke, and Wan.

think, he would have used 'j^- and not and we should have read j^ij *

I cannot undertake to settle this trivial point. (so in Sze-ma Ts'een.

Kcang Shing, after the gj£ ~^T, gives

$5P=^ '\% W'<was not happy-' We

may suppose that he was distressed, thinking of the troubles that might arise on his death.

The other reading—'did not

get well,' would give a simpler meaning.

2. Proposal of the two dukes to divine respecting

the issue of the king's illness. The *.

not have taken root. He was equally mighty in words and in deeds,—a man of counsel and of action. Confucius regarded his memory with reverence, and spoke of it as an evidence of his own failing powers and disappointed hopes, that the duke of Chow no longer appeared to him in his dreams. He was the 4th son of king Wiln, by his queen T'ae-szc. The eldest

was Pih-yih-k'aou (^ i^"); the second

was king Woo; and the third was Seen

the Kwnn Shuh Tj^j). mentioned in p. 12. There were six other younger brothers, but of all Win's sons, only king Woo and the duke of Chow were representatives of their father's virtue and wisdom. Chow was the name of the city where king T'ae fixed the central seat of

'two dukes,' are understood to be y^V and . his House ;—see page 281, on the name of this -rf, , part of the Shoo. It became the appanage of

/£. The latter is the duke of Shaou

spoken of on p. 1 of the last Book. T'ae-kung, —see on Mencius, IV., Pt. I., xiii. He played a very important part in the establishment of the Chow dynasty, as counsellor to Wan and Woo, and was invested by Woo with the principality of Ts'e, which his descendants held

for nearly b'40 years. He is the rat ^£ in the ; tives their proposal on the ground that there apocryphal edition of the ' Great Speech.' Wtts no necessity for troubling the spirits of the

Jf-, I Tl<-. v-ji I departed kings bv so much ado merely to divine

VP P '"IP ('1Veen llas is <lefincl1 by the issue of the king's illness. He had himself

■Wail's 4th son, Tan ( ta ), 8nd hence, he is known as the 'duke of Chow.' ^£ =

'to trouble,' 'to distress' It would appear that the two dukes proposed to have a solemn service of divination in the ancestral temple of the imperial House, and the duke of Chow nega

Gan-kwO, after the 7$£t by 'reverently.' Ts'ae gives its meaning— ■ j^jj

^ff], 'with entire sincerity and in common,'

saying that on great emergencies all the officers, great and small, united in the ceremony of

divination, so that — F is equivalent to

it. F , according to the view of an older

interpreter whom he cites. This interpretation

would give more emphasis to the in the

next par., but I do not see that we can insist on extending the meaning of the term beyond

the at of Gan-kw5. 3. The duke of Chow

declines the proposal. ^^,—this is the first

time that we meet in the Shoo with this famous name, though we shall find him hereafter playing a most important part. But for him, indeed, the dynasty of Chow would probably

determined what he would do. K'ang-shing Rays that he negatived their proposal, because he knew that the king would not die at this time. This view is grounded in a passage in

the 13k. J, jjj- Pt. i., p. 2., of the

Le Ke, where king Wan is made to interpret a dream of his son so as to assure him of a certain number of years. But there is much in that Book which we cannot receive. If the duke knew that his brother would recover, the prayer which follows, and his offer to die in his room, lose all their meaning and value.

P. 4. The duke's preparations for his prayer.

'business or duty.' Gan-kwn paraphrases:—

itJj b3 '"ie rearing up of earth is called tal; the clearing away of the ground is called

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5 The grand historian by his order wrote on tablets his prayer to the following effect:—"A. B., your chief descendant, is suffering from a severe and dangerous sickness;—if you three kings have ill heaven the charge of watching over hiiu, Heaven's great son, let me

ltfc 1$ # B tf H I. ,The tnbIct'

i.e., the writing, who, made by the duke of Chow; the priest read this writing to inform the three kings.' In this way the is altogether unaccounted for. Woo Ch'ing would put a comma at jffi, and explains—' The historicgrapher wrote the tablet, and the priest (fljJJ) read it.' But who does not get the impression that the duke of Chow was himself the only priest on the occasion? jrj jjjji Jjv'

—'Your great-grandson, such an one.' The duke, no doubt, used the name of king Woo. But in the Chow dynasty, the practice of 'concealing the name,' as it is called , (j|>£ ^ ), came into vogue. K'ang-shing supposes that it was king Ching, who first dropt the name, and substituted At for it, when he found the prayer, as related in p. 16. = 'to meet

with,' Wang K'flng-t'ang says:—'A sage has nothing about him which could bring on sickness, but he may happen to meet with evil

malaria in the air :—hence the use of jjg ;'—

see a note in the We need not lay so

much stress on the character. jg

T r|5 At 2: ifp,—this passage has wonderfully vexed the critics, and the editors of Yung-ching's Shoo say that no one interpretation of it which has been given should be pertinaciously held to. The view in the translation is substantially that of Ts'ae, who says:

f^ J# 3: <L IP-'Kn* AVo°is ,ho *nat

son of lien Ten; yon three kings ought to have the charge of protecting him in heaven, and should not let him die. If you wish that he should die. pray let me Tan be a substitute for his person.' Foiling that the H- ^ lay loosely on this view in the sentence, he supposed that some characters following have been lost. The interpretations of K'ang-shing and Ying-U

: The duke cleared and levelled a space of ground, and there he built three altars facing the south, one for each of the kings to whom he intended to pray,—his father, his grandfather, and his great-grandfather, by whose wisdom and virtues the fortunes of their House had cutminated in the possession of the empire. On the same area he raised another altar facing the north, where he himself took his place. K'ang-shing says that the altars were at Fung(Bk. Ill., p. 2A

and that the area remained to his day.

^H: §Ji ft'—tit all<1 ft ( = dip wer° two
of the 'five tokens of gem,' mentioned in the
Can. of Shun, p. 7, conferred by the emperor
upon the various princes in connection with
their investitures. There were two />eth, belong-
ing to the tsze and the nan respectively, and
three kwei, that appropriate to the duke of
Chow being the fit' But we can hardly

understand the terms here of the badges of
nobility, or tokens of imperial appointment.
Gnn-kwo says the peih were brought and laid
upon the altars of the three kings in reverence
to them, and the kwti was the duke's proper
hiran kwti, w hich he held in his hands as the
evidence of his person and rank in appearing
before them. But from p. 8, we should rather
conclude that all the articles were proper to
the worship of the three kings. The is
described as resting on a square base, while out-
wards it was round like the arch of heaven.
Pp. 5-8. The prayer. 5. jjl )>j

jfljj,— j£ = 3fc jfi> 'tllceTMnd historiogra-
pher.' His services were called in to record
the prayer. I take JR as = jjjjj jfj^, 'the
language of the prayer.' Oan-kwti explains
the clause:-^ it flft § fg gf?, 'The
historian wrote for him on a tablet (or tablets)
the words of the prayer.' This is the view now
given in the 'Daily Explanation':—M

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6 Tan be a substitute for his person. I have been lovingly obedient to my father; I am possessed of many abilities and arts which fit me to serve spiritual beings. Your chief descendant on the other hand has not so many abilities and arts as I, and is not so

7 capable of serving spiritual beings. And moreover he was appointed in the hall of God to extend his aid to the four quarters of the empire, so that he might establish your descendants in this lower world.

may be seen in the E and the =j£ j^JjV

Clioo He preferred the view of a Chaou E-taou

( R, J/j[ jj^f), that =' to require the service

of,' and the meaning is—'If God require the services of your eldest son in heaven, let me be a substitute for him.' Maou K'e-ling prefers

the view of a Sea Chung-san {^fe P^J | Jj ):—

construction of the sentence is not more objectionable than either of these two. Thus much is plain:—first, that the duke of Chow offered himself to die in the room of his brother king Woo; and second, that he thought his offer might somehow be accepted through the intervention of the great kings, their progenitors, to whom he addressed himself.

P. 6. Reason why the duke should be taken

instead of the king, f ^ *"" 3c' ~ Gan-kw5 gives the mean-

'I could affecfather.' Ts'ae takes the same view, only extending the meaning of

to 'forefathers' generally.

Medhurst translates the clause by—' my benevolence is equal to that of my forefathers,' which the language will admit of. Woo Chung, indeed,

pTM.forit-|fc StUlth0

other view is to be preferred. The duke would probably have dec lined to say that he was more virtuous than king Woo, though he was conscious of possessing certain qualities which might render him the better addition of the two to the

spirit-world. Sze-ma Ts'een has only |Ej J-5 jUji on his authority Keang Shiug

tionately obey my

would cast out of the text; but though

the 'Historical Records' show us the interpretation which their compiler put upon the Shoo, their authority cannot always be pleaded in favour of this or that reading.

We should be glad if we could ascertain from this paragraph what ideas the duke of Chow had about the other world, but his language is too vague to afford us satisfaction. He says he was better able than his brother to serve spirits; —did he then expect that some such service would have to be performed by him after death ? and who was the spirit, or who were the spirits, to whom the service was to have been rendered? These questions are suggested by his words; and yet it may be, that all which he meant to say was that he was more religious,—more acquainted with ceremonies, and fonder of sacrificial services,—and therefore was somehow better fitted for admission to the spirit circle. I suppose he did not know his own meaning very clearly.

Chinese critics are concerned to free the duke of Chow from the charge of boasting which may be fixed on him from the paragraph. Tsc'ang

Te-shftng Zjr; Ming dyn.) says:—

'The duke of Chow did not boast of his services, but was the humblest of men;—how is it that i here he boasts of himself in such a way to the I spirits of the three kings? On this occasion, ; so important to his family and the kingdom, | his love for his brother prevailed over every I other consideration. He had not leisure to conj siiler whether he was boasting or modest. The ; case is one of those instances in which the viri tue of safely men moves Heaven. Let it not be lightly thought of or spoken about;'—see the

V. 7. Reason why king II oo should be spared.

J*j ifr T % £l'-the "nthere is

F ^Jj* or God. Ma Yung says:—j£

Jz-fcZ H>-<kin8 w<*>

received appointment in the hall of the God of heaven.' -Medhurst has translated:—' lie lias

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The people of the four quarters stand in reverent awe of him. Oh! do not let that precious Heaven-conferred appointment fall to the ground, and all our former kings will also have a perpetual reliance and resort. I will now seek for your orders from the great tortoise. If you grant what I request, I will take these symbols and this mace, and return and wait for the issue. If you do not grant it, I will put them by."

The duke then divined with the three tortoises, and all were favourable. He took a key, opened and looked at the oracular

than those employed by the princes.

$c il? w?'—w'" roturn and wn't' f°rur orders,' which would be seen in the recovery of king Woo, and the duke's death. Masavs:—

SfjK. The meaning is, that he would put those instruments of worship aside;—the dynasty would fall, and the House of Chow would have no more imperial sacrifices to offer.

Pp. 9, 10. The divination is favourable, and the duke deposits his prayer in the coffer. 9. F tl£ —' He divined with the three tortoises' I suppose that the divination took place before the altars, and that a different shell was used to ascertain the mind of each king.

Chuo He says:-p£ 0HIrt'^"

|fj|| |> Lin Che-k'e, however, says:—

Itthz^.^ h t He riivined

according to the three prognostics given by the tortoise.' This is in accordance with the language of the Chow Le, Bk. XXIV., p. 1, -j^ F

m = &z&>-&^&^

received the decree in the imperial hall,' which
is a great weakening of the duke's argument,
and without the sanction of any critic.
Ill? ~}j :g the critics generally

connect this with the preceding clause, and
extend the force of the |||r to it. It
seems rather to be a description of the success
of Woo's govt.,—exaggerate indeed, but jus-
tifiable in the circumstances.

the translation. a t T, -g- -jr^,— 'our former kings' are all the princes of the House of Chow, from Shun's minister of Agriculture downward. The saying that they would have 'a perpetual reliance and resort' is to the effect that the sacrifices to them would ever be continued.

P. 8. The duke propose* to divine for the answer of the kinys, and tells them what will be the consequence of their refusing his request.

■fljj, 'I will now go at once and receive the command—the decision—of you three kings.'

7U T!&'~"Eee on !^' *n the 'Tribute of I'll,' Pt. i., 52. The shells of the tortoise employed for imperial divinations were larger


responses which also were favourable. He said, "According to the form of the prognostic, the king will take no injury. I, who am but a child, have got his appointment renewed by the three kings, by whom a long futurity has been consulted for. I have to wait the issue. They can provide for our one man." Having said this, he returned, and placed the tablets in the metal-bound coffer; and next day the king got better.

translates:—'Grand Augure. II est prepose" Bux tro)3 methodes pour l'observntiun des fissures sur l'ecaille de la tortue. La premiere est appelee fissure de jade; la seconde, fissure de poterie; la troisieme, fissure de plaine.' — ^ db-^^tg, or _||. gee ti,e

'Great Speech,' Pt. ii., 5. jjfc || j| ||

by we are to understand jij 'written oracles.' Tlie par. of the Chow Le, following that quoted above, is-j£ j|£ ))(< 2: §§,

~*_ jg, 'The forms of the regular prognostications were in all 120. the explanations of which amounted to 1,200.' Those explanations, no doubt, consisting of a few oracular lines; were

the -jL of the text. They were kept by themselves, and consulted on occasion, according to certain rules which have not come down. The duke of Chow at this time had recourse to them.

The meaning of in this place is very uncertain. Properly speaking, it denotes a kind of flute. Here it seems to denote a sort of key with which the apartment or chest, or whatever it might be, in which those oracles were kept, was opened. K'ang-sbjng, Ma Yung, and Wang Sub define it nearly in the same way, as ^

£*»jf h HI*

'the form of the prognostic' appearing on the

shell of the tortoise. '|^| J]<{ ||L

—Woo-Chlng understands this to bespoken by the duke of himself, so that he not only understood from the divination that the king would

not die, but also that he would get better without himself being taken as a substitute. The words do not convey that impression to my mind. In the 'Daily Explanation,' they are referred to the three kings as in the translation.

ft-WW $

tlle Sill fclt p|j of par. 8, the only differ-
ence being that the words here are those of
soliloquy, and not addressed to the kings. The

—■ is king Woo. The duke would seem
to be resigning himself to the thought of his
own death. He must be taken, but he can
confidently leave the king and the dynasty in
the care of the three kings.
11. A ct [^,—'the metal-bound

coffer.' Ts'ae says that it was this coffer which
contained the oracles of divination, the same
which is alluded to in p. 9. It may have been
so; but I should rather suppose it to have been
different,—a special chest in which important
archives of the dynasty, to be referred to on
great emergencies, were kept. The duke gave
orders to all whose services he had employed
in the ceremony to say nothing about it (see p,
17), but it was right that the record of the
prayer should be preserved in this repository.
He therefore placed it there, not thinking that
it would be —hoping that it would not be
—brought to light in his time,

[The prayer of the duke of Chow is addressed to the three kings, and I have said above, that it is addressed to them in the character of mediators or intercessors with Heaven or God.

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