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TH * It, 植公于三爲乃


于 埋 e 王乃壁立面南為壇功自

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4 He then took the business on himself, and made three altars of

earth, on the same cleared space; and having made another altar on the south, facing the north, he there took his own position. The convex symbols were put on their altars and he himself held his mace, while he addressed the kings T'ae, Ke, and Wăn. think, he would have used WE and not P, Hot honve taken racis. He was con ally mighty

in words in deeds,- -a man of counsel and should have read 48 M =

Confucius regarded his memory

with reverence, and spoke of it as an evidence 45. I cannot undertake to settle this trivial of his own failing powers and disappointed point. J F (so in Sze-ma Ts'een. hopes that the duke of Chow no longer appeared

to him in his dreams. He was the 4th son of Këang Shing, after the mit *, gives 7

at gives 7 king Wăn, by his qucen T-ae-sze. The eldest 愈)=不悦豫 'was not happy. We

was Pih-yih-k-aou ( 16 ); the second may suppose that he was distressed, thinking was king Woo; and the third was Sëen (uit:), of the troubles that might arise on his death. the Kwan Shuh (Fax), mentioned in p. 12.

The other reading-7 did not There were six other younger brothers, but of get well,' would give a simpler meaning. all Wan's sons, only king Woo and the duke of 2. Proposal oj the two dukes to divine respecting Chow were representatives of their father's the issue of the king's illness. The =

virtue and wisdom. Chow was the name of the

city where king Tae fixed the central seat of *two dukes,' are understood to be # and his House ;-sce page 281, on the name of this

part of the Shoo. It became the appanage of The latter is the duke of Shaou

Wan's 4th son, Tan (D), and hence, he is spoken of on p. 1 of the last Book. T'ae-kung, - see on Mencius, IV., Pt. I., xiii. He played known as the 'duke of Chow.' 成一曼 a very important part in the establishment of ito trouble,' 'to distress.' It would appear the Chow dynasty, as counsellor to Wăn and Woo, and was invested by Woo with the prin- service of divination in the ancestral temple of

that the two dukes proposed to have a solemn cipality of Tsóc, which his descendants held the imperial House, and the duke of Chow negafor nearly 640 years. He is the TX in the tives their proposal on the ground that there apocryphal edition of the 'Great Speech.'

was no necessity for troubling the spirits of the

departed kings by so much ado merely to divine 1 - (Tsócen has t) is defined by the issue of the king's illness. He had himself

determined what he would do. K‘ang-shing Gan-kwó, after the FJ HIE, by file, 'reve

says that he negatived their proposal, because rently.' Ts'ae gives its meaning -- 17 he knew that the king would not die at this

time. This view is grounded in a passage in HI, “with entire sincerity and in common,' the Bk. Eft F, Pt. i., p. 2., of the saying that on great emergencies all the officers, Le Ke, where king Wăn is made to interpret a great and small, united in the ceremony of dream of liis son so as to assure him of a certain divination, so that 1-f is equivalent to number of years. But there is much in that

Book which we cannot receive. If the duke # , according to the view of an older knew that his brother would recover, the prayer interpreter whom he cites. This interpretation which follows, and his offer to die in his room, would give more emphasis to the m£ in the lose all their meaning and value.

P. 4. The duke's preparations for his prayer. next par., but I do not see that we can insist on extending the meaning of the term beyond

公乃自以為功一功 = 事 the fik of Gan-kwo. 3. The duke of Chow

"busin’ss or duty.' Gan-kwó paraphrases :declines the proposal. 25,-this is the first

周公乃自以請命為已事 time that we meet in the Shoo with this famous 三壇同埋一築土日壇除 name, though we shall find him hereafter

fiji, “the rearing up of earth is called playing a most important part. But for him, indeed, the dynasty of Chow would probably ; the clearing away of the ground is called

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之有三疾溝元旦乃王。王 王 責王若厲孫惟册 0季

若廣 孫 MYE 于子是爾虐某爾說史論文

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were two



5 The grand historian by his order wrote on tablets his prayer to

the following effect :-"A. B., your chief descendant, is suffering from a severe and dangerous sickness ;--if you three kings have in heaven the charge of watching over him, Heaven's great son, let me 環: The duke cleared and levelled a space itt # E F The tablet, of ground, and there he built three altars facing i.e., the writing, was made by the duke of the south, one for each of the kings to whom Chow; the priest read this writing to informi he intended to pray, his father, his grandfather, the three kings. In this way the is altoand his great-grandfather, by whose wisdom and virtues the fortuves of their house had cul- gether unaccounted for. Woo Ch‘ing would put minated in the possession of the empire. On the a comma at JWJ, and explains—The historiosame area he raised another altar facing the north, where he himself took his place. K'ang-shing grapher wrote the tablet, and the priest (Tīkl) says that the altars were at fung (Bk. III., p. 2.), read it. But who does not get the impression and that the area remained to his day. to that the duke of Chow was himself only

priest on the occasion ? 璧乘一璧land (一)

爾元孫某 of the five tokens of gem,' mentioned in the duke, no doubt, used the name of king Woo.

-Your great-grandson, such an one.' Can. of Shun, p. 7, conferred by the emperor But in the Chow dynasty, the practice of .conupon the various princes in connection with cealing the name,' as it is called (# %), their investitures. There were two peih, belong into vogue. K'ang-shing supposes that it was ing to the isze and the nan respectively, and king Ching, who first dropt the name, and subthree kwei, that appropriate to the duke of stituted for it, when he found the prayer, Chow being the to But we can hardly

as related in p. 16. understand the terms here of the badges of

= 'to meet nobility, or tokens of imperial appointment. withi, Wang Kảng-t'ang says :- A sage has Gan-kwó says the peih were brought and laid nothing about him wliich could bring on sickupon the altars of the three kings in reverence ness, but he may happen to meet with evil to them, and the kwei was the duke's proper malaria in the air :-hence the use of;;' hwan kwei, which he held in his hands as the evidence of his person and rank in appearing see a note in the # We need not lay so before them. But from p. 8, we should rather conclude that all the articles were proper to much stress on the character. 若爾 the worship of the three kings. The is = EXŹ Y-this passage has described as resting on a square base, while out- wonderfully vexerł the critics, and the editors wards it was round like the arch of heaven. of Yung-ching's Shoo say that no one interPp. 5–8. The prayer. 5. 15 U pretation of it which has been given should be

pertinaciously held to. The view in the transTZ-*=* 'the grand historiogra- lation is substantially that of Tsue, who says: plier. His services were called in to record - EKTU JE 王當任 the prayer. I take TOL 祝詞,the 其保護之責于天,不可 language of the prayer.' Gan kwn explains It SE, HA I JE, WHO

-kwõ the clause:一史為册書說辭“The

死,如欲其死則請以日 historian wrote for him on a tablet (or tablets) HE TW I ŻE King Woo is the great the words of the prayer.' This is the view now son of Heaven; yon three kings onght to have given in the 'Daily Explanation':-- the charye of protecting him in heaven, and 告三王之神,命史書說

should not let lrim die. If you wish that lie

should die, pray let me 'Tan be a substitute for PM F # El Ž Ž. This, it is person? Ferling that the F F lay loosely seems to nie, must be the meaning of tlie text.

on this view in the sentence, he supposed that K-ung-shing, however, says:- H

sone characters following F have been lost. Fr 14 # tm to The interpretations of K'ang-shing and Y'ing-18

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O 能材不袖藝能予某天

T Tibi, F FE, 乃多若乃能多仁之以 事多

多 命神藝日元事材若身。日

。日 于鬼。不多孫鬼多考0代




6 Tan be a substitute for his person. I have been lovingly obedient

to my father; I am possessed of many abilities and arts which fit me to serve spiritual beings. Your chief descendant on the

other hand has not so many abilities and arts as I, and is not so 7 capable of serving spiritual beings. And moreover he was appointed

in the hall of God to extend his aid to the four quarters of the empire, so that he might establish your descendants in this lower world. may be seen in the He and the at Fi would cast E# out of the text; but though Choo He preferred the view of a Chaou E-taou the “Historical Records' show us the interpreta. (V) , that i="to require the service tion which their compiler put upon the Shoo,

their authority cannot always be pleaded in of,' and the meaning is—If God require the favour of this or that reading. services of your eldest son in heaven, let me be

We should be glad if we could ascertain from a substitute for him. Maou K'e-ling prefers this paragraph what ideas the duke of Chow the view of a Sen Chung-san (P111):-- had about the other world, but his language is

tpo vague to afford us satisfaction. He says he 惟爾元孫某,遺疾若此,儘 was better able than his brother to serve spirits; BIS UE WHITE TE TU TE I would liave to be performed by him after death ?

that 以為此雖 元孫,

? 天之大子也,其責甚重, , ,

and who was the spirit, or who were the spirits,

to whom the service was to have been rendered ? 可死,則請代耳 Ts'ae's These questions are suggested by his words; construction of the sentence is not more objec- and yet it may be, that all which he meant to tionable than either of these two. Thus much

say was that he was more religious,-more is plain :-first, that the duke of Chow offered acquainted with ceremonies, and fonder of sacrihimself to die in the room of his brother king better fitted for admission to the spirit circle.

ficial services, -and therefore was somehow Woo; and second, that he thought his offer might somehow be accep:ed through the in

I suppose he did not know his own meaning tervention of the great kings, their progenitors,

very clearly. to whom he addressed himself.

Chinese critics are concerned to free the duke

of Chow from the charge of boasting which may P. 6. Reason why the duke should be taken

be fixed on him from the paragraph. Tsëang instead of the king. 7 EX- * Te-shăng (& LEX; Ming dyn.) says:- * = lib. Gan-kwỏ gives the mean- • The duke of Chow did not boast of his services, ing as Th EWE VÝ, 'I could affec- here he boasts of hinself in such a way to the

but was the humblest of men ;-how is it that tionately obey my father.' Ts'ae takes the spirits of the three kings ? On this occasion, saine view, only extending the meaning of this inope for this brother prevailed over every

so important to , to Til 'forefathers' generally. other consideration. He had not leisure to conMedhurst translates the clause by—my bene

sider whether he was boasting or modest. The

case is one of those instances in which the vir. volence is equal to that of my forefathers,' which

tue of sagely men moves Heaven. Let it not the language will admit of. Woo Ch'ing, indeed, be lightly thought of or spoken about;'-see the gives for it- TE ZEBRA Still the # other view is to be preferred. The duke wonld P. 7. Reason why king Woo should be spared. probably have declined to say that he was more

75 M F E-the Hiin here is virtuous than king Woo, though he was conscious of possessing certain qualities which might or God. Ma Yung says:- E render him the better addition of the two to the spirit-world. Sze-ma T's'een has only F Fii Ź E-king Woo



received appointment in the hall of the God of 15 it, and on his authority Kcang Shing heaven. Vedliurst has translated :- lle las


許與爾C我呼方定帝 乃我之今先無爾庭

王 金先 下我歸許我王墜民子敷 我窩

許 三乃侯我會亦天孫佑 我前

孫 龜屏爾我命永 不于四

隆 其于有降 下方 習與 習 與爾以元依寶貝地用

地用 吉。不壁龜歸命鳴四能 吉连 龜

The people of the four quarters stand in reverent awe of him. Oh! do not let that precious Heaven-conferred appointment fall

to the ground, and all our former kings will also have a perpetual 8 reliance and resort. I will now seek for your orders from the great tortoise. If you grant what I request, I will take these symbols and

. this mace, and return and wait for the issue. . If

If you do not grant it, I will put them by.” 9 The duke then divined with the three tortoises, and all were favourable. He took a key,

He took a key, opened and looked at the oracular received the decree in the imperial hall,' which

than those employed by the princes, is a great weakening of the duke's argument,

歸 and without the sanction of any critic. 侯爾命一will return and wait for your Gti Tilt -the critics generally orders, which would be seen in the recovery of connect this with the preceding clause, and king Woo, and the duke's death. Ma sass :extend the force of the H to it. It

to it. It 待爾命武王當愈,我當死 seems rather to be a description of the success 屏壁挂屏/2d tone)-or

屏與一屏 ( of Woo's govt.,-exaggerated, indeed, but justifiable in the circumstances, # Zeven the The meaning is, that he would put

those 天之降

instruments of worship aside ;—the dynasty 寶命一天所降之寶命一 would fall, and the House of Chow would have the translation.

no more imperial sacrifices to offer. 我先王,云云一

Pp.9 10. The divination is favourable, and our former kings' are all the princes of the the duke deposits his prayer in the coffer. House of Chow, from Shun's minister of Agriculture downward. The saying that they would

- He divined with the three have 'a perpetual reliance and resort' is to the

tortoises' I suppose that the divination took effect that the sacrifices to them would ever be place before the altars, and that a different shell continued.

was used to ascertain the mind of each king. P. 8. The duke proposes to divine for the an- Choo He says:一或日三王前,各一 swer of the kings, and tells them what will be the consequence of their refusing his request.

É I Ź. Lin Che-k'e, however, says:我即命-今我就受三王之以無之三兆下之, He divined

, '

according to the three prognostics given by the 'I will now go at once and receive the tortoise. This is in accordance with the lancommand-the decision-of you three kings.'

guage of the Chow Le, Bk. XXIV., p. 1, #l 元龜 大龜, in the Tribute of Yu,' Pt. i., 52. The shells of the tortoise em

掌三兆之法一日玉兆二 ployed for imperial divinations were larger EE EEEwhich Biot

-as in



see on


册做. 崔子王 是啟 王 王于 0 侯; 新其 翼金公意能終命 日、膝歸念是于害公击書 日 乃之乃予圖三予

日乃 廖廣納 茲王小體

10 responses which also were favourable. He said, “ According to the forin of the prognostic, the king will take no injury. I, who am

I but a child, have got his appointment renewed by the three kings,

by whom a long futurity has been consulted for. I have to wait 11 the issue. They can provide for our one man.” Having said this,

he returned, and placed the tablets in the metal-bound coffer; and next day the king got better, translates:-- Grand Augure. Il est préposé not die, but also that he would get better withaux trois methodes pour l'obeervation des out himself being taken as a substitute. The fissures sur l'ecaille de la tortue. La première words do not convey that impression to my est appelée fissure de jade ; la seconde, tissure mind. In the Daily Explanation,' they are de poterie; la troisième, fissure de plaine.' referred to the three kings as in the translation.

習吉一習三重 or 襲;se the 我小子新受命于三王,惟 *Great Spech, Pt. 1, 5. 啟驚見書以後子孫為計而許我 by 書 ve are to undlerstand 占書, writen 以保佑元子孫矣兹收

we oracles. The par. of the Chow le, following the AF-1 V tthat quotel above is-其經兆之體 皆百有二十,其頭千有

the M E P ath of par. 8, the only differ

once being that the words here are those of tions were in all 120, the explanations of which I is king Woo. The duke would seem Amounted to 1,200. Those explanations, no to be resigning himself to the thought of his doubt, consisting of a few oracular lines; were

own deatlı. He must be taken, but he can the of the text. They were kept by them- confidently leave the king and the dynasty in selves, and consulted on occasion, according to the care of the three kings. certain rules which have not come down, The duke of Chow at this time had recourse to them,

11. 金騰之賞, the metal-bound The meaning of it in this place is very uncer

coffer.' Tsóne says that it was this coffer which

contained the oracles of divination, the same tain. Properly speaking, it denotes a kind of which is alluded to in p. 9. It may have been flute. Here it seems to denote a sort of key with so; but I should rather suppose it to have been wliich the apartment or chest, or whatever it different, --a special cliest in which inportant might be, in which those oracles were kept, was archives of the dynasty, to be referred to on opened. K'ang-shing, Ma Yung, and Wang great emergencies, were kept. The duke gave Suh define it nearly in the same way, as W 1:in the ceremony to say nothing about it (see p.

orders to all whose services he had employed Ź 14: lyk 14; and 17), but it was right that the record of the 之管藏兆書管; 開 ),

prayer should be preserved in this repository. 占兆書管 10, E Źlle therefore placed it there, not thinking that


, the form of the prognostic,' appearing on the

it would be--hoping that it would not be

-brought to light in his time, shell of the tortoise. 惟永終是圆,

[The prayer of the duke of Chow is addressed ---Woo Ch'ing understands this to be spoken by to the three kings, and I have said above, that the duke of hiinself, 9o that he not only under- it is addressed to them in the character of medi. stood from the divination that the king would ators or intercessors with Heaven or God,

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