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3 clothes, food, and vessels for use. The kings have then displayed the things thus produced by their virtue, and distributed them to the princes of the States of different surnames, to encourage them not to neglect their duties. The precious things and gems they have distributed among their uncles in charge of States, thereby increasing their attachment to the throne. The recipients have thus not despised the things, but have seen in them the power of virtue.

^jf,—is not merely 'strangers,' 'guests,' but = ^^ JjjJ;—see in the diet, on the character. jp. (lit -jf % f£ M

iffij, 'the articles produced by their country,'

and we may understand also articles manufactured there. The last clause gives a summary of those articles, and the meaning is that the contributions were restricted to these :—^>

% 3. MteZWibMZ

the empire being divided into many States or principalities, the emperors of each dynasty apportioned these among their relatives and adherents. 'The States of their uncles' were

(^J ^|$,'regions of the same surname,'

i.e., their rulers had the same surname as the emperors. The 'regions of different surnames' were the States ruled by Chiefs, attached to the reigning dynasty, but of a different lineage.

To these the emperors w, |& ct

'displayed what their virtue thus produced,'— the productions of remote territories, the tribute from distant tribes. The transitive meaning of

Jig is very much determined by its correlation

with /fr in the next part of the par. The things were sent about as imperial gifts among the States; so they were 'displayed,' and served to warn and encourage the chiefs to loyal service

and duty. ^ M- fSt |£ 3fc

mmzm- #m&uz

Gan-kw6 explains this by "-=Jjjj -f=j

3$ || $| Z $i.< <thereby verifying the sincerity with which they held the principle of attachment to their relatives,' taking as =

■^g. Lin Che-k'e supports this interpretation, and quotes with approval the words of Wang

Gan-shih,—' Though they loved them, yet if they had not shared their precious things with them, who could have known the sincerity of their

Zm A?h®MMZi$&<'

But the clause is evidently related to the

preceding Ali j^JJ Jjjfc, and must describe

—not the feeling of the emperors from which the gifts proceeded, but the feeling which they wished to increase in the princes, their relatives.

The explanation of by tiff is therefore inadmissible. The meaning in the tranal. is given by Ts'ae and in the dictionary:—'jtji

[In the passage of the g^J- from which I quoted, on the 1st par., the words of Confucius, the sage goes on to say:—jjjk ^jjL at

^m^^mm^^mz m<&&%fcBmmRZ

# z m % ® M & *

A % % 4ft if tt S

is intended the various princes, receiving the imperial gifts; <= 'to slight.'

'$J''nave not slighted tne things,'have not dared to think lightly of them, however little valuable they might be; ft

'they have virtue-cd the things j i.e., they have looked at the things in the light of the virtue « hich

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4 "Complete virtue allows no contemptuous familiarity. When a prince treats superior men with such familiarity, he cannot get them to give him all their hearts; when he so treats inferior men, he cannot

5 get them to put forth for him all their strength. If he be not in bondage to his ears and eyes, all his conduct will be ruled by correctness.

6 By trifling with men he ruins his virtue; by finding his amuse

ment in things he ruins his aims.

produced them, and as monitions to the virtue they themselves ought to cultivate. Gauhil's rendering of this part is sententious, but can be of no help to a student:—' Ainsi les choses qui viennent de la vertu retournent a la vertu.'

[This passage appears in the land fill.

^f^> a'onS with two other sentences from 'the Books of Chow,' in the following

form:-^ ^ $J # If IB W ^1

The use which is made of it there is to show that virtue is the only sure defence of a State.]

Pp.4—C. How the sovereign's careful attention to his virtue will appear in his guarding against improper familiarity with men, and fooluh cherisfony of useless creatures and things. This is the meaning that is put upon these paragraphs. The interpretation of them, it will be seen, is perplexing and difficult. 4. a Ti

MI f^.-comp. Mt j£ ff, in 'the Great Speech,' Pt. Hi,, 2. Koo Scih-ch'ow If^/llp'j": Ming dvn.) says upon the terms here:

-m%%zm &>n%m JR Js#a

% '#isf»miUar

with them; is a haughty disregard of the rules of propriety. The former indicates the looking upon them as mere favourites; the latter expresses the treatment of them as easily consorted with." For the two terms, however, we have the one term Mi, ' to make sport with' in p. 6. The 'Daily Explanation' says, on that par., that the first Jjfj^ is the 3E?jj of contempt, and the second the 'h: of fondness'

mon idea expressed by the two applications of here, and of j^rj in p. G. Such an idea is that of contemptuous familiarity. Directed to creatures like the hounds of Leu, it will have more of the character of trifling sport; directed to men, there will be in the ruler who practises it a want both of self-respect, and of the respect which he owes to them. is descriptive

of men in office, who are to be supposed to have a degree of elevated character. They have their minds—their virtues and acquirements—toserve the sovereign with; but when treated with contemptuous familiarity, they will despise liiin

and go away. yJ-\ are the people, in whom the familiarity of their superiors is sure to breed contempt, so that they will not be careful to labour for them, as they ought to do, with their strength. Ying-ta, aptly enough, quotes, in illustration of Jw ^{jj the words of E Yin,

the words of Confucius,'H^^^ffJ^pC Mr' (Ana., XII, ii.), in illustration of ;JfjJ •j'^ /j\

A- T^^B-*^

§ Jw ^Sb ''''' " 'le superior to the external fascinations that assail him through the senses,—what are called mf^ in the next paragraph. |fl 'the hundred measures,' =a

j=f Z, 'tlle "leasures "{ a" nis con" duct.' A certain rule—of 'correctness ' (J=^=> J^)—is supposed, by which the ruler, free from the bondage of his senses, will endeavour to regulate all his conduct. 'His words and actions,' it is said in the 'Daily Explanation,' 'will all be conformed to the measure of perfection, and he will not dare to transgress it an inch.' 6. My - see on par.+. Contemp

3^rj 2: gF). But we must find a com- j tuous familiarity with men destroys that

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7 "The aims should repose in what is right; words should be listened to according to their relation to right.

8 "A prince should not do what is unprofitable to the injury of what is profitable, and then his merit may be completed. He should not value strange things to the contemning things that are useful, and then his people will be able to supply all his needs. Even dogs and horses which are not native to his country he will not keep; fine birds and strange animals he will not nourish in his kingdom. When he does not look on foreign things as precious, foreigners will come to him; when it is worth which is precious to him, his own people near at hand will enjoy repose.

9 "Oh ! early and late never be but earnest. If you do not attend jealously to your small actions, the result will be to affect your virtue

respect and reverence for right which is at the foundation of all virtue. A fondness for, and fondling of, creatures like the hounds of Leu brings the whole mind down to the level of little things.

P. 7. The rule for a prince's aims, and his intercourse with others. *||f —= fyy 'g* |

'the principles according to which we ought to proceed.' =5" J^J 1^ = A

2: W J# it M &r Tha flrst cl««se is

illustrated by Mencius' ft ft ^ (II., Pt. I., ii. 9), and the second by his ^fj =5" (;j ,

p. 11); also by Shim's language in 'The Counsels of Yu,' pp. 14—Jf>. The two sayings are good enough in their way, but the object which they serve in the guardian's address is not very evident;—see the remark of Wang Pih at the conclusion of his 'Doubts' about this Book.

P. 8. What things a sovereign should abstain from cherishing and pursuing, and what things he should prefer and seek. In this par. the Guardian comes at last to the subject of the hounds of

Leu, though he does not expressly mention them. if Eg Jj£ ~pj these two

clauses are of a general character, and may be applied to an endless variety of subjects,

~Pj J^jl,—' the people will be sufficient.' Chin

Tih-sew says:-'ta (y, J||J (E >}£

Hu" yp» /j^t 'If he set a value on strange things, his exactions and requirements will be so many that the people will not be able to meet

them.' A Eg ^ BET-tllese does and horses might be useful, but being foreign, the virtuous sovereign will have nothing to do with them! jj^ "fti"'-is nere an

adjective, = ^ a£Z Ti

Eg —see the remarks on this in the

note on the Contents of the Book.

Pp. 9, 10. How the sovereign is to cultivate his virtue hy an untiring attention even to the smallest matters, and what grand results will flow from such THE BOOKS OF SHANG.

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in great matters;—as when, in raising a mound of nine fathoms the 3 work is unfinished for want of one basket of earth. If you really follow this course, the people will preserve their possessions, and the throne will descend from generation to generation.

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m * o % & $ ^,

010, kg

1 I. Two years after the conquest of the Shang dynasty, the king

2 fell ill, and was quite disconsolate. The two dukes said, "Let us

3 reverently consult the tortoise concerning the king"; but the duke of Chow said, "You may not so distress our former kings."

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Metal bound.' Jj||| is defined by 'to tie or shut up,' ' to seal or fasten.' A certain chest or coffer, which was fastened with bands of metal, plays an important part among the incidents of the Book. It is called, p. 11,

JjJ^I ;and from this the name is taken.

The Book is found in both the texts.

Contents. King Woo is very ill, and his death seems imminent. His brother, the duke of Chow, apprehensive of the disasters which such an event would occasion to their infant dynasty, conceives the idea of dying in his stead, and prays to 'the three kings,' their immediate progenitors, that he might be taken and king Woo left. Having done so, and divined that he was heard, he deposits the prayer in the metal-bound coffer, where important archives were kept. The king gets well, and the duke is also spared; but five years after, Woo really dies, and is succeeded by his son, a boy only thirteen years old. Rumours are spread abroad that the duke has designs upon the throne, and he withdraws for a time from the court. At length in the third year of the young king, Heaven interposes. He has occasion to open the metal-bound coffer, aud the prayer

of the duke is found. His devotion to his brother and the interests of his family is brought to light. The boy monarch weeps because of the unjust suspicions he had harboured, and welcomes the duke back to court, amid unmistakeable demonstrations of the approval of Heaven.

The whole narrative is a very pleasing episode in the history of the times, and is more interesting to the foreign reader than most other portions of the Shoo. It divides itself naturally into two chapters:—the first, parr. 1—11, ending with the depositing the prayer in the coffer; aud the second, detailing how it was brought to light, and the duke cleared by means of it from the suspicions which had been cherished of him.

Ch. I. Pp. 1—11. The Prater Op Tub


The copper. 1. The illness of king Woo.
(=>fc >tl l ^f*"1—the current chronology

refers this to the 14th year of king Woo, the year after the death of Show, B.C. 1,120. K'ang-shing thought that the year of the conquest of Shang should not be included in the two years, and the critics of the present dynasty generally concur with him. Ming-shing says that if the historian had meant to say that the year was that succeeding the changeof dynasties, as Gan-kwd, Sze-nia, Ts'ccn, and Wang Suli

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