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月 家用 0星有之有星o微不不 有

0 九則夏行好有焦家明成 、 有

明 五以月則雨好民用後又 五月 ,俊 福風之有日風惟不民用

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do not become matured; the operations of government are dark and unwise; heroic inen are reduced to obscurity; and in the fami

lies of the people there is no repose. 38 “The common people are like the stars. Some stars love the wind,

and some love the rain. The course of the sun and moon give winter and summer. The course of the moon among the stars gives wind and rain. office. In regard to the last clause, I prefer the who says:-,

8.一民之麗乎土,猶星 view which is given in the translation.

[Gaubil has here the following note: --There ŹWE## But this would make is supposed here a mutual correspondence the paragraph of a different character entirely between the ordinary events of the life of men, from those immediately preceding. The text especially of kings and grandees, and the consti- is evidently analogous with the clauses of tution of the air ; but instead of adopting the par. 35, and the which we must underfalse ideas which the viscount of Ke may have had on that subject we may reflect

on what has stand there of the hip and fibi , been thought about it in Europe, and on what many people still think and say of a culpable must understand here also after . E. and dangerous character. It appears that the “The people should examine the stars. But Chinese have admitted a homogeneous matter in nothing is said of verifications' in connection all bodies ; that they have admitted a soul sub- with the stars and the people ;—what was to sisting after the destruction of the body; that result from the examination of the stars ? The they have admitted spirits, and one spiritual Being, Master of heaven, of earth, and of men. people,' says Woo Ch‘ing, 'would know when it But they have been bad physicists, and have was summer, and when it was winter, when troubled themselves little with metaphysics or they might expect wind, and when they might with logic. They have not thought too much (?) of examining the grounds of their reasoning expect rain. Knowing these things they could on the nature of beings; and they have in no carry on their labours and take their precauway fathomed the question of the union of the tionary measures accordingly.' We thus find soul with the body, nor that of the operations

a meaning in the paragraph, though of a diffeof the soul.'

There is no danger of our adopting the rent kind from what the preceding paragraphs notions of the viscount of Ke on the correspond would lead us to look for. On the view of the ence between the weather and the characters first clause, taken by Ts-ae and the commentaof men. A great service would be done by the Sinologue, who should take up the Great tors generally, the whole paragraph appears Plan,' and produce a commentary on it for equally out of place, and no reasonable Chinese readers, clearly and minutely unfolding meaning can be given to it.

The conthe errors on the constitution of nature and the stellation 1f-the hand of Sagittarius—is

. this ground we might go on to shake the strong- said to bring wind, and or Hyades, to bring hold of their confidence in all the ancient

rain. teachings and the wisdom of their so-called

Ts'ae goes at great length into the sages.]

courses of the sun and moon, but all according P. 38. The people should examine the stars.

to the accounts of the astronomers of the Han JA EW-Medhurst translates this, dynàsts. The text specifies no stars from * The common people are like the stars,' and

which we might determine the place of the sun Gaubil, in the same way,—'Les étoiles représent- in the heavens at the solstices or equinoxes, ent les peuples.' This also is the view of Ts'ue, when the Book was made.


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日疾 0五

五四 富、
資 六

日 场。五 日折極考收

所你 憂 一終 惡四 日日命。德 日


39 [ix]. “Ninth, of the five happinesses.—The first is long life; the

second is riches; the third is soundness of body and serenity of mind;

the fourth is the love of virtue ; the fifth is an end crowning the life. 40 As to the six extremities again, the first is misfortune, shortening the life; the second is sickness; the third is sorrow; the fourth is

; poverty; the fifth is wickedness; the sixth is weakness.”

; Pp. 39, 40. Of the five happinesses and six | according to the rank and station. Lin Che-k'e extremities. It is said, in p. 4, that .a hortatory says, 'a sufficiency for food and clothing is use is to be made of the five happinesses, and 富 wa 'freedom from sickness, an awing use of the six extremities. It is not easy to see how this division enters into the i.e., good health, according to Gan-kwo. Moscheme of the Great Plan. Tsăng Kung hindern critics extend the meaning, as in the trans

lation.一形康而心家 鞏) says: The nine divisions all describe

做好 the course of the sovereign. The happinesses the FF * , ' when virtue is what is

德者德 and extremities are conditions by which the loved.' The meaning, says Lin Che-k'e, is a sovereign examines his own attainments and natural disposition tending to the love of virtue defects in reference to the people. That these rather than of pleasures and other lower things. happinesses should be among the people, is 考終命一Tsrae explains this by the what the sovereign should aim after; and the extremities' being among them is what he words of Mencius, VII, Pt. I., ii, 1, ILO should be standing in awe of;?—see the # #E, 'submissively receiving all the will of Hoo Wei, on the other hand, says :—The five conditions of happiness and six conditions of Heaven' * is generally explained here by hit, suffering, are by the doing of Heaven, and not 'to accomplish,' and the happiness is that of from any arrangements of men. We have it accomplishing to the end the will of Heaven.' said in the division on Royal Perfection, "He This does not differ materially from the view concentrates in himself the five happinesses, of the translation, which has the advantage of and then diffuses them so as to give them to his making more evident the proper meaning of the people ;"—we have therefore in this place only the names of the happinesses and their opposites, 40. 大極一極窮='exhaustion, and nothing about their use' ( i tot being brought to extremity. It denotes the 皆天之所為,

非人之所設|opposite of 福

Tibet 1 45 Wf is literally 也,其慾時數錫之道具在

disastrous short breaking.' The meaning is

-the life coming to an untimely and disastrous 皇極章中,故此便列其目, close, 疾 and

章便目 . * are the opposite of 康 而不言其用).

穿惡-Gan-kwa explained this by 醜 39. - longevity;' without specifying Bpj, ugliness,' and the last extremity-15, any nun,ber of years. Gan-kwð says it means 120 years ; but this is absurd. A man dying by 1 * 'feebleness ; '-—perhaps in both

cases with some reference to the mind as well over 50 is spoken of by the Chinese as not having a short life. 60 and upwards is reckon

as the body. 惡 means probably boldness in ed longevity. Ts'ae says that with long life all what is evil, and 535, weakness in what is good. the other happinesses can be enjoyed, and there. The viscount of Ke was not so successfnl in fore it occupies the first place among them. enumerating the “extremities,' as with the ‘hap-riches ;' probably meaning a competency pinesses.'

[Gaubil, in a concluding note, thinks it not of Lð. It is full of perplexities and absurdities. unlikely that, the viscount of Ke wished to There are some right principles of morals and speak of the · Book of Lð,' and under pretence government in it, but after hearing it all, king of explaining this enigma, 'has given very ex- Woo must have been more in the dark than cellent instructions on the duties which princes when he went to the viscont at first with the and subjects ought to observe.' I am unable remark that he did not know how the virtues in to agree with the learned Jesuit. The Great men's various relations should be brought forth Plan is little less of an enigma than the Book | in their proper order.]

I append here a scheme of the whole Plan, modified from that which is given among the cuts in Yung-ching's Shoo :


事五 政八

紀五 土金木火水 聽說,同的货食 視貌 簡司司司记險曆程日旅

星 早 부 奢華鐵荃灣 唐酿明從未 從

作 甘辛酸苦鹹聖謀哲义肅

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力 徵展

福五 風寒聰賜 兩者康富壽

收 赛 終好 跳转义


聽貧曼联盟 急豫督

羅 魔王

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高沈 明潛

裝 族




旅] 惟 葵乃蔡底變九通克 葵 THE

旅 用作太貢西夷道商 葵

1 After the conquest of Shang, the way being open to the nine

wild and the eight savage tribes, the people of the western tribe of Leu sent in as tribute some of their hounds, on which the Greatguardian made “The Hounds of Leu," by way of instruction to the king THE NAME OF TIE Book. The 'The Kang-shing, ‘is read like . The rude tribes


水 Hounds of Leu.' The 37th note of the of the west had no princes, but gave the title Preface, on the subject of this Book, says that of G to the strong among them, who the ó western Leu' made an offering of some of

governed them for the time. The people of the their hounds” (PE DIEM . Leu, there

(西旅獻整) Leu, there- tribe sent at this time the principal man of fore, is to be looked for in the west. It was their chiefs, to present himself at the court of the name of one of the rude tribes, lying, in Chow;'-see the , in loc. But this that quarter, beyond the ‘nine provinces of the

view carries its own refutation on the face empire. This is the name of a kind of hound. of it. The words of the prefatory note are that It was, acc. to the BIJ HE, '4 feet--ancient the western Leu presented—as an offering,

expressive of their subjection-their To feet, that is—high.' The t * describes it

suppose that their chief was thus made an as “knowing the mind of man, and capable of article of tribute is absurd. Ch'ing's paraphrase being employed(知人心可使者 of 獻藝 by 遣來獻見于周 is From an instance of its use, quoted in the from Kung-yang, it was evidently a

quite inadmissible

. The signification of the

· hound' is not to be disturbed. blood-hound. The critics generally understand the term in the text in the singular ;--I

Book belongs to the division of • Instructions.'

Contents. The Leu people having sent some know not why. There is nothing in the Book,

of their hounds to king Woo, and he having and no ancient references to it, which should

| received them, or intimated that he would do make us do so. We more naturally take it in

so, the Great-guardian remonstrated with him, the plural, and it seems to me more likely that several hounds, and not one only, would be showing that to receive such animals would be sent to king Woo.

contrary to precedent, would be dangerous to

the virtue of the sovereign, and was not the This is one of the Books found only in Gan.

way to deal with outlying tribes and nations. kwo's text. K‘ang-shing and Ma Yung had not

The reader will think that the Book is much seen it, and they have strangely mistaken the

ado about a very small matter, and in truth it meaning of the prefatory note. says is so. It receives an interest

, however, when




用。服方無夷慎呼O 訓 方


O 王晶 王器惟獻遠賓四王鳴王。

獻 pe


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He said, “Oh! the intelligent kings have paid careful attention to their virtue, and the wild tribes on every side have willingly acknowledged subjection to them. The nearer and the more remote have all made offerings of the productions of their countries ;we see in it a specimen of the feeling and pro- | the text, that the wild tribes all around came cedure by which the rulers of China have all

or sent to the court of king Woo ;-acknowledgalong sought to regulate their intercourse with foreign nations. When the sovereign does | ing his supremacy. Ts'ae says that we are not look on foreign things as precious, foreign- not to understand from Š, that king Woo ers will come to biin:'--this language is a good used any efforts to open roads to the barbarous exponent of the normal Chinese policy. A self- regions beyond the limits of the empire proper ; complacent assumption of superiority--supe--it was his virtue and fame which drew them, riority both in wisdom and in power-has always and they came, climbing the hills as if they been displayed. I have read references to the had been ladders, and in boats across the sea.' steam-engine with its various applications, from It certainly would not have been discreditable men versed in all the learning of China, as if to king Woo to have good roads made through it were nothing more than a toy, to be thought of out all his dominions; and in the passage of the just as the duke of Shaou thought of the liounds of Leu. Statesmen and people are now, in this , referred to above, evidently modelled

og nineteenth century, having a rude awakening on this part of the Shoo, the opening of the from their dream.

P. 1. made. This par. miglit have had a place in the FEE #Iit, in its

The occasion on which the Book was thoroughfares is described as his work :-112 Preface, and Ts'ae calls it 'the proper preface of the Hound of Len'此旅葵之本九夷百變,使各以其方賄 z #

方 JF). 惟克商,一 on the conquest of 來貢,使無忘職業,底貢 Shang.' The Daily Explanation ' expands the the same phrase occurs in the Tribute of Yu, clause :-1 T & IT Pt. 1., p. 52. The force of J& passes on to the

next character, and indicates that what it says Tu ti E TI. The 'General History'

took effect. * -it is not said anyrefers the tribute of the hounds to the 14th year

where in the Book who the Great-guardian of king Woo, B.c. 1,120. in F was; but since the commentary of Gan-kwo, til -by the ' nine E and eight Shin,

the duke of Shaou. See on the name of

the prevailing opinion has been that he was Man,' we are to understand the barbarous tribes

Bk. XII. He was Great-guardian under Woo's generally,-expressed in the Can. of Shun, p. successor; and it is supposed--with probability 16, by the phrase that , and by 1 3 in -that he held the office also under Woo. the Completion of the War,' p. 6. See also on

Pp. 2-10. THE ADDRESS OF THE GREATthe • Tribute of Yu,' Pt. ii., p. 22. The difft,

GUARDIAN TO KING Woo AGAINST RECEIVING rude tribes round about the nine provinces of

Pp. 2, 3. The precedent of the empire are variously enumerated. Here former wise kings in receiving articles of tributé,

and the use which they made of them. we have the 9

and 8 tit;' in the Le Ke, J I Í 1 - the language here is to be Bk. XIV., WJ & L p. 3, we have the “g

taken historically. Medhurst and Gaubil both 7,8 44,6 , and 5 *X;' in the Chow telligent prince is careful in the cultivation

miss this , Le, Bk, XXXIII., TEE, 19 of his virtue, &c. The guardian is giving

not merely Ź, HE ti , p. 1, we have the time illustrated by example. The Daily Explana8 ***, 7 64, 95,5 7, and 6 WX;' in the tion' has it :-É ## ŽI 國語,魯語, WT, we have the ag

we have the 9夷所以保安民者,要在謹 and 100 **

修其德云云慎德 the careful The numbers are not to be pressed, and we

cultivation of virtue,' is said to be the hinge on must be content with finding a statement in which the whole of the address moves. Jik

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