תמונות בעמוד

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25 "If you have doubts about any great matter, consult with your own heart; consult with your nobles and officers; consult with the

26 masses of the people; consult the tortoise and milfoil. If you, the tortoise, the milfoil, the nobles and officers, and the common people all consent to a course, this is what is called a great concord, and the result will be the welfare of your person, and good fortune to

27 your descendants. If you, the tortoise, and the milfoil all agree, while the nobles and common people oppose, the result will be

28 fortunate. If the nobles and officers, the tortoise, and the milfoil all agree, while you oppose and the common people oppose, the

29 result Avill be fortunate. If the common people, the tortoise and the milfoil all agree, while you and the nobles and officers oppose,

30 the result will be fortunate. If you and the tortoise agree, while

Pp. 25—81. Rules for the application of the results of divination, and the varying conclusions of

men, to the solution of doubts. 25. ^jjjl

is not 'great doubts,' but 'doubts on a great

matter.' The 'Daily Explanation' says,— Jgjjjj

^ij' ~T\ ~ZZ' 's not t0 sul)Pose('t'1"'1 the emperor would on every little matter or private occasion consult both men and spirits in the way proposed. We must keep in mind that 'the Great Plan' is a scheme of government. There are five parties whose opinions were to be weighed :—first, the emperor himself; next, his high nobles and officers generally

(jpfl J^)> third, the common people; fourth, the tortoise; and fifth, the stalks of the she. The student will remember how the emperor in

Vol. m.

the Pwan-kang complains that the opinions of the people were kept from him. Compare also, pp. 2 and 3 in 'The punitive Expedition of Yin.' Choo lie observes that the opinions of men were first taken into consideration, but as they are liable to be affected by ignorance, and selfish considerations, the views of the spirits, above such disturbing influences, and intimated by the divinations, were to have the greater weight in the final determination. 26. The case of a great concord, all the jive parties agreeing.

27. The emperor, the tortoise-shell, and the milfoil, all agreeing, carry it over the nobles and oflicers, and the people. 28. The nobles and

officers, with the tortoise and milfoil, carry it over the sovereign and people. 20. The people, with the tortoise and milfoil, carry it over the sovereign, and the nobles and officers. 30. When the

sovereign and the tortoise were opposed to all the other parlies. In this case, not only arc the


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the milfoil, the nobles and officers, and the common people oppose, internal operations will be fortunate, and external operations will be unlucky. When the tortoise and milfoil are both opposed to the views of men, there will be good fortune in stillness, and active operations will be unlucky.

life #t st 5&fe -til- 'Froiu the oldc"

never has anything turned out fortunate

opinions of men divided, but the spirits also give different intimations. The doubt therefore remained, and the difficulty was settled by a compromise!' Internal affairs,' ace. to Gankwo, were cases of marriages, capping, and sacrifices, within the State; 'external affairs' were military expeditions undertaken beyond it. Choo He says:—' In this case, the tortoise opposing and the milfoil consenting, nothing, it would seem, should be undertaken. But the tortoise-shell was supposed to give surer indications than the plant, and as all the human opinions agreed, it was inferred that internal affairs might be proceeded with and would be fortunate!' It is needless to point out the inconsistency of this. 81. Where the divinations yave results contrary to all the human opinions. In this case the spirits carried it over men. m PTf*' ~iqf''U8'n8 stillness, there will be good fortune.' By 'stillness' is meant refraining from the undertaking doubted of.

(Many Chinese critics of more recent times seem to have an uneasy feeling of dissatisfaction on the subject of the ancient divinations; but hardly one has the courage boldly and fairly to disown them. To do so would be inconsistent with the proper veneration for the sages.

Ts'ae Ch'in said :—sfe ^ 6ir

do what in right ought to be done:—no rule for this can be obtained from numbers ; and no rule can be obtained from them, to do what in right ought not to be done. There should be no divination in reference to what would not be right, and no divination where there are no doubts. To divine where there are no doubts is pronounced "a piece of folly;" to do so in reference to what would not be right is pronounced "a piece of deception."'

Woo Ch'ing observed:—[•»

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which the nobles and officers, with the common people, all disapproved of. Were the statements of the viscount of Ke to obtain currency and credence, the sovereigns of future ages would be found casting away their high ministers and officers, and slighting their people, attending only to the intimations of the tortoise-shell and the she. Perverted talk and strange principles would find their way to influence, and there would be no end to the troubles of the empire. These passages belong to the fondness for superstition which was characteristic of the Shang dynasty; accustomed to hear such things said, people believed them, and even a man of worth, like the viscount of Ke, could not keep himself from going with the current of the prevailing custom.' These observations are unusually free and sound, as coming from a Chinese scholar. The man who expressed himself thus should have gone on to bolder conclusions, affecting the reputation for sageness of Yu and Shun, and even of Confucius himself. I am sorry to find a writer, so sensible in general as Hoo Wei, trying to beat down the remarks of Ch'ing with the authority of the great sage:-^^ gt E

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32 [viii]. "Eighth, of the various verifications.—They are rain; sunshine; heat; cold; wind; and seasonableness. When the five come all complete, and each is in its proper order, even the various

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'fir J# M « T" "ia'aoxi'100'[thi9 is a

designation by which Woo Ch'ing is known), 'in his remarks upon the Classics, often speaks about the errors of the worthy and wise; but here he errs and commits himself more than usual. The Master, in his observations on the Yih, has said, "To unravel what is confused, and search out what is mysterious; to hook up what is deep, and reach to what is distant,— thus determining whatever will be fortunate or unlucky, and rousing all men to continuous effort: there is nothing better than the use of

the she and the tortoise-shell" (see the B£

h p. 37. 'The Master' of course is Confucius]. He also says, "Men are consulted; the spirits are,consulted; the common people also contribute their ability" (Ijpfr T

p. 69), meaning that thus all things doubted of may be determined. Did the great Yu mean anything else than this by his "Examination of Doubts"? and did the viscount of Ke accommodate to that what he said about divination by the tortoise and the milfoil? Had he been sunk in the current of prevailing custom merely, how could he have been the viscount of Ke?']

Pp. 32—38. Of the various verifications. Medhurst translates JffcF ^£ by 'the general verifications;'—rightly, as regards ^J^, but

wrong, as regards JFth, which = ^jl "not

one merely,' 'many,' 'various.' Gaubil renders the phrase by' 'les apparences,'—unhappily. In a note he says:—'I render the Chinese character ^jj^ by 'apparences,' not having found any word which would cover the whole extent of its meaning. In the present case, it signifies meteors, phenomena, appearances, but in such a sort that those have relation to some other things with which they are connected;—the meteor or phenomenon indicates some good or some evil It is a kind of correspondence which is supposed, it appears, to exist between the ordinary events of the life of men, and the constitution of the air, according to the different seasons;—what is here said supposes I know not what physical speculation of those times. It is needless to bring to bear on the text the interpretations of the later Chinese, for they

are full of false ideas on the subject of physics. It may be also that the viscount of Ke wanted to play the physicist on points which he did not know.'

Gaubil describes correctly the way in which the character is here applied, but the translator should not render it from what it is applied to, but according to its proper signification. In the diet, it is defined by 'to bear

witness,'' to attest,' and by M, 'to illustrate;' and then there is quoted from par. i of this Book, m R: ^jf. 'Verifications' is probably as good a term as can be found in our language. The giving the name to the various phenomena in the text, and making them indicators of the character of men's conduct, is of a piece with the divinations of the last division. It is another form of superstition. If there underlie the words of the viscount of Ke some feeling of the harmony between the natural and spiritual worlds, which occurs to most men at times, and which strongly affects minds under deep religious thought or on the wings of poetic rapture, his endeavour to give the subject a practical application is so shallow that it only strikes us as grotesque and absurd.

The Division falls into two parts. In the first parr. 32—34, we have a description of the verifying phenomena, and the interpretation of them.

P. 32. B^= Q M, 'the sun coming forth,'

or = M , ' brightness,' 'sunshine.' JOffl— ^£

ffi p£f, 'warmth diffused,' or = jjjj^£. 'heat.'

The meaning of tj^p and M is sufficiently

shown by their opposition to jjjjj and

'rain and cold.' Q B^p,—I have translated this by 'seasonablenss,' and would extend its meaning to all the preceding verifications, so that there are only five and not six phenomena. The specification of 'five' immediately after

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phenomena are mentioned in the next par. with the adjunct of fjfjp, seem to require this interpretation. This was the view also of Gan-kwrt, and is adopted by Choo He and most other critics. Gaubil however, translates Q [f^: by '6. Les saisous.' And this view is contend


33 plants will be abundantly luxuriant. Should any one of them be either excessively abundant, or excessively deficient, there is evil.

34 "There are the favourable verifications:—namely, of gravity, which is emblemed by seasonable rain ; of orderliness, emblemed by seasonable sunshine; of wisdom, emblemed by seasonable heat; of deliberation, emblemed by seasonable cold; and of sageness, emblemed by seasonable wind. There are also the unfavourable verifications:—namely, of wildness, emblemed by constant rain; of assumption, emblemed by constant sunshine; of indolence, emblemed

ed for by Lin Clie-k'e, who understands d=jp of 'the round year, the months, and the days,' of which we have the account in the 85th and foil, paragraphs. He took the view from Ts'ae Yuen-too PC a critic also of the

Bang dyn., earlier than himself. It supposes a more artificial structure of the text than the study of the whole Book authorizes. 2^

J# ^ $k -$k—'order'' '9eries-'

The order of time and the degree of quantity, are both included, (ig. M. ^ ||[

Bf|£ ^jjF, 'abundant,' 'luxuriant.' This is a

very simple truth. It is supposed to be mentioned as one of the least consequences of the •easonableness of the various phenomena, from which all others, however great, may be inferred.

88. Gangways expansion of this is


=y -jjj^, 'In every case, good and bad, the issue is in accordance with the course of the conduct, and therefore we find the character Opposed to 'gravity,' we have = l^jj, 'incoherence,' 'wildness' Opposed to 'orderliness,' we have Roe, 'error,' 'presumptuous error.' Opposed to 'wisdom,' there is 'idleness,' 'indecision' (Wang Suh read with the same meaning). Opposed to 'deliberation,' there is 'urgency,' 'haste;'

and opposed to 'sageness' there is ^j^, 'stupidity.' The various phenomena, by which these qualities good and bad are responded to in nature and providence, are of course all fanciful. Since the Han dynasty, the critics have nearly all abandoned themselves to vain jangling in speculations on the operation of the five elements,

'fit a "Mr W\ t^l'' IK and tneir distributions through the seasons of

'the year, en rapport with the virtues and failings of men. And yet, as we saw on the last Division, many of them do not endorse the statements of the text without misgivings. Ts'ae observes that 'to say on occasion of such and such a 'business' being successfully achieved, there will be the favourable verification corresponding to it, or that on occasion of such and such a 'business' being failed in, there will be the corresponding unfavourable verification, would betray a pertinacious obtuseness, —would show that the speaker was not a man to be talked with you the mysterious opera

34. The favourable or good, and the unfavourable or bad, verification. The student will see that this par. and the 6th are closely connected. The successful achievement of each of the 'five businesses' has its verification in the character of the phenomena which have been described, and failure in, or the neglect, of them, has also its corresponding outward manifestation. On the -y^f, with which each clause terminates,

Yiug-U observes:-^ g 0

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by constant heat; of haste, emblemed by constant cold; and of stupidity, emblemed by constant wind."

35 He went on to say, "The sovereign is to examine the character of the whole year; nobles and officers, that of the months; and

36 the inferior officers, that of the day. If throughout the year, the month, the day, there be an unchanging seasonablencss, all the kinds of grain are matured ; the operations of government are wise; heroic men stand forth eminent; and in the families of the people

37 there are peace and prosperity. If throughout the }Tear, the month, the day, the seasonableness is interrupted, the various kinds of grain

tions of nature. It is not easy to describe the reciprocal meeting of Heaven and men. The hidden springs touched by failure and success, and the minute influences that respond to them :—who can know these but the man who

has apprehended all truth (fjj\ Q Jj^ Bf.

?A iHc £ This u in effect

admitting that the statements of the text can be of no practical use.

Pp. 35—38. We have here apparently an endeavour to show how the 'various verifications are to be thoughtfully made use of,' according to

the language of p. 4. By ^jjj ^3" we are to understand all the -^J ffj or inferior officers. See on ff P' in the 'Yih and Tseih' p. 10. We may take a here as = IE or ;with

regard to the rank of the ^3" which the text

mentions, the whole scope of the passage shows it could only be of a lower grade. The sovereign stands to his nobles and great officers as the year to months, including and leading on them all; and they again stand to their inferior em/jlni/rs as the month to the days. Must the sovereign then, by the rule here laid down, wait till the year's end before examining his character and ways? I suppose, as he com

prehends all dignities in himself, he must be
every month doing on himself the examination
work of a high officer, and every day that of
an inferior. The editors of Yung-ching's Shoo
say on this point:—'The sovereign, the high
officers, and the inferior officers, it is said here,
must examine severally the year, the month,
and the day; but this is spoken in a general
and vague way, with reference to the different
rank of their offices:—we must not stick to a
phrase. For instance, a violent wind shall in
a day do injury to the grain fields. The wind
lasts for a single day only, but its injurious
effects extend to the months and the year.
Shall we make it relate to the inferior officers?
or to the high officers and the sovereign?
Whenever any unfavourable verification hap-
pens, no one should put the thing off himself.
Every one should examine himself, and do so
with regard to every matter.' Experience
and their own sense have made many in China
wiser in many things than their classics, but
they will not give up the national idols.
36, 37. g^p Ali ^j— 'if times do not
change.' But we must take [J^p in the same
way as in p. 34, meaning ' seasonableness.' The
meaning is that if rain and sunshine, heat and
cold, and wind all occur seasonably, the various
effects enumerated will follow. There is a
grain of truth in the assertions, and a bushel of
nonsense. Hoo Wei says that X is used
with reference to the government of the court

W % $k # Z> TM«& R««indi

viduals who have no office (

=3" j^), while refers to those who are in

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