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Without perversity, without one-sidedness,
The Royal path is right and straight.
Seeing this perfect excellence,
Turn to this perfect excellence."

15 He went on to say, "This amplification of the Royal perfection contains the unchanging rule, and is the great lesson ;—yea, it is the

16 lesson of God. All the multitudes, instructed in this amplification of the perfect excellence, and carrying it into practice, will approxi

nounccd so; and, in fact, is the phonetic element in itself. Hang Shing edits—

Midwest- T"edict

also Bays that =;'|j' was the reading of the old

text. I have not found any authority for this.

Te'ae observes that and !g?,

in the first three couplets, are descriptive of risings of selfishness in one's own mind, and

III, in the next three, are


descriptive of the manifestations of selfishness in one's conduct. A distinction is made

between *g and ^£ in this way :—is the ideal character of the Royal course, always

); M is that course, as it is to be actually trodden by all (J# j£ X T Z ^

Iff f.-f

is read p'cen, to rhyme with fail. The phrase is explained by ^£ B. ^ ^ ^

iMl a, —Lin Chc-k'e says on this:

& M Z & it M ,T"e

lection, set up, is like the north pole-star occupying its place.- Meeting with the perfection and turning to it, is like all the other stars moving towards—doing homage to—the pole star.'

Pp. 15, 1C. The viscount of Ke celebrates the description which he has given of the Royal perfection, and the glorious issue to which it leads.

15. The EU, at the beginning, must have 4jf~ ■^p for its subject. Ts'ae calls it jjHJ p**

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mate to the glory of the son of Heaven, and say, 'The son of Heaven is the parent of the people, and so becomes the sovereign of the empire.'

17 [vi.] "Sixth, of the three virtues.—The first is called correctness and straightforwardness; the second, strong government; and the third, mild government. In peace and tranquillity, correctness and straightforwardness must sway; in violence and disorder, strong government must siuay; in harmony and order, mild government must sway. For the reserved and retiring there is the strong rule; for the lofty and intelligent there is the mild rule.

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Z Ife "a i80f courgo H. =a. Medhurst erroneously translates the clause—'carry out these wide-spread instructions.' The people are supposed to repeat and croon over the amplification.—especially the song, teaching themselves and one another, and to be aroused to carry the lessons into practice, till 'they attain to a perfection in their degree equal to that of the sovereign in this.

-pr^ ~J£itne Pe°plc are the subject of the Q here. Ilea Seuen would refer it to ^£ -jp, like the Q in the last par., but he

must be wrong. ^ "T",—' "ie °*

Heaven' s Part III.. Bk. IV., 5.

Pp. 17—19. Of the three virtues. The three virtues are characteristics of the imperial rule; —they are not personal attributes of the sovereign, but the manifestations of the perfection which is supposed to have been described in the last Division. Their names are \\~ jj^, Jjr, and it ^jjT. Ts'ae makes the names

-TE lit' |SW'anc' t ; kut tne omissn of

the in the case of the second and third gives them too much the appearance of personal attributes. The second and third are chiefly dwelt on, this division being supplementary to the last,—to show how the Royal perfection will deal with times and cases of an abnormal

character. 17. j£ Ijl'see 'n P* 14'

dE Sit Je Is* ^'"8 is tMe c°urse i'mt i',e

perfect sovereign will naturally and usually take. |iflj Jib —' strong subduing.' This is the course of the perfect sovereign, when it is necessary for him to put on his terrors.

^T, 'mild subduing.' This is his course, when it is proper for him to condescend to weaker natures. «}U n —

'friendly,' 'disposed to be friendly,' must here be taken as = M, 'compliant,''obedient.' begin, 'harmonious,' 'mild.' ^ fg, —the former of these characters signifies 'to sink beneath the water,' and the second, 1 to dive.' 'Disappearance,' 'being hidden,' belongs to both these things, and hence the combination is used in the text to denote individuals who are reserved and retiring, wanting in force of character. In t^j, ' the high and intelligent,' we have the opposite of them, those in whom the forward element predominates. The 'strong rule' must be applied to the former class,—to encourage them, and the 'mild rule' to the latter,—to repress them. The use of the 'virtues' is thus different from what it appears to be in the clauses that precede. Chinese critics do not venture to find fault with this;—to me it makes the text perplexing and enigmatical.

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Jfl ^ 3E £ #

1*1 j£ E #

18 "It belongs only to the prince to confer favours, to display the

19 terrors of majesty, and to receive the revenues of the empire. There should be no such thing as a minister conferring favours, displaying the terrors of justice, or receiving the revenues of the country. Such a thing is injurious to the families, and fatal to the States of the empire;—small officers become one-sided and perverse, and the people commit assumptions and excesses.

20 [ vii. ] "Seventh, of the examination of doubts.—Having chosen and

18, 19. The prerogatives of the ruler must be strictly maintained. Some critics would remove these paragraphs to the last Division. One certainly does not readily perceive what connection they have with the three virtues that have just been spoken of. We can hardly venture on the step of removing them, however, and putting them in another place;—we must be content with them where they are, acknowledging the vexation which their inconsequence occasions

us. Only the prince ft jjf|j, 'rouses up, employs, the various happinesses;' i.e., he is the source of all favours and dignities. In the

same way he only 44- —is the source of all

punishments and degradations. -fc

—' only the prince the gemmeous food.' -fo

"TM 3^ 'tne Pear'y or precious food,' each grain of rice or other corn being spoken of as a gem or pearl. There is no ft-, it will

be seen, between Jj]^ and -fc and we

must therefore supply another verb, and one, it seems to me, of a different meaning. Lin Che

k'e, without repeating the ft-, or supplying
any other verb, yet understands the clause ac-
cording to the analogy of the two preceding
ones, and takes the T as meaning all the
badges of distinction and favour conferred by the
sovereign on his princes and ministers. There
is thus no intelligible difference between the

first clause, ^ $f ft jflg, and this.
Ts'ae says that the 'the precious

grain,' is what the people contribute to their

rulers 2: g? j^g h). He must

be right. -^ ^^='the revenues' of the

State; and we must understand the verb,
'to enjoy,''to receive,' before the phrase.
According to this view, P? is to be interpreted
not of the emperor only, but of all the princes,
large and small, in their several States as well.
K'ang-shing, Ma Yung, and Wang Suh all insist

on this. Ma Yung's words are—JfJ^i, h,

gt "tfef Gan-kwO does not speak distinctly on the point; but Ying-tfi, in his gloss on the other's annotation, refers to Wang Suh's view, observing that, as the princes, in their several States, had the power of rewards and punishments, and, he might have added, the right to the revenue, this interpretation is perhaps correct. It does seem strange thus to pass from the person and govt, of the emperor; but so it is.


—see on jff -J^ ffjj in par. 13. There is the same difficulty in determining the meaning. The two last clauses show how the injury and ruin will arise. There will be a general disorganization of social order, each lower rank trying to usurp the privileges of that above it;

—comp. Mencius, I., Bk. I., i., 4. and

are again opposed to each other, as in the 10th and other paragraphs.

Pp. 20—31. Of the examination of doubts. The course proposed for the satisfaction of doubts shows us at how early an age the Chinese had come under the power of absurd supersti

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mM h o pf, o o »>Ef5#

appointed officers for divining by the tortoise and by the milfoil,

21 they are to be charged on occasion to perform their duties. In doing this, they will find the appearances of rain, clearing up, cloudiness,

22 want of connection and crossing; and the symbols, solidity, and re

23 pcntance. In all the indications are seven;—five given by the tortoise, and two by the milfoil, by which the errors of affairs may be

24 traced out. These officers having been appointed, when the operations with the tortoise and milfoil are proceeded with, three men are to obtain and interpret the indications and symbols, and the consenting words of two of them are to be followed.

tions. In the 'Counsels of Yu,' p. 18, that sage proposes to Shun to submit the question of who should be his successor on the throne to divination, and the emperor replies that he had already done so. There is no reason to doubt, therefore, the genuineness of the great Plan, as a relic of the Hca times, from the nature of this part of it. As soon as the curtain lifts from China, and we get it glimpse of its greatest men about four thousand years ago, we find them trying to build up a science of the will of Heaven and issues of events, from various indications given by the shell of a tortoise and the stalks of the milfoil! Gaubil observes that according to the text the tortoise and milfoil were consulted only in doubtful cases. But we may be sure that if such was the practice of the sages, superstitious observances entered largely as a depraving and disturbing element into the life of the people. They do so at the present day. The old methods of divination have fallen into disuse, and I cannot say how far other methods are sanctioned by the government, but the diviners and soothsayers, of many kinds, form a considerable and influential class of society.

Pp. 20—24 contain some hints as to the manner in which divination was practised. The same subject is treated in the Chow ],e, Bk. XXIV; but it is hardly possible to get the two accounts into one's mind so as to understand and be able distinctly to describe the subject.

20. Two kinds of divination and the apjfointmr.nt of officers to superintend them. The two kinds of divination were—first, that by means of the tortoise, or tortoise-shell rather, called F ; and that by means of the stalks of the plant, called ht. 'The tortoise,' says Choo He, 'after great length of years becomes intelligent;

and the 3^ plant will yield, when a hundred years old, a hundred stalks from one root, and is also a spiritual and intelligent thing. The two divinations were in reality a questioning of spiritual beings, the plant and the tortoise being employed, because of their mysterious intelligence, to indicate their intimations. The way of divination by the tortoise was by the application of fire to scorch the tortoise-shell till the indications appeared on it; and that by the stalks of the plant was to manipulate in the prescribed ways forty-nine of them, eighteen different times, till the diagrams were formed *

(ii^i n m m £ w m

F I M A iW. WWHili

See the Chapter on Divination in the 'Historical
Records ' (fj| j|, ||J ^, ^ -j- fa
Medhurst says the

was one of the class of

plants called Achillea'millefolium. Williams calls it ' a sort of labiate plant, like verbena,' thereby leading us to think of the 'holy herb' of Dioscorides, the verbena officinalis. The correctness, however, of both these accounts may be doubted. There is a figure of the plant in the

but I have not yet been able to obtain a specimen to have its botanical name and place exactly determined.

We cannot tell how many were the officers of divination in the earlier dynasties, nor what were their several duties. In the Book of the

Chow Le, referred to above, we have the A K, or 'grand diviner;' the F or 'master of divination;' the or'keeper of the tortoises;' the jgr ^Q, or 'preparer of

the wood;' and the '5 or 1 the observers

and interpreters of the prognostics' They were all, observe the critics, required to be men far removed from the disturbing influence of passion and prejudice. Only such could be associated with the methods of communication between higher intelligences and men.

Pp. 21—23. The various indications. 21. The appearances here described were those made on the shell of the tortoise. The way in which they were obtained seems to have been this.—The outer shell of the tortoise was taken off, leaving the inner portion on which were the marks of the lines of the muscles of the creature, &c. A part of this was selected for operation, and smeared with ink. The fire was then applied beneath, and the ink, when it was examined, according as it had been variously dried by the heat, gave the appearances mentioned, jps{ is defined as p|ijj [fr*,'rain

stopping,' =' the weather clearing up.' fw

= |jK m B^j, 'cloudiness, obscurity.'

ftj^L for which K'ung-shing and others have

M, is understood to mean certain marks scattered about, without connection or relation;— see the remarks, by the editors of Yung-ching's Sh<x>, on Gan-kwo's definition of the term by

g ^ Hand riVat's by $r JSI ^

M. = meaning lines or cracks

in the ink crossing each other. Ts'ae says these appearances belonged severally to the different elements.—that of rain to water, of cloudiness to wood, &c. The whole operation was a piece of absurdity, and we have too little information

to say anything certain about it. 22. J=i|

and fire, were the names given to the diagrams formed by the manipulation of the stalks of the she. In a complete diagram, composed of two of the eight primary ones, the lower figure is called 'the inner diagram' (p(^

^|»), and was styled J=| ; the upper figure is called 'the outer diagram' and was

styled >|$J. There were also other conditions according to which these names of and 'J^ were applied to the different figures. How far, however, they obtained in the Ilea and Shang dynasties we cannot tell. Our present Yih King is entirely a book of the Chow dynasty;

hut the text shows that the manipulation of Fuh-he's lines, and the derivation of meanings from the combination of them were practised, at least to some extent, in the earlier times.

The meaning of the names J=^ and >|^j| is very

much debated; and instead of entering on the discussion here, I will content myself with the

words of Hcang Gan-she (Jt^| w; Sung

dyn.), one of the most voluminous writers on

the Yih,—'We only know that the inner diagram

was fit and the outer ;we do not know

what was intended by those designations.'

23. We have here a resume of the two last parr, with the addition of the enigmatical phrase

f/f at the end- h 3l> A ffl —'

—we must understand a first J£j between F and

^ft . The F jlj here is equivalent to F

in p. 20, so that is exchanged f or ^. jjffy

= ^t£, 'to infer,' 'to push or carry

out;' at may be taken as either = 'error,'

or ■= Ts'ae adopts the former meaning, and interprets—' By this means the errors of human affairs may be traced out,' that is, may be indicated before they occur, and so be avoided. The 'Daily .Explanation,' expanding this view,

"T* Li ^1 01,00 He Bd"Ptu(1

the former meaning, and interpreted—'every changing form of indication and symbol being traced out and determined.' See the quotation from him in the j|f£ ; still, when the operations, thus many times varied, had been concluded, the object would be to obtain the guidance of their results in the conduct of affairs. Woo Ch'ing and many others prefer to say that they do not understand the phrase at all.

24. Care to be taken in performing the dieina

IiiH$ Aft l> &-H$ =

J§. and the whole-gfc ± £ fft

Zk \>XW hi^t-'HMi°«

appointed the men thus selected to be the officers of divination.' ^ jJtj ,—we are to suppose that they have been charged to perform their duties (7^^ P ^> P-20), and then three men divine in each way. ^ in the last par. was = At; here it is used both for K and At, including not only the various manipulations, but also the intc-prcting the results obtained. It is supposed that each man went through his operation further on a different method.

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