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ness; of heaving, distinctness; and of thinking, perspicaciousness. The respectfulness becomes manifest in gravity; accordance toith reason, in orderliness; the clearness, in wisdom; the distinctness, in deliberation ; and the perspicaciousness, in sageness.

[iii. ] "Third, of the eight objects of government:—the first is called food; the second, commodities; the third, sacrifices; the fourth, the minister of works; the fifth, the minister of instruction; the sixth, the minister of crime; the seventh, the entertainment of guests; the eighth, the army.

[iv. ] "Fourth, of the five arrangements.—The first is called the year; the second, the month; the third, the day; the fourth, the

'penetrating to what is minute. jsjjj, 4c, describe the consummation of those

virtues (j£ ^ J^f§),—what they come

to, as is indicated by the

These businesses are represented as being in the human person what the five elements are in nature. Demeanour is the human correspondency of water, speech that of fire. But again leaving all this, can we tell what the writer would be at? Lin Che-k'e refers to what Mencius says, VII., Tt. I., xxxviii.,—'The bodily organs with their functions belong to our Heaven-conferred nature; but a man must be a sage before he can satisfy the design of his bodily organization;' and then adds that this paragraph contains the science of doing this. Certainly if a man have attained to the results here exhibited, he has made much progress in self-government and personal cultivation.

P. 7. The eiyht objects of Government. Medhurst translates jjj^ by 'the eight Regulators,' and Gaubil by 'les huit regies du Gouvernemcnt.' It means the eight things to be attended to in government, its objects or departments. They seem to he stated in the order of their importance in the view of the speaker. 'Food' belongs to the department of agriculture, and 'commodities' or 'goods' to that of trade and commerce. These two things being secured, the people woidd have the essentials cf life, and would be able to attend to their duties to spiritual beings and to the dead. Then

would come in the minister of works, to secure the comfort of their dwellings; and the minister of instruction to teach them all their moral duties; and the minister of crime to deter them from evil. All festive ceremonies, all the intercourses of society, could then be regulated ; and finally the efficiency of the army would bemaintained, to secure the general well-being of the State.

It will be seen that the three first and two Inst are the objects to be attended to in their several departments, while the intermediato three are the names of the ministers. JJo account can be given of this peculiarity of the style. So the author was pleased to write,— very unsatisfactorily.

P. 8. The Jive subjects of arrangement. Medhurst calls the Jjl tne 'f>ve Arrangers,' and Ganhil, 'les cinq I'criodes.' He observes in

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stars and planets, and the zodiacal signs; and the fifth, the calendaric calculations.

[v. ] "Fifth, of royal perfection.—The sovereign having established his highest point of excellence, he concentrates in himself the five happinesses, and then diffuses them so as to give them to his people:—then on their part the multitudes of the people, resting

here =' month,' the period of a lunation,' including the determination of new and full moon,

and the intermediate phases. R , 'the sun,' is here ■=' a day." m J^,—see Can. of

Ynou,' p. 3. —comp. the use of

this phrase in the Canon of Shun, p. 14. It is here used, in its primary meaning, of the computations by which the measures of the year, the month, the day, &C., are determined, and the calendar fixed.

This division of the Plan is substantially the same as Vaou's instructions to his astronomers. The language is too brief to tell us what improvement had been made in the science of astronomy between the time of Yaou, and that of king Woo

Pp. 9—16.. Royal perfection Medhurst

translates j^/j^by 'the princely perfections;'

and Gauhil. by Me terme du Souverain, on le milieu du Souverain.' Gan-kwfi had defined

the terms by ct' , 'the great Mean,' and his explanation seems to have been unquestioned till the time of the Sung dynasty. Then Choo He insisted that tr, must be taken here in the

sense of 'prince,1 'sovereign,' referring to

the way in which it is interchanged with in

par. 14 (£ ^ H,| * jg, ff£ ^ g

T ). Choo's criticism is correct.—He is correct also in rejecting the definition of a by pj?.

is 'the utmost point,'—the extreme of excellence, realized in the person of the sovereign, and

serving as an example and attractive influence to all below, both ministers and people. It is supposed to be in the centre, the exact middle, but it should not be called the centre or Mean. Take its primary application to 'the beam forming the ridge of a house:'—that is the highest point of the roof, on which the other parts rest, and it is in the centre of it; but it is called ffil and not m . By 'royal perfection'

we are to understand the sovereign, all that he ought to be. Ts'ae dwells upon it in its relation to his personal character, exhibiting all the virtues. Others say it is the accumulation of the personal and governmental excellences described in the previous divisions of the Plan. Our best way is to leave it in its own vagueness.

I have already observed that no place is found for this in the numerical scheme of the 'Great Plan,' arranged according to the principles of the Yih King. There are only 8 diagrams, not 9. This might have shown the critics that this Book was not to be treated on

those principles. 9. Er----)

-5. jlftB'—'collects these five happinesses,'that is, collects, concentrates them in his own person

<$k i Is T H13 ■>see the

fl Happiness, it is supposed, invari

ably follows virtue;—compare in the ' Counsels of T«/ p. 5,3i&±, $$|2|,Kfe SSL The ' five happinesses' must be those

of the last Division, and we are surprised to find them mentioned here, with the definitive

= jpr before them. It is not to be wondered at that Hung Mae ('^}(; should have proposed to remove from this down to j|fgg in p, 11, to the ninth division. The difficulty is a little lightened by taking fj^p = "jffe

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w m % & m

10 in your perfection, will give to you the preservation of it. That the multitudes of the people have no lawless confederacies, and that men in office have no selfish combinations, will be an effect of the

11 sovereign's establishing his highest point of excellence. Among all the multitudes of the people, when any have counsel, and conduct, and keep themselves from evil, do you bear them in mind; those who do not come up to the highest excellence, and yet do not involve themselves in crime, let the sovereign receive; and when a placid

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of the last par. Perhaps indicates the various efforts and steps of progress by which ^ j\. the point of establishment, is attained.

11. How royal perfection will be seen in dealing with superior men, and with inferior men also, bringing the latter to approve and attain to the highest excellence. ^3SA^f?^S aremen 'mighty in words and deeds' They are supposed further to be —to have that firm and resolved nature, which will sustain them against temptation. -j^> 'Z*' ' tmn'c of tnem>' 'bear them in mind.' This is = 'give to such your confidence. You may repose trust in them.' Ti Ijfjjy -^p /jjjjjjj,—'do not harmonize with— have not yet attained to—the highest excellence."

The ■= fffj with the adversative force of f^j], 'and yet.' These are a class of mediocre individuals, different from and inferior to the former. fffj ffjjj |2^,—Gan-kwfl, taking fjfjjj took tliis as addressed to king Woo:

'you ought to compose your countenance, and condescend to those inferior men.' But he is then obliged to understand another as

the nominative to —'when men say,'&c,. It is better to take, with Choo He, fjfrj

"gj , as referring to the class of men just | described, and =' when they are pleased, and 1 look so, saying,' &c. Ts'ao says:—Pt

11

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satisfaction appears in their countenances, and they say—' Our love is fixed on virtue,' do you then confer favour on them. Those men

12 will in this way advance to the perfection of the sovereign. Do not oppress the friendless and childless; do not fear the high and

13 illustrious. When men have ability and administrative power, cause them still more to cultivate their conduct, and the prosperity of the country will be promoted. All right men, having a competency, will go on to be good. If you cannot make men have what they love in their families, they will only proceed to be guilty of crime;

rffi ^ w mZ w -z;

$]o Z iHS'-ilfS lierc OMe of t,,c

'five happinesses.' Q^f ( = ^.-l A it

^ Q Z -S'-t,,e >l>ai]y Explanation' paraphrases this:-^ % '|£ % ff ^,

m. z % m p, m M & m £

12. Ts'ae says this par. completes the meaning of the one which precedes, and serves to introduce that which follows. To me it interrupts the train of thought, fugitive as that

is. Gan-kwS says that ^ = j|[ filE 'solitary, without brothers,' and that

is flit 'childless."

13. Ts'ae says that this paragraph speaks of 'men who are in office' (=3" 'fjy "{h^O This is in accordance with the distinction made between Jeff R and in par. 10. This is the general view of the critics. I do not think it can be altogether sustained. The 'men' may not be in office, but only aspirants for it. They are inferior to those first

mentioned in par. 11, having the ability, and the practical capacity, but being without the conservative (^J element. If they can

be led on to this—'gl ^ fj

—they may be employed, and their employment will conduce to the prosperity of the country.

HiM JE A~Gan"kw0 takes TE

in the moral sense as = \\- IS 'correct men.' I think his view is right. Ts'ae understands the phrase in an official sense, and

says it = ^E 'mcn wn0 a*6 'n

official employment.' The phrase may be so taken; but the other view suits the whole

paragraph better. "g,—'being en

riched,' having remunerative office conferred on them. gg=||,-good.' ^ g£,-'tl.en

they will be good.' Ts'ae makes this = 'then you may require them to be good.' The idea is the same with that which Mencius often insists on,—that men, when raised above the pressure of want, are likely, may be expected, to cultivate the moral virtues. Though I have

followed Gan-kwS in his view of J? I cannot accept his explanation of this Jj dj?^;

-seethe|±j^. ft % It

Ajr.,—the principal difficulty here is with ti

iff "J1 ffn 2$L- 1 taku fffiu tlic 3d touc'

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while they do not love virtue, though you confer favour on them, they will involve you in the guilt of employing them thus evil.

"Without deflection, without unevenness,

Pursue the Royal righteousness;

Without any selfish likings,

Pursue the Royal way;

Without any selfish dislikings,

Pursue the Royal path;

Without deflection, without partiality,

Broad and long is the Royal path.

Without partiality, without deflection,

The Royal path is level and easy;

and jf£ as = M 'to have what they love,' meaning the means of comfortable living, jflj ffi 'their

families;'—the f^jj being taken as merely a pause or rest of the voice. Possibly it may = J^", 'your,'and 'it may be, by synecdoche,

for m gj^, so that j^jj =' your country.' I prefer the other construction however.

Am &m-m Am m

Hfe 7^" ^'le w'10'e 'n opposition to the preceding clause.—' Let the sovereign employ and remunerate those ableand well-meaning men, and they will go on to be really good. If on the contrary they are neglected, and left to suffer penury, they will lose their self-respect, and proceed to become evil.' Hoo Yih-chung (M —' p£| ; Yuen dyn.) explains the passage very much in the same way. He says:—^(f

^te£ J^f| ^j>,—Such men, falling off into

crime, may afterwards be put in remunerating offices; but the opportunity has been lost by the sovereign. He will only now reap the fruit of his want of wisdom in dealing with them in the past.

P. 14. An ancient Sdn<7, descriptive of the royal perfection, and stimulating men to imitate it. We may compare with it the songs of Shun and Kaou-yaou in the 'Yih and Tseih.' The lines are composed of four characters, and every two lines rhyme together after a fashion. The general opinion is that the song was not composed by the viscount of Ke, but that it was a well-known piece, which had come down from the Hea times, and which he recites to king

m m u m M =e Z

—Sze-ma Ts'een gives to, for and there can be no doubt this was the reading till the reign of the emperor Heuen-tsung ( h

of the T'ang dynasty. A proclamation of his, in the year 744, is still extant, ordering the change from M to that there might be a

rhyme with and referring to the language

of the Yih in the diagram Ti

as suggesting the latter character, which is in meaning much the same as the other. But we might still retain jj^J, and read as go, to rhyme with it. a, which is a derivative from it, is allowed to be sometimes pro

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