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民 民珍商有會大后之承

商售 后 之才 為天 王大孫川土罪厥

受正周日所告志

于王惟過于o 虐道商發有名皇子

商 逃悉暴今將道山天商其

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empire was not collected under his rule, and it fell to me, who am

but a little child, to carry out his will. 6 Detesting the crimes of Shang, I announced to great Heaven

and the sovereign Earth, to the famous hill and the great river, by which I passed, saying, “T, Fă, the principled, king of Chow, by a long descent, am about to have a great righting with Shang. Show, the king of Shang, is without principle, cruel and destructive to the creatures of Heaven, injurious and tyrannical to the multitudes of the people, chief of the vagabonds of the empire,

[In the “Doctrine of the Mean,' xviii., 3, it —there is much difficulty in giving any approis said that the duke of Chow completed the virtuous course of Wån and Woo," and that he priate meaning to E It has been defined by carried up the title of king to Tae and Ke, and 2, 4, and the like

. The last is given sacrificed to all the former dukes above them with the imperial ceremonies.' As it was thus

in the Daily Explanation ;' the 'detesting' in the duke of Chow who carried up the title of

the translation is as allowable, and that is all king to Tan-foo and Ke-leih, completing what that can be said for it. 皇天后土, Woo had left undone, it has been asked how we find those titles here in the mouth of king

Woo. --comp. what was said on the phrase FH I apprehend that the merit of the duke of Chow in Bk. I., Pt. i., p. 3. This is the only place in was in extending the practice of honouring an- the Shoo where the combination at cestors, beyond the circle of the imperial family, to the princes, the great officers the scholars, Ying-tă understands, I think correctly, by z and the common people.' King Woo no doubt took counsel on the subject with his brother i mount Hwa and the Ho by 大川. the duke of Chow. Perhaps it was by his advice that he did it; but there can be no doubt that Critics generally take || and lll in the plural. he had conferred the titles mentioned in the We must understand, of course, that Woo made text. The thing is commemorated in the Le bis announcement to the spirits of Heaven, Earth, Ke, the Bk. t , p. 2. I give the whole the mountain, and the river. 有道會 paragraph here, because it gives a strong con- 孫-I take 有道 al 會孫 as in apfirmation not only to this par., but also to the two position. Such is the view of Ying-tă, who preceding onles. 一 #21 LIZA observes that Woo, in asking the help of the 事也,既事而退,樂於上帝, Show would not rect a file humility, Tsine

spirits, and speaking of limself in contrast with 室

and others say that by the principled' Woo 新於社設奠於牧室,遂率,

refers to his forefathers, and construe the phrase 天下諸侯執豆蓬,遮奔走 幸

as under the regimen of the file, which means 追王大王賣父王季歷文 literally great grandson,

☆ .' 周王發,一 王昌,不以卑臨尊!

Ts-ae supposes that I is an interpolation, Pp. 6-8. Ile relates the prayer which he ! —which seems very likely. 大正一 addressed to the spirits of Hearen und Earth, of mount IIwa and the H1o, in contemplation of the comp. the use of E in the ‘Speech of Tiang,' engagement with Show.

6. 底商之罪, p. 2,一不敢不正 暴殄天物

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命 0

予 緩恭夏承仁小举 家

梦 隊予无率蠻上人子淵

天 率蠻亂
士東成窮署帝敢既戴

東俾。翁翠帝 、

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who collect about him as fish in the deep, and beasts in the prairie. I, who am but a little child, having obtained the help of virtuous men, presume reverently to comply with the will of God, to make an end of his disorderly ways. The great and flowery region, and

the wild tribes of the south and north, equally follow and consent 7 with me. Reverently obeying the determinate counsel of Heaven, 1

pursue my punitive work to the east, to give tranquillity to its - *, 'to destroy utterly' Ft, take , here in the sense of fact, to follow, "the creatures of Heaven ;'* including men,' says so that the clause='all follow one another to Lin Che-k'e, “but they are further specified,' follow me.' Gan-kwĎ would put a comma at because of their greater importance.' De Zai, and taking 1 in its conimon signification 天下遁逃主,萃(一聚)潤戴, of 使 join to the next clause. This has in

the paraphrase of this in the Daily Explana- its favour, that the in next par. stands tion i:一天下有罪在逃之人,

more naturally at its commencement than as 所當誅之以安良善者 當

we read it at present. The rhythm of the style, 也受反收留之,與彼為主, lowever requires that we join 率 and 伸 之

, . 有司莫之敢捕,如魚之聚 [In the 左傳昭七年, we find:一 , 魚之聚

· 于深淵獸之聚于林數(The 昔武王數約之罪以告諸 criminals and vagabonds of the empire ought to be taken off and rooted out, to secure the re

侯曰,約為天下道逃主, pose of the good, but Show receives and main. The quotation is important, not tains them, and is their chief, so that the officers do not dare to apprehend them. They are as

only as guaranteeing so much of the prayer, but fish collected in the deep waters, and as beasts

also as showing that the prayer was a part of gathered together in the forests and thickets.'

the address which king Woo made to the 予小子獲仁人

princes. It is on this that Maou K'e-ling F) FALL EN-we have mainly relies in protesting against the way in

; seen the references made by Woo in the “Great which Choo lle and others propose to break up Speech,' Pt. ii., 9, et al., to his virtuous men.'

and re-arrange the paragraphs of this Book.] We may compare with the sentiment here that 7. See the manner in which this paragraph of Tang in his ' Announcement,' p, 4., where he is adduced by Mencius, III., Pt. II., v., 5. says that before taking his measures against ture, the philosopher not directly quoting, but

There are important alterations in the strucKët, he .sought for the great sage, with whom using the passage so as to suit his purpose. he might unite his strength'( TT Gan-kwo puts all the verbs in the past tense,

saying that the description is of what took 與之戮力)

. 7* E-75 place in the 11th year, when there was the first 上帝之意, Elit 'to receive or comply with without proceeding to the attack of Show. But

assemblage at Măng-tsin, and Woo returned, the will of God.' 亂略-Gan-kwo takes

there is no sufficient evidence of such a meeting. plant in the sense of the ways ;' Ts-ae takes it

The two clansces, moreover,一恭天成命,

fix the whole

肆子東征, in that of counsels,' “ plans. Both expla

par. to the time

then being,--the time in which Was offer. nations are allowable. 華夏

ing his prayer. the 'Can, of Shun,' p. 20. 變窮一

篮脉玄黄,"has

keted their azure and yellow fabrics.' See the Aniu, NY, . 2. 率伸

XY 192,-Ts'ae and others many descriptions in the Tribute of Yu' of the

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侯癸戊無相惟附王厥女 突無 附王 、厥 天 亥作 午作予爾我天玄惟

予 休陳師神以有大休黃其 命于逾羞濟神邑震昭士

1邑 甲商孟兆尚周動我女

動 子郊津民克0用周能

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And now, ye

men and women. Its men and women bring their baskets full of azure and yellow silks, to show forth the virtue of us the kings of

Chow. Heaven's favours stir them up, so that they come with 8 their allegiance to our great State of Chow.

spirits, grant me your aid, that I may relieve the millions of the

people, and nothing turn out to your shame!” 9 9 III. On the day mow-woo the army crossed the ford of Ming;

on the day kwei-hae it was drawn up in array in the borders of offerings brought in baskets. 昭我周!

me indeed.' It is remarkable how, in the course

of the prayer, reference is expressly made both to I-displaying our kings of Chow. Some God' and to Heaven,' as supreme. Why was say that azure and yellow are the colours it not addressed directly to God? There are of heaven and earth respectively, and that the

both imperfect monotheism and polytheism in ohject of bringing such fabrics was to show it. God is recognized as supreme, and at the that the kings of Chow were as good and bene

same time other spirits are recognized, who ficent as Heaven and earth. It is not necessary

would give effect to His will, and might be to seek for such a recondite meaning. The prayed to for that purpose. A$ Woo addressed bringing of the baskets was an expression of alle his army in the grey dawn of the day at Muh, giance, and an acknowledgment of the virtues

we may say that he had but the grey dawn of

religious knowledge in his mind. of the House of Chow. t-1 I will not add anything here to what I quoted take 邑 here國, as we saw that Köang abruptness and seeming incompleteness with

from Ying-tă in the introductory note on the Shing proposed to do in the last Book, p. 6. which the prayer terminates. It would have

8. BRI tj malb, —the spirits are those of been better it there had been some additional Heaven and earth, of the mountain and the river. and some inculcation of duties on the princes.

expression of Woo's own feelings and purposes, The conclusion is sufficiently bold. Woo must have felt sure that his enterprise was right, lost; or it may be that we do have all which

It may be that a portion of the Book has been and in accordance with the supreme nind and Woo was pleased to say. will.

Ch. III. Pp. 9, 10. THE BATTLE OF MUH, Medhurst ('Theology of the Chinese, p. 55) has

WITH KING Woo's PROCEEDINGS IMMEDIATELY translated the par.:- Only may you shins be

AFTER; AND SUBSEQUENT MEASURES, 9. enabled to assist me in settling the millions of the people

, and do not bring disyrace on your ex & 4 Bili jb -comp. the shin-ships.' Ile observes upon it, that the Great Speech,' Pt. i., p. 1. On this same day he form of expression would intimate that there delivered the address recorded in that Part. was some power above the shins invoked, and that it was possible they might be unable to 癸亥陳于商郊-kwei-hae wils grant the needful assistance.' There is no such the 3rd of the 2d month, five days after mowindication in the form of the expression as he woo. From Mång-tsin to Show's capital was 400 supposes. Tot HF is not, may you le, so that Woo must have hurried on his arniy be enabled to assist me, but grant me, I pray

I

with great speed. 侯天休命一the you, your help. The inte denotes an efficacy favourable decree' of Heaven was to be seen in in the spirits themselves, and gives emphasis, Woo felt quite confident. Gan-kwò says that

the result of the impending battle, about which as we have often seen to be its force, to the this clause has reference to the ceasing of the word that follows, so that it #F='hclp raius which had fallen all tlıe way from Mäng

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商囚政大後前若味 容封定

定 以徒有林典 圈比舊乃我倒敵會受 司、比

倒敵 散于釋反衣 散

《血 戈于于率 鹿墓美商天流攻我收其

我 臺式子政 政下漂 于師野旅

means

Shang, waiting for the gracious decision of Heaven. On the day këă-tsze, at early dawn, Show led forward his hosts like a forest, and assembled them in the wilderness of Muh. But they would offer no opposition to our army. Those in the front inverted their spears, and attacked those behind them, till they fled, and the blood flowed till it floated the pestles about. Thus did king Woo once don his arms, and the empire was greatly settled. He overthrew the existing government of Shang, and made it resume its old course. He delivered the count of Ke from prison, and raised a tumulus over the grave of Pe-kan. He bowed in his carriage at the gate of tsin, so that they were able during the night to believing it.-When the prince the most benecomplete the order of battle. This view is at volent was engaged against him who was the once far-fetched and shallow, 甲子昧|

most the opposite, how could such a thing be?'

It gives, no doubt, an exaggerated description 爽, , -see the ‘Speech at Muh,' p. 1. 其旅 life of the slaughter which took place. Af

. 若林,會于牧野一 ·林于,

-,--see the She King, the wooden pestles of the mortars, which the Pt. 111., Bk. 1. Ode II., 7, in tife # We need not suppose, as some do (see a note in

soldiers carried with them to prepare their rice. 會如林,矢于牧野 Size-man the 集傳 by 蔡清),that they were Ts'een says that Show's army amounted to the pestles used for pounding the earth in 700,000 men, which is doubtless a great exag, making the intrenchments. Maou K'e-ling geration. 敵于我師, it F# Biti,—the historian prefers the reading of , “shields,' for

, identifies himself with Woo's army. 以

Mei Tsuh (The Time) would save the credit of 76-76-8, to flee.' Ts'een gives a difft. Mencius at the expense of the classic. If, ho account of the battle. At least he makes no argues, it had appeared, as in the present text, mention of Show's troops falling upon one an

that the slaughter was occasioned by Show's other, but says that Woo sent his general troops turning against one another, there would Shang-foo, with a hundred of the most daring have been no occasion for the philosopher's rewarriors, to dash forward at the head of a large mark. The forger of Tsin evidently constructed body. Show's army had no mind to fight, but his text that king Woo might not appear chargereally wished king Woo to penetrate their host. able with the bloodshedding, which Mencius They therefore inverted their lances, and made supposed might be attributed to him! It is way for his men. They in fact all revolted much more natural to believe that Mencius, in from Show, who fled at once to the “Stag the impulse of his ardent nature, spoke as he tower.”' This account is not reconcileable, did, --unadvisedly. 一戎衣,一-once he however, with the statement which follows about the blood flowing till it floated the put on his martial garb. See in the “Doctrine pestles of the mortars.'

of the Mean,' xviii., 2. Coinp. also on 5
,

戏 The remarks of Mencius on the passage — MIL , Bk. IX., P, 4. 反商政he 流 流漂杵 (|

are well known. He attests (VII. turned back the govt. of Shang,' i.e., he took Pt. II., iii.) that the Completion of the War' away the oppressive laws of Show, and thencontained such a passage, but protests against , 'followed the old govt. i.c., the

6

下報悼五位惟而栗之

崔列之 治功信教事三會萬大財 治。

萬大 垂明惟惟建惟 費發 拱義食能官五悦于鉅

官 而崇喪重惟分服。四橋 重

四 天德祭民賢土 0海之

( O 之

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Shang Yung's village. He dispersed the treasures of Luh-t'ae, and distributed the grain of Keu-k'eaou, thus conferring great gifts

throughout the empire, and all the people joyfully submitted. 10 He arranged the orders of nobility into five, assigning the ter

ritories to them on a threefold scale. He gave offices only to the worthy, and employments only to the able. He attached great importance to the people's being taught the duties of the five relations of society, and to take care for food, for funeral ceremonies, and for sacrifices. He showed the reality of his truthfulness, and proved clearly his righteousness. He honoured virtue, and rewarded merit. Then he had only to let his robes fall down, and fold his hands, and the empire was orderly ruled. govt. of T'ang and the other good sovereigns | Jõ-keu absurdly says that this is different from who succeeded him.

F # the account

of Mencius. It is different, how

ever, from the account which we find in the 比干墓一

一see the concluding note to the Chow Le Bk. IX, 地官大司徒 • Viscount of Wei,' ##W-f, There the orders of nobility

are five, as in Mensee Con. Ana., X., xvi., 3. Shang Yung must

cius, but the divisions of territory are also five.

To the Kung, it is said, there were assigned 500 have been some worthy in disgrace with Show, le square ; to the How, 400; to the Pih, 300; to and living retired in his village. Ying-tă quotes the Tsze, 200; and to the Nan, 100. I don't see Rome account of him from Iwang-poo Meih's i how the two accounts are to be reconciled. If

it be said that the five-fold territorial division 帝王世記, but it is the production of a

was made by the duke of Chow at a subsequent 散鹿臺之財,發鉅riod, which is the view of Kangeling, why

did not Mencius advert to it? If it be said, ten Ź -of the ‘Stag tower' we have that the larger dimensions arose from the usurspoken. Ken-k'eaou was in the north east of pations of the States among themselves, which

is the view of Ying-tă, how is it that they have the pres, dis, of Keuh-chow ()), dep. of

any place in the Chow Le ? Kwang-pring(廣平), Chih-le, where Show | 位事惟能,一the historian procela to

建官惟賢, -.

# # # : had collected great stores of grain. These two measures were directed to the benefit of the Woo's provisions for the officers about his court. masses of the people, impoverished by the exac- Ilis object was to have none in office but men tions of the tyrant.

of talents and virtue, and that each man's duties P. 10.5 M # TL 5 E= should be those for which he was specially able. this agrees with the account of the arrange- 重民五教,惟食爽,祭,一 ment of dignities and emoluments determined by the House of Chow, given by Mencius, Book

Gan-kwo explained the former of these clauses V., Pt. II., ii. The orders of nobility were the by inserting an til between and TH Kung, How, Pih, Tsze and Nan, to the two tirst – he attached importance to the people, and to of which were assigned a hundred le square of territory, each, while the Pih had 70, and the the inculcation of the tive duties. This is not Taze and the Nan only 50 le square each. Yen so good as to take F to be under the regimen

later age.

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